since the activity of Tio2 is primarily controlled by the composition and availability of its near-surface regime irradiated by UV light, small size and high surface area of TiO2 make it attractive for the photocatalytic reaction. In addition to the surface area and morphology of TiO2, its crystallographic properties (crystal phase and crystallite size), defect structures on its surface and in bulk, and electronic structure largely affect its catalytic activity . For example, the anatase crystal phase has been generally known for having a higher activity than the other phases (brookite and rutile) and amorphous Tio2 particles have no considerable photocatalytic activity due to many defects in the bulk [55-58]. So, controlling the morphological, crystallographic, and electronic properties of TiO2 material via alternative synthesis procedures could be one approach to develop a catalyst with high enough activity to make the process attractive for large-scale applications [59-64].
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