Applications of membrane distillation

The possible applications of MD are limited by the wettability of the membrane, which is a function of the feed surface tension. Therefore, aqueous solutions containing inorganic solutes or low concentrations of volatile organic compounds can be treated while solutions with surface-active components cannot. In MD, the desired product can be either the permeate or the concentrate solution. Tests for the following applications have been reported in the literature:

1. Production of pure water from brackish or seawater [36,37]. The fact that salt is nonvolatile means that the permeate will be pure water.

2. Concentration of juice, grape juice, milk, sugar, and gelatin solutions [38,39].

3. Blood concentration [40].

4. Extraction of dilute ethanol from aqueous solutions [41] or from fermentation broths [42].

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