Contents

1. Introduction 95

2. Theoretical Potential of Salinity Gradient Energy 96

3. Pressure-Retarded Osmosis 100

3.1. Introduction 100

3.2. Principle 102

3.3. Membranes for pressure-retarded osmosis 106

3.4. Process design 111

3.5. Pilot testing and upscaling 113

4. Reverse Electrodialysis 118

4.1. Introduction 118

4.2. Principle 119

4.3. Membranes for RED 121

4.4. Process and stack design 131

4.5. Pilot testing and scale-up 133

5. Concluding Remarks 136 References 137

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