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The results of the question about people's likelihood of using recycled and desalinated water, respectively, for the 14 uses presented in the questionnaire are provided in Fig. 1. Higher figures indicate higher levels of stated likelihood of use, with 100 indicating ''very likely'' and 0 indicating ''very unlikely.''

Drinking*** Bathing the baby*** Brushing teeth*** Cooking*** Feeding my pets*** Showering / taking a bath***

"K Refilling / topping up the swimming pool***

$ Watering of the garden - vegetables and herbs to be eaten raw*** D

Fishpond or aquarium** Washing clothes / doing the laundry*** Washing the car Watering the garden - flowers trees and shrubs* Cleaning the house windows and driveways Toilet flushing

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Stated likelihood of use 0 = very unlikely - 100 = very likely

Difference in means: * = significant at the 0.01 level ** = significant at the 0.001 level *** = significant at the 0.0001 level

Figure 1 Stated likelihood of using recycled and desalinated water for a range of 14 purposes. Difference in means: (*) significant at the 0.01 level;(**) significant at the 0.001 level;(***) significant at the 0.0001 level. Source: Hurlimann and Dolnicar [27].

As can be seen, desalinated water outperforms recycled water in all but three uses, and only one at a significant level. This is a change from the 2006 survey results reported by Dolnicar and Schafer [17] where a number of uses has been identified for which recycled water was preferred. These preferred uses included watering flowers and shrubs, toilet flushing, and washing the house, windows, driveways, and car. In the 2009 survey (the subject of this chapter), only one use can be identified with respect to which Australians state a significantly higher likelihood of adoption for recycled water (watering the garden - flowers, trees and shrubs). This comparison with Dolnicar and Schafer's findings indicates that attitudes are in a constant state of flux.

There may be many possible explanations for this difference over time. One possible influence is the increased media coverage and community discussion and awareness regarding recycled water since the data collected

□ Desalinated water M Recycled water

7376

86 86

for the 2006 survey reported by Dolnicar and Schäfer. On July 29, 2006, a referendum was held in Toowoomba, a city in Queensland, on whether or not a recycled water scheme would be introduced. Significant public opposition led to a negative vote and the postponement of the introduction of a water recycling scheme. The Toowoomba referendum attracted a significant amount of public attention nationwide and may well have had the effect of increased public concern about recycled water. Since the Toowoomba referendum, most states in Australia have chosen to develop desalination plants instead of recycling schemes for large-scale water augmentation. Interestingly, the only exception currently is a large-scale water recycling scheme, which is being developed in Queensland and will feed recycled water into the dams that supply Toowoomba with water - if Brisbane's dam levels fall below 40%.

With respect to the uses for which recycled water was preferred by Australians in 2006, the differences in the 2009 study are insignificant. With respect to most other uses, the differences in stated likelihood of use are highly significant. For example, the average stated likelihood of the Australian population to drink desalinated water is 53 on a 100-point scale, whereas it is only 36 for recycled water.

Fig. 2 shows some of the statements that were made by respondents in the qualitative phase of the study (phase I). Those most frequently stated were subsequently included in phase II of the research - the 2009 survey. For each of those statements, respondents were asked to state whether they agreed or disagreed. Fig. 2 shows the percentage of respondents who agreed with these statements for recycled and desalinated water, respectively.

W2 tests were undertaken to assess whether there was a significant difference in the agreement with the attitudinal statements between water sources. The results indicate that there was a significant difference (at the significance — 0.0001 level) for every single statement. As can be seen, when compared to desalinated water, recycled water is generally perceived by a larger percentage of respondents as having a health risk; tasting/ smelling bad; and as disgusting. More people state that they are cautious of what is actually in recycled water, and express skepticism about how safe and clean it is. For both sources of water, a very high percentage of respondents want reassurance about its quality: 71% (recycled) and 77% (desalinated) would feel comfortable about its quality if it would be approved for human consumption by scientists. With respect to cost, Australians are more concerned about the implementation of desalination solutions: 58% believe that desalinated water is too expensive to implement/operate, whereas only 35% of respondents feel the same about

Figure 2 Percent of respondents agreeing with statements about recycled and desalinated water.

recycled water. Given the stated likelihoods of use in Fig. 1, health concerns outweigh cost concerns. It should also be noted, however, that the vast majority of Australians state that recycled (72%) and desalinated (80%) water, is OK if it is absolutely necessary. This mirrors the findings from the qualitative study where respondents were able to produce a number of arguments for and against various alternatives for securing Australia's future water supply. However, when confronted with a worst case scenario, all understood the need for water from alternative sources and were mostly willing to accept these solutions.

Statistical analysis (ANOVA) was undertaken to establish if agreement with attitudinal statements was significantly associated with the stated likelihood of using recycled water and desalinated water. The results of this analysis are displayed in Table 1 for recycled water and Table 2 for desalinated water. As can be seen from these tables, there were a number of significant results.

Table 1 Mean differences in stated likelihood of using recycled water between various attitudinal groups

Attitudinal statement/Use of recycled water- mean likelihood to use

(scale: o = very unlikely - 100 = very likely)

Watering the garden - flowers, trees, shrubs

Washing clothes/ laundry

Cooking

Showering/taking a bath

Drinking

Brushing teeth

Bathing the baby

Filling up the fishpond/aquarium

Toilet flushing

Cleaning the house, windows, driveway

Watering the garden - vegetables , herbs eaten raw

Washing the car

Refilling the swimming pool

Feeding my pets

Recycled water would have to be strictly controlled

Disagree

77

73

54

65

47*

50

47

69

89

80

70

76

65

61

Agree

86*

76

46

60

36

41

38

71

92

86

67

85*

64

56

It's OK if it is absolutely necessary

Disagree

85

65

34

49

27

30

26

67

90

82

56

81

50

45

Agree

86

80***

51***

66***

41***

47***

44***

73**

92

87***

72***

86*

70***

61***

The taste / smell of recycled water is bad

Disagree

86

82***

57***

70***

47***

52***

50***

77***

93*

88*

75***

87*

73***

67***

Agree

86

65

27

45

18

24

22

64

90

83

54

82

51

40

It is OK as long as it is clean

Disagree

84

61

20

40

12

16

14

61

88

81

44

80

42

31

Agree

86

80***

54***

67***

43***

49***

46***

75***

92***

87***

74***

86***

71***

64***

I am skeptical of how clean and safe recycled water is

Disagree

86

87***

69***

79***

60***

65***

61***

80***

93

88

81***

87

78***

76***

Agree

86

70

33

50

23

28

27

67

91

85

59

84

57

46

There are too many health risks

Disagree

86

83***

58***

71***

47***

52***

49***

76***

92*

88***

76***

86*

73***

66***

Agree

85

64

25

41

17

22

21

64

90

82

51

82

48

40

I am cautious of what is actually in recycled water

Disagree

87

87***

70***

79***

62***

66***

62***

80***

93

89*

83***

86

77***

77***

Agree

85

72

38

54

27

33

31

69

91

85

61

85

60

49

It is OK for other uses but not as drinking water

Disagree

84

85***

70***

78***

62***

67***

63***

80***

92

87

84***

85

77***

76***

Agree

87

71

32

50

21

27

26

67

91

85

60

85

58

45

I just don't like the thought of recycled water

Disagree

86

83***

61***

73***

52***

57***

53***

77***

92

87

79***

87*

75***

69***

Agree

86

68

29

47

19

24

24

66

91

84

54

83

54

43

Recycled water is too expensive to implement

Disagree

86

81***

53***

67***

43***

48***

46***

75***

93**

87*

73***

87***

70***

63***

Agree

84

67

33

49

24

30

27

67

90

84

57

81

55

45

I think it is OK if scientists approve it for human consumption

Disagree

86

63

24

42

13

18

18

62

90

83

51

82

46

35

Agree

86

81***

56***

69***

46***

51***

48***

76***

92

87*

74***

86*

72***

65***

There's no way I would drink recycled water

Disagree

86

85***

62***

74***

53***

57***

55***

77***

92

88**

77***

86

75***

70***

Agree

86

65

25

43

15

21

19

64

91

83

54

84

50

39

Note: Significances always apply to the whole ''agree-disagree'' pair, but are market only for either ''agree'' or ''disagree'' in this table to highlight associations with higher stated likelihood of use. Difference in means: (***) significant at the 0.0001 level, (**) significant at the 0.001 level, (*) significant at the 0.01 level.

Table 2 Mean differences in stated likelihood of using desalinated water between various attitudinal groups

Attitudinal statement/Use of desalinated water - mean likelihood to use (scale: o = very unlikely - 100 = very likely)

Watering the garden - flowers, trees, shrubs

Washing clothes/ laundry

Cooking

Showering/taking a bath

Drinking

Brushing teeth

Bathing the baby

Filling up the fishpond/aquarium

Toilet flushing

Cleaning the house, windows, driveway

Watering the garden - vegetables, herbs eaten raw

Washing the car

Refilling the swimming pool

Feeding my pets

Desalinated water would have to be strictly controlled

Disagree

79

82

72

79

63**

71***

65**

76

88

82

79

78

78

69

Agree

85*

83

65

75

53

59

55

75

91

87

76

85**

81

68

It's OK if it is absolutely necessary

Disagree

77

72

48

61

37

42

39

63

85

79

61

75

67

51

Agree

86***

86***

70***

79***

58***

65***

60***

78***

92***

88***

80***

86***

84***

72***

The taste / smell of desalinated water is bad

Disagree

86***

87***

73***

81***

62***

68***

64***

80***

93***

88***

81***

86***

84***

75***

Agree

78

70

42

55

27

35

31

62

86

80

58

77

68

46

It is OK as long as it is clean

Disagree

74

65

37

51

26

31

28

59

82

76

54

72

64

40

Agree

86***

86***

71***

80***

59***

66***

62***

79***

93***

88***

80***

86***

84***

73***

I am skeptical of how clean and safe desalinated water is

Disagree

87***

91***

80***

87***

71***

76***

74***

82***

93***

89***

86***

87***

88***

81***

Agree

81

75

51

63

36

44

40

69

89

83

65

81

73

55

There are too many health risks

Disagree

87***

89***

76***

84***

65***

71***

67***

81***

93***

89***

83***

87***

87***

78***

Agree

78

68

39

53

26

33

30

63

86

80

57

77

66

45

I am cautious of what is actually in desalinated water

Disagree

87*

90***

80***

86***

73***

77***

73***

81***

92

88

85***

85

86***

82***

Agree

83

79

56

68

42

49

46

72

91

85

70

83

77

60

It is OK for other uses but not as drinking water

Disagree

86

88***

77***

83***

70***

74***

70***

79***

92

87

83***

85

84***

79***

Agree

83

76

49

63

31

41

38

70

90

85

66

83

75

53

I just don't like the thought of desalinated water

Disagree

87***

88***

76***

83***

65***

71***

66***

79***

93***

89***

83***

86***

85***

76***

Agree

79

72

44

58

30

37

35

68

87

81

61

79

71

51

Desalin ated water is too expensive to implement

Disagree

86

86***

71***

80***

60***

66***

61***

78

92

88

80***

86*

83

72***

Agree

83

80

61

72

49

56

52

74

90

85

73

82

79

65

I think it is OK if scientists approve it for human consumption

Disagree

79

70

42

56

26

32

31

62

85

80

58

76

66

46

Agree

87***

87***

73***

81***

62***

69***

64***

80***

93***

88***

81***

86***

85***

75***

There's no way I would drink desalinated water

Disagree

87***

88***

76***

83***

66***

72***

68***

80***

92***

88***

83***

86***

86***

77***

Agree

78

69

37

54

21

30

28

63

87

81

58

78

67

44

Note: Significances always apply to the whole ''agree-disagree'' pair, but are market only for either ''agree'' or ''disagree'' in this table to highlight associations with HIGHER stated likelihood of use. Difference in means: (***) significant at the 0.0001 level, (**) significant at the 0.001 level, (*) significant at the 0.01 level.

For recycled water, there was only one statement that had a significant difference between agreement groups for likelihood of using recycled water to water the garden (flowers, trees, and shrubs). This was agreement with the statement "recycled water should be strictly controlled." The following attitudes were found to be significantly associated with a higher stated likelihood of using recycled water for all of the other 13 uses investigated:

• those who disagree that the taste/smell of recycled water is bad;

• those who agree that recycled water is OK as long as it is clean;

• those who disagree that there are too many health risks associated with recycled water use;

• those who disagree that recycled water is too expensive to implement.

Other attitudes were found to be significantly associated with the stated likelihood of using recycled water, but for fewer that 13 uses - the details of this can be found in Table 1.

For desalinated water, the following attitudes were significantly associated with stated likelihood of use for all 14 uses investigated:

• those who agreed that ''desalination is OK if absolutely necessary'';

• those who disagreed that the taste/smell of desalinated water is bad;

• those who agreed that desalinated water is OK as long as it is clean;

• those who disagreed that are skeptical of how clean and safe desalinated water is;

• those who disagree that there are too many health risks associated with recycled water;

• those who disagree that they ''just don't like the thought of desalinated water'';

• those who think it is OK as long as scientists approve it for human consumption;

• those who disagree that there is no way they would drink recycled water.

Details for other associations between attitudes and stated likelihood of use can be found in Table 2.

The results above indicate to water policy officers, attitudes which may facilitate higher likelihood of using recycled water and desalinated water. This information could thus be the focus of any public communication plan regarding recycled water or desalinated water to help increase likelihood of use.

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