Concluding Remarks

The voluntary CO2 agreement between the European Commission and the automotive industry is probably the most important EU initiative to curb carbon emissions, as it addresses the rapidly growing sector of road transport that almost cancels out other attempts to meet the EU 8 GHG reduction target under the Kyoto Protocol. Until the end of 2003 the industry had achieved about half of its target, which means that, in the absence of strong technical progress and remarkable changes in consumer...

Necessary Policy Measures at the International Level

To make a significant increase in the share of renewable energy-to-energy supply become reality, advanced policy measures have to be adopted globally. Governments from all over the world need to implement necessary minimum policy measures to guarantee the further deployment of renewable energy technologies and additional commitments on the international level have to be made. Minimum requirements are as follows Establishment of legally binding RES targets The states that are currently actively...

Introduction

Bioenergy is expected to become one of the key energy resources in the future because bioenergy maintained adequately is renewable and free from net CO2 emissions. The author evaluated global bioenergy supply potential and bioenergy-related costs. Global bioenergy supply potential was evaluated using a global land use and energy model (GLUE) that considers E.J. Moniz (ed.), Climate Change and Energy Pathways for the Mediterranean, 101-111. 2008 Springer. land use competitions and overall...

Dr Peter Mombaur Beiten Burkhardt Belgium

I would like to come back to the title of the workshop and make some introductory remarks. In the European Union (EU), we have a common policy that is the work of the European Parliament, the Commission and the 25 member governments. Experience has shown us that the challenge is the same but the answer may differ from one member state to another according to the specific regional advantages and conditions. What this tells us is the following it is necessary to diversity to reduce fossil fuel...

Integration of Renewable Energy

The rapid deployment of renewable energy technologies and their larger deployment in the near future, raise challenges and opportunities regarding their integration into energy supply systems. Energy systems aim at meeting the demands for a broad range of services (such as household and industry needs, transportation and storage). Energy systems include an energy supply sector and the end-use technology to provide the aforementioned energy services. In the EU and other industrialised countries,...

Nuclear Energy

Nuclear fission is one of the few large-scale carbon-free energy sources and currently provides 7 of global primary energy (17 of electricity) without any CO2 waste. Its costs are now well known and are unaffected by increases in oil and gas prices. It supplies 35 of the electricity generated in Europe, i.e., 75 of its CO2-free power. The nuclear industry has continuously improved the safety of nuclear power plants. In the United States for example, the accident rate of industry has decreased...

Required Storage Period

If it is to make a contribution to reducing CO2 levels in the atmosphere, it would be desirable to retain any CO2 stored underground permanently. After the end of the fossil fuel era, atmospheric CO2 levels might begin a slow decline as ocean atmosphere CO2 levels re-equilibrate 98 . Clearly it would not be desirable for stored CO2 to be released until there has been a significant decline in atmospheric CO2 levels. Thus the next most desirable time frame for storage might be at least thousands...

References4

ACEA (2003) ACEA's Statement on the potential for additional CO2 reduction, with a view to moving further towards the Community's objective of 120 g CO2 km by 2012. (Note to the European Commission of 27 November 2003, Brussels) An F, Sauer A (2005) Comparison of passenger vehicle fuel economy and greenhouse gas emission standards around the world. (Report prepared for the Pew Center on Global Climate Change, Arlington, VA). Also at index.cfm DeCicco J, An F, Ross M (2001) Technical Options for...

Professor Richard Cooper Harvard University USA

I want to start by talking more generally about climate change. I am going to start with an observation from Dr. Rajendra Pachauri to which I took exception. His major argument is that climate change policies would have a disproportionate impact on the poor. As a result, and for reasons of eq uity, the rich companies should bear more of the burden about climate change. The important point to remember is that climate change will creep up on us over decades. By the time we have big changes, we...

Public Perception

A further major issue is whether people will find CO2 sequestration underground an acceptable alternative to emitting CO2 to the atmosphere. Research on perceptions of CCS is challenging because of a) the relatively technical and remote nature of the issue, meaning that there are few immediate points of connection in the lay public's frame of reference to many of the key concepts b) the early stage of the technology, with very few examples and experiences in the public domain to draw upon as...

Table of Contents

A Global Perspective on Climate Change 1 2. Current Understanding of Environmental and Water Resource Impacts in the Eastern Mediterranean 15 3. An Outlook on the European Gas Market 33 4. Sequestration - The Underground Storage of Carbon Dioxide 61 5. Climate Change and Energy Pathways for the Mediterranean 89 6. Global Bioenergy Resources and Utilization Technologies 101 7. Perspectives in Nuclear Energy 113 B. Frois 8. Efficiency in Oil Use and Alternatives to Oil 127 M.K. Eberle 9. An...

Alternative Fuels

Easy Draw Wheelchair Front

Powertrain technologies and the types of fuels discussed, which are partly realized today, give a picture of utmost confusion. At times the picture is one of brain storming we are in search of the optimum solutions. There will be many different possible combinations, driven by local (country) conditions. Figure 13 gives an overview of the different fuels. SynFuel is a fuel that is produced based on natural gas. SunFuel, as the name indicates, is a fuel based on biomass converted into gas,...

Impacts

The widespread impacts of a changing climate incomes of vulnerable populations and increase the absolute number of people at risk of hunger. Freshwater has been an extremely important aspect of civilisation throughout human history. It is essential for health, food production and sanitation, as well as for industrial processes and sustenance of ecosystems. The quality of water is likely to be degraded by higher temperatures, but this may be offset in some areas by increased flows. There...

System Indicators of European Transport in Terms of Energy and Climate Change

It is widely recognised that transport, as a major contributor to energy consumption and GHG emissions on a worldwide basis, represents a growing headache for policy makers. Globally, the sector represents 26 of final energy demand (34 for the OECD) and 57 of oil demand (IEA 2004). The International Energy Agency warns of a likely 50 increase in transport CO2 emissions from 2000 to 2030 in the OECD as a whole (IEA 2003). In the European Union the transport sector is also a very significant oil...

Properties of Hydrogen Important to Its Use as a Transportation Fuel

The important properties that must be considered when we use hydrogen as a transportation fuel, in comparison with compressed natural gas and petrol, are shown in Figure 15. It has a very low density relative to air and will disperse rapidly if released. The saturated vapour density at -215 C is close to that of normal ambient air. The density of the liquid is also very low. The heat of combustion per volume of liquid is low. The gas is odourless, colourless and burns with a non-luminous flame....

Design of Onboard Vehicle H2 Fuel Tanks

Oxygen And Acc Storage Board Vessels

Because of its very low density, both as a gas or as a liquid, the design of the vehicle fuel tank for a range of > 300 miles from one fill is a real challenge. A high pressure composite tank with pressure up to 700 bar Liquid hydrogen storage tank which is vacuum super insulated A metallic hydride storage that requires heat transfer during the filling and H2 fuel use cycles A chemical agent that will release hydrogen but then will require regeneration and Carbon-based adsorbents used as a...

Implications for the Oil and Gas Industries

Walid Khadduri (Panel Moderator) Editor, Dar Al-Hayat The purpose of this panel is to identify implications of the papers and discussions of the past two days on the oil and gas industry. We heard that oil is being produced by unstable countries that cannot assure security of supply for a strategic commodity, and that it causes environmental degradation. However, the public needs a more balanced picture when the question of future energy supplies is being discussed. The world oil industry is...

The Alliance for Global Sustainability

Josefsson, President and Chief Executive Officer, Vattenfall AB Prof. Hiroshi Komiyama, President, University of Tokyo Dr. Susan Hockfield, President, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Prof. Karin Markides, President, Chalmers University of Technology Prof. Ralf Eichler, President, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Z rich Mr. Eiichi Abe, Managing Director, Nissan Science Foundation Dr. Thomas Connelly, Chief Science and Technology Officer, DuPont Prof. Jakob N esch,...

Energy Demand Reserves and Kyoto

It can be argued that perhaps 2,000 Watt per person and year might be a good number to lead a decent life. The World Bank came up with the Human Development Index (HDI). The HDI is a summary measure of human development. It measures the average achievements of a country in three basic dimensions of human development A long and healthy life, as measured by life expectancy at birth Knowledge, as measured by the adult literacy rate and the combined primary, secondary and tertiary enrolment ratio...

Mr Ramiro Ramirez Environmental Policy Analyst OPEC

Eight of the 11 OPEC Member Countries have now embraced the Kyoto Protocol. The UNFCCC is a historical landmark. It represents the international communities recognition that cooperation must be sought in tackling large-scale problems that concern us all. Pollution is part of the price of industrialization as we know it. It is clear that our current patterns of production and consumption are unsustainable but developing countries have no real alternatives to attain economic development other...

Multiregional Global Land Use and Energy Model GLUE

In this section, the author explains the outline of the multiregional global land use and energy model (GLUE). In the model, the world is divided into eleven regions (Table 1) in order to analyze land-use competitions and bioenergy supply potential regionally. The model consists of two sectors (a food sector and a forest sector) and describes land-use competition among various uses for biomass products such as paper, timber, food, feed and energy. The model covers a wide range of land uses and...

The Hydrogen Supply Chain Figure

Hand Hygiene Compliance Graphs

One of the major challenges for the use of H2 as a vehicle fuel is to consider the hydrogen supply chain from production to the point of fuelling a car in a filling station. The first part of this process involves the production of hydrogen mainly from natural gas or hydrocarbons with CO2 capture and storage using one of the technologies described in Section 9.2. The distribution of hydrogen to the filling station can be in the form of gaseous or liquid hydrogen. Delivery of hydrogen as liquid...

Renewable Energy A Definition

The world's energy supply is largely based on conventional energy sources. Most of these sources of energy, however, will not last forever and have proven to be one of the main causes of our environmental problems. Environmental impacts of energy use are not new but they are increasingly well known. They range from deforestation to local and global pollution. It is clear therefore, that in due time renewable energies1 will dominate the world's energy supply system, due to their inherent...

Timing of Future Hydrogen Production Technologies

Hydrogen Production Renewable

The HYNET project, which is part of the European Union 5th Framework programme, is considering the whole subject of the future of the hydrogen economy in Europe (ref). They have produced a projection of the future 3 H2 + CO (ah 206 kJ mol) H2 + C02 (AH -41 kJ mol) Membrane reactors Sorption enhanced reactors Fig. 11. Separation enhanced reactors Fig. 12. Timeline for hydrogen production technologies Fig. 12. Timeline for hydrogen production technologies sources of hydrogen based on a...

Storage in Coal Beds

Coal beds (otherwise known as coal seams) can be reservoirs for gases. Coal contains a natural system of orthogonal fractures known as the cleat, which imparts some permeability, and although it does not contain significant conventional porosity it contains micropores in which a natural gas known as coalbed methane (CBM) can occur. This usually consists of > 90 methane plus small amounts of higher hydrocarbons, CO2 and N2. The gas molecules are adsorbed onto the surfaces of the micropores....

Global Bioenergy Resources and Utilization Technologies

The University of Tokyo and Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry Abstract The author explains global bioenergy supply potential and economic bioenergy uses in the future calculated by a multiregional global land use and energy model (GLUE). Concerning the bioenergy supply potential, the following results were obtained. (1) Supply potential of energy crops produced from surplus arable land will be available in North America, Western Europe, Oceania, Latin America, and the former...

An Optimization Version of a Global Land Use and Energy Model GLUE

In order to evaluate economy of bioenergy as well as the bioenergy supply potential, the author developed an optimization version of the multiregional Fig. 3. Ultimate bioenergy supply potential of biomass residues a) Ultimate means all discharged biomass excluding biomass of material recycling such as timber and paper recycling Sugarcane harvesting residues Industrial roundwood felling residues Fig. 4. Share of ultimate bioenergy supply potential of biomass residues (in 2100) global land use...

Hydrogen Production from Fossil Fuels

Noncatalytic Partial Oxidation Reactor

Hydrogen production from fossil fuels such as natural gas, liquid hydrocarbons, coal, tar and petroleum coke are well established industrial processes. The principle reaction mechanisms are shown in Figure 5. Hydrogen is produced on a very large scale, principally for ammonia and me- thanol synthesis and for hydrog nation and desulphurisation in refining and in petrochemicals. A preheated mixture of steam and hydrocarbon, usually natural gas, is passed through tubes containing a nickel-based...

Perspectives in Nuclear Energy

F-91191 Gif sur Yvette, France bernard.frois cea.fr Nuclear energy is an important source of electricity in many countries. It produces approximately 7 of the world's primary energy consumption. There are in total 440 reactors in operation around the world 1 . The first generation of nuclear reactors was designed in the 1950s and '60s. The second generation began in the 1970s in the large commercial power plants that are now in operation. The future of nuclear power involves difficult issues...

Sequestration The Underground Storage of Carbon Dioxide

British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG212 5GG, UK Abstract Underground storage of industrial quantities of carbon dioxide in porous and permeable reservoir rocks has been taking place for the last 11 years at the Sleipner West gas field in the North Sea. A further commercial-scale CO2 storage project has recently begun at In Salah, Algeria, and the Snohvit field, Barents Sea, is to begin injecting CO2 underground in late 2007 or early 2008. A monitored CO2-EOR project is underway at...