Comparison of NDMA intake from various sources

A comparison of NDMA intakes from various sources outlines a number of key points. First, intake from food is substantial and in mean values constitutes 98% of intake (see Fig. 1). Second, this intake varies significantly with location, occupation, lifestyle, and dietary habits. Hence, a vegan with no consumption of cheese or meat products who does not drink alcohol or smoke will have the main NDMA intake originate from water, while for a person consuming high cheese and meat diet and a moderate-to-high alcohol, the contribution of NDMA intake from water would be negligible. Bearing in mind that the contribution of water is 5.9% (see Table 4) when considering maximum NDMA load in food and water at the WHO guideline value, it becomes clear that water can indeed make a significant contribution.

Sausage Products, 3.4%

Cigarettes, 1.4%

Poultry, 18.9

Poultry, 18.9

Milk Powder, 3.4%

Figure 1 Intake distribution of NDMA based on mean intake distribution.

Milk Powder, 3.4%

Figure 1 Intake distribution of NDMA based on mean intake distribution.

Fig. 1 summarizes the intake ofNDMA through water, cigarettes, and a variety of foods as detailed in Table 4. Exposure routes are based on mean values and the average Australian diet. Clearly in this case water is not a significant contributor.

Given that the awareness of NDMA has made significant contributions to reduction of NDMA by improved manufacturing processes, it is expected that awareness and regulation of NDMA in drinking water will have a measurable health impact.

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