Introduction

Inland desalination of brackish water can provide an important source of potable water in many parts of the world. Reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) have become the technology of choice for many of these applications [1]. However, large-scale deployment of RO/NF in inland locations would necessitate operation at relatively high product water recovery to maximize water resource utilization and minimize treatment costs and environmental challenges associated with disposal of the concentrate. Concentrate disposal is generally limited to one or two options for any given area and is directly related to land cost, energy costs, regulations, and the type and quantity of salts in the concentrate stream [2,3]. Inland concentrate disposal options include reuse of concentrates,

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Sustainability Science and Engineering, Volume 2 ISSN 1871-2711, DOI 10.1016/S1871-2711(09)00210-4

© 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

surface water discharge, sewer disposal, deep well injection, land applications, and evaporation ponds (followed by land filling of solids) [2]. This chapter provides an overview of post-RO/NF concentrate minimization technologies with the goal of minimizing the concentrate volume such that ultimate disposal options are more feasible. Examples of several of these technologies are also provided.

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