Conventional water and wastewater treatment and reuse systems are composed of several unit operations in series, including coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, disinfection, and advanced treatments (e.g., activated carbon adsorption). In spite of the combination of the processes, the quality of water, especially potable water is hard to ensure. Moreover, these systems in combination are difficult to operate and manage, and thus require many technicians and engineers. Considering space limitations and types of water and wastewater that need to be recycled under certain conditions, these compact and reliable TiO2 photocatalytic reactors are good candidates for systems that can serve as stand-alone or complementary and supplementary to the existing or future treatment systems. TiO2 photocatalysis is also useful for treating water and wastewater and reusing them in areas with restricted space (target-specific small size systems). For instance, during long-term missions of a shuttle in space exploration by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, there is a necessity to recycle water in order to assure conditions of self-sufficiency . Recently, an emerging issue in drinking water industry is the presence of biological toxins in drinking water sources. Eutrophication of water resulting from human activities causes hazardous algal blooms (HABs) of cyanobacteria. The HABs have been the cause of great concern in water treatment industries and for authorities since HABs contain and release biological toxins [51,52]. The cyanobacterial toxins such as microcystin-LR cause skin irritations and liver damage or affect the nervous system . TiO2-based
AoTs have shown promising results in the degradation and detoxification of such biological toxins [47,49].
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