Global Desalination Situation

Type Water Process

Kennedy2, Jan C. Schippers2 and Gary Amy2 11nstitute for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment (ICBM), University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany 2. Historical Development 8 3. Global Installed Desalination Capacity 11 3.1. Projected Growth of the Desalination Market 11 3.2. Global capacity by source water type 11 3.3. Global capacity by process 11 3.4. Global capacity by use type 12 3.5. Global capacity by plant size 14 3.6. Costs and energy demand of...

Conclusions And Further Challenges

From the number and nature of water recycling projects throughout the world, it can be concluded that the principle of treating wastewater as a valuable source becomes increasingly accepted. The larger demand of water due to population growth and increased comfort is translated into better protection of sources and eventually, zero discharge or nearly zero discharge systems. A remarkable observation is that in none of these projects adverse health effects were obtained, even on a long...

Electrodialysis with bipolar membranes

Electrodialysis

Electrodialysis with bipolar membranes utilizes water dissociation of bipolar membranes in an electrodialysis stack for the production of acids and bases from the corresponding salts. The process and the stack design are in many aspects similar to conventional electrodialysis. The key element in electrodialysis with bipolar membranes is the bipolar membrane. Its performance determines to a very large extent the technical feasibility and economics of the process 25 . 4.2.1 The bipolar membrane,...

Applications of bipolar membrane electrodialysis

Since bipolar membranes became available as commercial products in 1977 5 , a very large number of potential applications has been identified and has been studied extensively on a laboratory or pilot plant scale 31 . However, in spite of the obvious technical and economical advantages of the technology, large-scale industrial plants are still quite rare. The main reasons for the reluctant use of bipolar membrane electrodialysis are shortcomings of the available bipolar and monopolar membranes,...