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In summary, several technologies for concentrate treatment are emerging and some may offer the potential of enhanced water recovery and reduced concentrate. However, no one technology is appropriate for all instances. Table 3 provides an overview of the status of the technologies presented in

Table 3 Summary of concentrate minimization technologies: status, costs, and limitations


Table 3 Summary of concentrate minimization technologies: status, costs, and limitations


Cation control

Anion control


Vapor compression

Freeze desalination


Biological sulfate control





Industrial status



Demonstra tion-scale tested

Bench-scale tested


Bench-scale tested

Bench-scale tested

Pilot-scale tested

Applied feed TDS

Brackish water, seawater, and brine with TDSW 300 g/L

Brackish water, seawater, and brine with TDS> 300 g/L

TDS 0.5-10 g/L

TDS <8 g/L; ED: wide TDS range

Brackish water, and seawater

Brackish water, and seawater

TDS <5 g/L

Salt rejection

~ >99%

66-73% with product water TDS> 500 mg/L





Rejection increases with CDI


40-50% for 60-80% ~95% for ~95% for ~85% to 96% Can further Can further 33% in seawater brackish brackish for brackish reduce reduce 60- treating desalination, water water water ~70% of 65% of RO TDS 5 g/L

can achieve desalination desalination desalination, RO concentrate brackish zero liquid can further concentrate water discharge reduce 50-


Achieved recovery


250 kWh/ kgal kgal for ZLD

Estimated total costa

-$12 to 13 kgal-1 for concentrate recovered (ZLD)


Achieving ZLD

Commercial technology

Mature technology

Reduced scaling potential

Low fouling/ scaling potential

Low energy demand; low fouling and easy chemical cleaning

Low fouling and easy chemical cleaning

Low fouling and requires minimum pretreat-ment


High energy demand and

Incomplete separation of salts, fouling. handling of ice residuals

Chemical and sludge handling

Developmental stage: technical challenges; chemical and sludge handling

Poor removal of organic matter

Developmental stage: lack of appropriate FO

membranes, and draw solutions

Developmental stage: process optimization

Developmental stage: low recovery. high operating cost, module optimization, and


costs so on a Costs and energy are typically very site-specific and depending upon capacity, feedwater chemistry and salinity, targeted product water quality, and many other factors. b When used in tandem with a secondary RO process.

this chapter, as well as relative energy consumption and costs. It should be noted that both energy consumption and treatment costs are highly site-specific; nonetheless, these broad ranges are presented for general guidance and comparative purposes. In selecting potential concentrate minimization technologies, the end user must select based on water quality characteristics, concentrate water recovery goals, disposal options available, permitting requirements, and site-specific characteristics such as available infrastructure, space, and skilled workforce.


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Inland Desalination: Current Practices, Environmental Implications, and Case Studies in Las Vegas, NV

Benjamin D. Stanford1, Joseph F. Leising1, Rick G. Bond2 and Shane A. Snyder^*

1 Applied Research and Development Center, Southern Nevada Water Authority, Las Vegas, NV, USA 2Black and Veatch


1. Introduction 327

2. Strategies for Inland Brine Disposal: ZLD and Fluidized Bed Crystallizers 330

3. Beneficial Uses of Brine By-Products 334

4. Las Vegas Valley Shallow Groundwater Study 335

5. Zero-Liquid Discharge with Fluidized Bed Crystallizer Study 339

6. Test Results 339

7. Treatment Costs and Energy Requirements 343

8. Outcomes and Future Considerations 347 References 348

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