Concentrate Treatment for Inland Desalting

Christopher J. Gabelich1'*, Pei Xu2 and Yoram Cohen3

Palos Verdes, CA 90275, USA

2Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401-1887, USA 3University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1592, USA

Contents

1. Introduction 295

2. Background 296

3. Concentrate Production 297

4. RO Concentrate Treatment Technologies 301

4.1. Cation control through intermediate chemical demineralization

4.2. Anion control through biological sulfate reduction 302

4.3. Physical charge separation 306

4.4. Thermal processes 313

4.5. Other technologies 318

5. Conclusion 319 References 322

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