Make Money in the Recycling Business

Home Based Recycling Business

Make Money! Join the many individuals and families who are learning to prosper in the salvage and recycling business starting with little or no cash. You'll learn: How to bootstrap your business without going into debt. How to get your salvage for free or for pennies on the dollar. (In some cases you will be paid to take the material away). How to find the best price in the least amount of time. The tools and equipment you will need many easily fabricated. Information based on my experience in salvage, recycle and reuse in the following areas: Construction and building materials. Deconstruction and recycled lumber. Farm and ranch equipment and supplies. Heavy equipment salvaging for high value parts. Scrap metal ferrous and non-ferrous. Electronic, communication, and computer scrap and recycling. Salvage for alternative energy systems. Antiques and collectibles. Promoting and marketing. Always treating everyone with fairness and respect and not profiting from the misfortune of others ways to create win-win situations for All parties involved. How to deal with scrap and recycling dealers and brokers. Innovative businesses you can start using various salvaged materials. How to arrange transportation, interim storage, cheap yard space without dealing with high cost commercial operators. How to be paid for your work before you ever start. How to get the equipment and tools you need. How to stay solvent and operate on a cash basis. Continue reading...

Home Based Recycling Business Summary

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Combined Waste Treatment with Other Industrial Waste

The possibility of treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater combined with other industrial waste has been explored and evaluated 63 . One study carried out nitrification of high-strength nitrogenous wastewater (a concentrated stream from a urea plant) in a continuously stirred tank reactor. Pharmaceutical wastewater was used as an organic carbon source to maintain a COD TKN ratio of 1. The reactor was operated at an HRT of 1.5-2.1 days and solid retention time (SRT) ranging from 10-62.5 days. Characteristics of the wastewater from the urea plant, pharmaceutical wastewater, and combined wastewater are depicted in Table 19. The study concluded that pharmaceutical wastewater may be used as a co-substrate to supply energy for nitrification of high-strength nitrogenous wastewater. Such treatment alternatives establish the advantages of a dual mechanism of treatment, that is, nitrification as well as oxidation of organic pollutants.

Municipal Solid Wastes

As noted, industry produces large quantities of waste each year. The majority of this waste is treated and discarded in landfills, generally on industrial property, although significant amounts are reused in industrial processes and are not recognized as waste. A fraction of industrial waste is discarded in the same sanitary landfills that receive residential, commercial, and public waste. There has been no estimate of the quantity of this industrial waste since EPA's 1973 first report to Congress which indicated that a total of 80 million tons per year of industrial waste was discarded. There have been significant changes in the industrial sector since that report, such as the diversion of hazardous and toxic wastes from industry to control technology and special landfills. The industrial waste that is discarded in municipal landfills is estimated at 70 million tons per year. Municipal solid waste is very heterogeneous and varies in composition from day to day, season to season, and...

Countryspecific industrial waste generation data

Some countries have statistical data on industrial waste generation and management. It is good practice to use country-specific data on industrial waste generation, waste composition (see Section 3.2.2) as well as management practices as the basis for the emission estimation. The data should to the extent possible be collected by industry types. If the available data cover only part of industry or industrial waste types, this limited availability should be documented clearly in the inventory report, as well as efforts made to complement the data to cover all industrial waste.

Municipal Solid Waste Management

Municipal solid waste (MSW) is often considered to be a renewable energy source because its composition is largely waste food, paper, and other materials formed from biogenic carbon. Although plastics are also a component of MSW and are produced primarily from petroleum feedstocks, they make up less than 12 of the 251 million tons of total MSW mass in the U.S. 143 . Energy recovery using MSW directly is achieved through combustion of the waste in waste-to-energy (WTE) plants. Emission levels from these units are generally lower on a per-kWh basis than coal plants due to more stringent emissions reduction requirements for WTE plants.5 Even so, the energy generation potential from MSW is limited even if all the MSW in the U.S. were to be disposed of in WTE facilities, the total impact on national electricity production would be about 2 of total electricity generation.

Demetallation and Recovery of Fuel Oil from Hazardous Waste

Waste Reduction Sheet Metal

Waste oil, although contaminated, has a high energy value, and burning as a fuel is a major outlet for used oil. Unfortunately, used oil contains high concentrations of metallic contaminants, and its combustion can cause adverse environmental effects. Some of the metallic materials in used motor oils are introduced during use. Typically, the metals introduced by means of wear or corrosion are aluminum, copper, considerations frequently dictate using chemical treatment as a viable alternative for the production of fuel oils. Although demulsifiers, flocculating aids, contaminant oxidizer and conditioning reagents (e.g. caustics) are available commercially, chemical treatment of waste oils has not yet been demonstrated on a large scale. However, low capital and operating costs, high product yields, potential wide application, low energy treatments and especially low residue production make chemical treatment an attractive choice for waste oil processing facilities involved primarily in...

Waste Composition 231 Municipal Solid Waste MSW

Waste composition is one of the main factors influencing emissions from solid waste treatment, as different waste types contain different amount of degradable organic carbon (DOC) and fossil carbon. Waste compositions, as well as the classifications used to collect data on waste composition in MSW vary widely in different regions and countries. MSW composition data by percent - regional defaults Note 1 Data are based on weight of wet waste of MSW without industrial waste at generation around year 2000. DOC values for different waste types, which are derived from analyses based on sampling during waste collection at SWDS or at incineration facilities, may include impurities, e.g., traces of food in glass and plastic waste. Carbon contents of paper, textiles, nappies, rubber and plastic may also be different between countries and at different time periods. These analyses may therefore result in DOC estimates different from those given in Table 2.4. It is good practice to use DOC values...

NiMH Batteries Recycling Scheme

Figure 10 Schematic Presentation of a Ni-MH Battery Recycling INMETCO is primarly a stainless steel recycler. They process about 50,000 tons of materials containing iron, nickel, and chromium per year, and return an Fe-Ni-Cr alloy back to the stainless steel industry for production of new alloys. As part of their recycling operation INMETCO has accepted both NiCd and NiFe batteries as well as EAF dust, electroplating sludges, and process wastes, all of which may contain some cadmium. The cadmium, and the other low melting elements, lead and zinc, are fumed off either during a rotary hearth furnace treatment or electric arc furnace melting operation. The zinc, lead and cadmium dust which is fumed off during these two operations is collected as a filter cake from a wet scrubber or as a bag-house dust. This Zn-Pb-Cd product is subsequently sent to Horsehead Resources Development Corporation where it is separated into zinc, lead, and cadmium and returned to the marketplace. INMETCO is...

The Recycling Content Symbol

Zinc Recycle Symbol

The internationally recognized U.S. symbol for recycling three arrows traveling in a triangle was developed in the 1970s. During this period, many Americans were becoming concerned about the environment, and a producer of paper products the Container Corporation of America decided to publicize the fact that its products were manufactured using content that was recycled or recyclable. As part of this promotion, the company sponsored a nationwide art contest for a design that would signify recycling. The winner of the contest and an award of a 2,500 tuition scholarship was a twenty-three-year-old student from the University of Southern California at Los Angeles, Gary Dean Anderson. Anderson's design was influenced by the M bius strip a geometric shape that forms a continuous loop having only one side and one edge. Over the years, several variations of Anderson's design have been developed, and today the most common version is the one used by the U.S. plastics industry to surround the...

Optimized Recycling Processes For Advanced Batteries Nickel Metal Hydride NiMH

Operating revenue that could be generated from chemical separation or physical chemical separation processes for recycling Ni MH batteries was compared to a pyrometallurgical process in a report prepared for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), a DOE facility located in Golden, Colorado 34 , The pyrometallurgical process has similarities to the process operated by INMETCO. Revenues (or costs) were estimated for both AB2 and AB5 hydride alloy battery designs. Other general assumptions in the cost calculations were that the plant was sited in California and was processing 30,000 metric tons of EV batteries annually. The chemical process is based on an acid leach of the battery materials, followed by In the most favorable case (physical separation chemical process), the revenue from the recovered products obtained by the recycling process was predicted to be between 16.70 kWh of batteries processed for the AB5 alloy and 18.50 kWh for the AB2 alloy. This is largely because of...

Water Recycling In Other Parts Of The World

Reverse Recycling

Water recycling is an obvious choice in water-stressed regions where it is the only option to grow or even to survive. Many of these regions can be often found in less developed regions in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Kalahari Desert is also dry. Windhoek is located in between these deserts, too far away from the rivers in north and south (750 and 900 km, respectively). It has ca. 250 000 inhabitants and relied originally on groundwater. When the city grew, other sources had to be found by constructing dams catching water from ephemeral rivers. The Avis Dam was constructed in 1933 (2.4 Mm3), the Goreangab Dam in 1958 (3.6 Mm3). Potable water was produced in a conventional treatment plant. From 1969 on, the effluent from the Gammams Wastewater Treatment Plant was also treated in this plant. This was the start of the first, and to date still the only water recycling plant for direct potable reuse 23 . The initial capacity was 4300 m3 day after a number of upgrades this became 7500...

Recycling Not a Universal Good

Recycling is a manufacturing process, and therefore it too has an environmental impact. . . . Recycling changes the nature of pollution, sometimes increasing it and sometimes decreasing it. Daniel K. Benjamin, economics professor and former adviser to President Ronald Reagan. Daniel K. Benjamin, Eight Great Myths of Recycling, Property and Environment Research Center, September 2003, p. 17. www.perc.org pdfrps28.pdf. The largest categories of plastic wastes include containers (for foods, drinks, and cosmetic and household items), product packaging, durable goods such as appliances and furniture, and nondurable goods such as baby diapers, trash bags, cups and utensils, and medical devices. Although 37 percent of PET bottles and 28 percent of HDPE bottles were recycled in 2007, this represents only a tiny fraction of all plastics in the waste stream. In fact, according to the EPA, only 6.8 percent of all plastic wastes generated in 2007 were recycled the rest was buried in landfills....

General Recycling Issues And Drivers Economics and Planning

Economics is an important consideration when designing a recycling process. Some generic constraints that determine whether recycling is economically viable have been discussed 5 , These include the ability of the market to absorb the large quantity of recycled material that could result in the long term assuming that it is not recycled directly into new batteries. Market size is likely to differ for each of the specific materials that can be recovered. Price collapse or possibly an inability to sell the reclaimed products at all could be the result if a limited market is flooded with recycled material. A fundamental precept of chemical process economics (the Exclusion Principle) states that high-priced materials tend to have limited markets, while high volume materials have low unit prices 10 . It is therefore unrealistic to expect to enter a large size market for a particular commodity and command a high unit price. Another general expectation is that the establishment of a new,...

Precipitation recycling

The amount of precipitation falling over a region can be divided into (1) precipitation associated with water vapor transported into the region (advected precipitation) (2) precipitation associated with water that evaporates from the surface of the region and falls within the same region (locally derived precipitation). The precipitation recycling ratio is defined as Pl P, where Pl is the precipitation of local origin and P is the total precipitation. The recycling ratio can be thought of as providing a sense of the importance of land-surface processes on the hydrologic budget. The topic has a long history, starting with Mikhail Budyko and associates in the Soviet Union in the 1950s. More recent studies include Brubaker et al. (1993), Eltahir and Bras (1996) and Trenberth (1998). Estimates of the recycling ratio are contingent on the size of the region considered. The ratio is smaller for areas of limited extent and increases for larger regions (Brubaker et al., 1993). Obviously, all...

Switzerland Organization For Portable Battery Recycling

Led by the OECD member states, legislation has been put in place mandating the collection and recycling of cadmium, lead and mercury batteries. Industry organizations have been established for the purpose of educating the consumer and developing collection recycling programs. We may mention the Portable Rechargeable Battery Association (PRBA) and the Rechargeable Battery Recycling Corporation (RBRC) in the U.S.A., and the European Portable Battery Association (EPBA) and CollectNiCad in Europe. As a consequence of these laws and programs, increasing quantities of spent batteries are being collected and recycled. Recycling batteries with their varied chemistries is a difficult task. The success of the industry in meeting this challenge has been important to the advancement of this effort. We wish to express our deep gratitude to the contributors of the various chapters of this book and to the organizations and companies that have provided us general information and encouragement. Many...

The Birth of Modern Recycling Programs

Garbage Barge Mobro 4000

Even though recycling was commonly practiced by all households during pre-industrial ages, large-scale recycling programs did not arise until the twentieth century. The first organized programs were created in the 1930s and 1940s, when a worldwide depression limited people's ability to purchase new goods and the outbreak of World War II dramatically increased demands for certain materials. Throughout the war, goods such as nylon, rubber, and various metals were recycled and reused to produce weapons and other materials needed to support the war effort. After the war ended in 1945, however, the United States and other countries experienced a postwar economic boom that produced many new products and caused recycling to fade into oblivion for several decades. It was not until the environmental movement of the 1960s and 1970s that recycling once again emerged as a popular idea. This movement began in 1962 with the publication of Rachel Carson's book Silent Spring, detailing the toxic...

The Global Water Recycling Situation

Water Recycling in the USA 45 5. Water Recycling in Asia 52 6. Water Recycling in Europe 54 7. Water Recycling in Australia 56 8. Water Recycling in other Parts of the World 58 The awareness that water recycling is the only possible answer to the world's growing water needs is ever increasing. Governments are developing policies of incentives and or permits to stimulate water recycling in an industrial context. Possible tools that can be deployed are increasing taxes on wastewater discharge, requiring the development of wastewater treatment techniques that result in enhanced removal of a wide range of contaminants, and linking permits to progressive use of alternative water sources. The industry itself is working actively on water reuse projects, mainly for economic reasons, but also from the perspective of environmental responsibility. The benefits of water reuse for the industry include 1 a supplemental and reliable water source to augment or replace...

Lithium Battery Recycling Technologies

In the recent past most lithium batteries were either put into a landfill or incinerated. Many of the larger lithium primary systems had no known method of disposal, much less recycling. The older large primary lithium batteries were, many times, so reactive that open detonation was used as an effective disposal method. The recycling technologies are only now being fully developed. The marketability of the components and the labor dollars invested to process the batteries are the driving considerations. Many research oriented agencies have proposed recycling methodologies which consider the battery chemicals as simply chemicals. Usually the battery characteristics are either overlooked completely or given inadequate planning. The neutralization of chemicals is the primary focus and either economics or safety is limited (at best). For these reasons many lithium battery recycling operations have started but most could not sustain either economic or physical losses. Some of the secondary...

Municipal Solid Waste

A municipal solid waste disposal management system may include any combination of sanitary landfill, energy production, and recycling. Historically the collection and transportation of MSW accounts for 75 of the total cost of the waste management system. Landfill1 costs are increasing dramatically as more stringent standards are imposed. Further, the cost of transportation of waste is increasing dramatically as large cities run out of landfill space and the will to site new landfills and, as a result, resort to long haul for disposal. The actual cost of, and accounting for, any element of the management system varies widely. Some jurisdictions include the charges in the general tax base and indicate zero cost for waste management. Others operate as a utility and include all charges in their costs. Most operate with a combination of the two systems. Collection seems to cost in the vicinity of 100 per ton. 'In 1976, when RCRA amended the Solid Waste Act, an estimated 30,000 landfills...

Water Recycling In Australia

It could be assumed that due to successful examples, the idea of water recycling would be picked up easily in other regions with similar water supply problems, in the Middle East, Asia, northern Africa, the southwest USA, and Australia. However, public perception is still problematic, impeding new initiatives. This was proved again in 2006 in Toowoomba, Queensland, Australia, where a poll to mix treated wastewater with raw surface water for drinking water production had a negative outcome. Nevertheless, other examples of water recycling can be found throughout Australia, and the debate on water recycling is probably nowhere as intense as in Australia. Recent droughts played a role in the awareness that water sources are limited 20 . A good overview of water recycling projects in the Australian context is given by Radcliffe 12 . Figure 5 Process scheme for water recycling in Rouse Hill, New South Wales, Australia. Figure 5 Process scheme for water recycling in Rouse Hill, New South...

Anaerobic Digestion as an Alternative Way of Recycling Biowaste

Chynoweth and Isaacson (1987) describe the process of anaerobic digestion as follows The process begins with the separation of household waste into biodegradable and nonbiodegradable waste. The biodegradable material is shredded, slurried, and then screened and pasteurized to start the process of killing harmful pathogens. It is then pumped into the digester where bacteria break down the material and form biogas, leaving a digestate. The three main process stages in anaerobic digestion are hydrolysis, acidogenesis, and methanogenesis. Hydrolysis Insoluble organic polymers such as carbohydrates, cellulose, proteins, and fats are broken down and liquefied by enzymes produced by hydrolytic bacteria. Carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids are hydrolyzed to sugars which then decompose further to form carbon dioxide, hydrogen, ammonia, and organic acids. Proteins decompose to form ammonia, carboxylic acids, and carbon dioxide. During this phase gas concentrations may rise to levels of 80...

Environmental Concerns Of Recycling Lithium Batteries

Lithium batteries are no exception. Even when discharged, the batteries contain some form of lithium, organic solvents, and other chemicals most of which are toxic. When not fully discharged, the batteries have the potential to start fires. Aside from the known environmental concerns of today, it is not unlikely that in the future new environmental requirements or concerns may evolve from the disposal of batteries. In one eastern block country there is a huge problem with lead acid batteries contaminating ground water. One middle eastern country had a landfill fire that burned out of control for many days due to lithium batteries. In North America several lithium-recycling facilities have been shut down for environmental reasons. The only sure solution is appropriate recycling. Prior to the processing of any lithium battery for recycling, the battery's material safety data sheet should be reviewed, and, if necessary, a complete analysis should be...

Spent Portable Nickel Cadmium Batteries Quantities processed for recycling in 2000

The originality of SCRELEC's program is to integrate all actors of the recycling operations and to drive the system economically in all the steps. 2. the development of national collection and recycling associations in countries without collection organization in 2000, 4. the increasing selectivity in the processing of industrial waste, Figure 28. The Collection and Recycling Scheme Under the Control of SCRELEC Schematic Presentation of Operations, Logistics and Financials Aspects Figure 28. The Collection and Recycling Scheme Under the Control of SCRELEC Schematic Presentation of Operations, Logistics and Financials Aspects

The Limits of Recycling

Trade Waste Policy

Despite the benefits of recycling programs and their growing popularity, however, recycling has not solved the garbage problem. It is undisputed, for example, that recycling has not reduced the total amount of municipal wastes being generated by Americans. As conservationist Helen Spiegelman acknowledges, Even after the enormous exertions of America's cities and towns to recycle bottles, cans, newspapers and other consumer products, seventy percent of the products we buy are still going to landfills and incinerators. 18 And recycling has no effect on how products are produced or packaged by manufacturers. As journalist and filmmaker Heather Rogers explains Recycling treats wastes only after they've already been made. It does nothing to stem rubbish production in the first place. Recycling has contributed to a scaling back in the demands of the public and environmentalists by convincing us that it will remedy the situation. What gets left out of the discussion are more radical calls...

The Growth of Recycling

Sri Lanka Red Tea

Due to Americans' growing acceptance of recycling, over the last several decades the amount of waste recycled has increased each year in the United States. One by one, cities and municipalities have voluntarily implemented convenient curbside recycling programs, and laws have required the use of recycled content in certain manufacturing processes. One of the first curbside collection programs was established in 1973 in California. It collected mostly newspapers and other kinds of paper, but as the size of the waste stream grew and the costs of landfilling increased, other states and localities gradually adopted similar programs, and many expanded the types of recyclables these programs collected. Today recycling is ubiquitous across the United States. According to an article written by garbage experts Heather Rogers and Christian Parenti in 2002, More Americans recycle than vote. 13 The latest EPA statistics (2005) show the A child's toy and plastic packaging are recycled at the San...

Recycling Prospects For Future Advanced Battery Systems Sodium Sulfur NaS

Much of the effort to develop the Na S battery was aimed at its use in electric vehicles. Current applications of this advanced battery system are now mainly in the stationary battery area, but feasibility studies were done on the recycling of this system before the EV development efforts were suspended. Sodium sulfur batteries contain reactive and corrosive materials, but not toxic ones. By treatment of the battery waste, the reactivity problems can be removed. The major difficulty in recycling this chemistry is that most of the constituents have low value or are difficult to recover in a form that could be used in a high-value application (e.g., the beta alumina electrolyte). A patented proposed recycling scheme has been evaluated on a pilot scale and found to be acceptable from a cost and technical standpoint 37 . This process replaced incineration, which was used earlier in the development program, but judged too expensive for large numbers of batteries. In the recycling process,...

Recycling Alternatives

Some recycling alternatives use whole tires, thus requiring no extensive processing other alternatives require that tires be split or punched to make products and still other alternatives involve tires that are finely ground enabling the manufacture of crumb rubber products. Some applications for each alternative are listed below All of the tire recycling alternatives listed above are being used to varying degrees. However, the total usage of tires for recycling currently is estimated to be less than 7 of the annual generation. The markets for most of the products may be increased, but, even if increased to their fullest potential, appear to be small compared to the number of tires generated each year. Ground rubber applications hold the greatest promise. The tire recycling alternative with the greatest potential to significantly reduce the scrap tire problem of the United States is in asphalt highway construction.

Recycling a Great Solution

Recycling saves energy, preserves natural resources, reduces greenhouse-gas emissions, and keeps toxins from leaking out of landfills. Marc Gunther, a writer and speaker on business and the environment. In 2007, for example, the EPA reported that the nation recycled and composted 85 million tons (77 million metric tons), or 33.4 percent of all municipal solid wastes a vast increase from 1960, when only 6.4 percent was recycled. And this rise in recycling has occurred despite the fact that the total amount of waste has increased, from 3.7 to 4.6 pounds (1.7 to 2.1 kg) per person per day between 1960 and 2007. In fact, as the NRDC notes, The amount of material we recycle today . . . equals the total quantity of garbage the United States produced in 1960. 14 Recycling success stories in 2007 included the recycling of 54 percent of paper and paperboard wastes and 64 percent of yard trimmings. And about 35 percent of metals such as aluminum, steel, and mixed metals were recycled an effort...

Batteries In Municipal Solid Waste

In order to evaluate the impact of batteries that are neither in home storage nor collected, it is necessary to evaluate the quantities of batteries present in the municipal waste streams. The mass balance of portable Ni-Cd batteries introduced into the market is presented in Figure 19. the quantities introduced in the municipal solid waste, the quantities introduced in the industrial solid waste, the quantities collected. Industrial Waste Solid Waste (MSW) processed for recycling in dedicated processes for the recovery of cadmium and its reuse in new battery production. A smaller fraction (400 tonnes year) of portable Ni-Cd batteries collected by industrial waste management companies is either processed with industrial waste and treated for recycling in non-dedicated processes like steel and lead recycling plants, or introduced legally in landfills according to local authorization procedures. Figure 20. The Average Composition of Municipal Solid Waste and the Ratio of Spent Portable...

Solid Waste Treatment Methods

Many of the abovementioned treatment methods for liquid waste are suitable for the treatment of solid liquid waste arising from the two-phase decanter (alpeorujo). Some of these methods are also appropriate for the treatment of solid waste (orujo), such as recycling methods (composting and livestock feeding). In this respect, a distinction should be made between aerobic treatment systems for liquid waste (such as activated sludge, trickling filter, bioremediation) and aerobic treatment systems for solid waste (such as composting). Based on the various experiments and published research for waste, especially solid waste and liquid-solid waste, we can propose suitable methods for treating waste from

RCRA Subtitle D Solid Waste

RCRA's solid waste management program encourages environmentally sound solid waste management practices that maximize the reuse of recoverable material and foster resource recovery. The term solid waste is very broad, including not only the traditional nonhazardous solid wastes, such as municipal garbage, but also some hazardous wastes. RCRA Subtitle D addresses solid wastes, including those hazardous wastes that are excluded from the Subtitle C regulations (e.g., household hazardous waste) and hazardous waste generated by conditionally exempt small quantity generators (CESQGs). The U.S. EPA recommends an integrated, hierarchical approach for managing municipal solid waste that includes1,2 2. Recycling Here, source reduction and recycling are the preferred elements of the system. Subtitle D focuses on state and local governments as the primary planning, regulating, and implementing entities for the management of nonhazardous solid waste, such as household garbage and nonhazardous...

Physiology and Biochemistry of Nitrogen Recycling in Rice Plants

Under sufficient light conditions, the assimilation of inorganic nitrogen and efficient recycling of the assimilates within plants are the most important processes for determining the productivity and quality of many crops. The major source of nitrogen for developing leaves and spikelets in rice plants is the nitrogen remobilized, via the phloem, from older, senescing organs.1 In particular, senescing leaf blades are the major source of nitrogen and they contribute about half of the nitrogen in the developing spikelets (Fig. 17.1). This intricate process of nitrogen recycling, from the senescing organs to the developing organs, is very important in determining the productivity and the quality of rice plants. Nitrogen recycling consists of at least the following four major steps

The Hazards And Safety Aspects Of Recycling Lithium Batteries

In the case of the primary lithium systems, the hazards for the most part involve the safe processing and management of the elemental lithium and associated hydrogen gas. Eliminating the random very violent reactions is paramount when considering the safe processing of the batteries for recycling. Once lithium and hydrogen are controlled, the components within the battery can be exposed, separated, neutralized, reprocessed, and Recycling lithium rechargeable battery systems does not involve elemental lithium under normal conditions. It is the authors belief that a fully charged large nickel metal-hydride battery has the potential to be much more reactive than a comparably sized lithium secondary. The metal-hydride battery worst-case hazards include the possibility of very high hydrogen concentrations within the battery case. In certain situations this could result in a violent hydrogen reaction (this violent reaction, by the way, would not be considered deflagration but instead is an...

Collection Efficiency And Recycling Rate

Each country establishing a collection scheme is trying to bring its own definition of recycling and collection rates. It appears that a standardisation at the european level is needed. The various european directives on waste management do not present a clear definition of terms as collection rates and recycling rates. There is a general trend to forget that recycling is a generic term for a sequence of operations starting with collection, consolidation, sorting, processing and finally re-use and or recycling of recovered materials. Disposal in landfill is another end of life management of materials that cannot be re-used advantageously. So, if collection and or recycling rates are evaluated , batteries in temporary storage should not be considered as they are not a waste. One should take into account the quantities available for collection and not the quantities introduced into the market. As we have seen in Section 3 of this chapter, a significant fraction of the rechargeable...

No Profit from Recycling

Analyses typically show that recycling does not pay from a private economic point of view. Bjorn Lomborg, a Danish author, academic, and environmental writer. A few critics also challenge the idea that recycling is beneficial to the environment. Professor Daniel Benjamin, for example, claims that recycling itself is a manufacturing process that uses trucks and facilities and that produces greenhouse gases and other pollution just like other industries. He argues Curbside recycling . . . uses huge amounts of capital and labor per pound of material recycled. . . . The bulk of all curbside recycling programs simply waste resources. 22 And according to Benjamin's view, modern municipal landfills are a safe alternative to recycling. He notes that the EPA has concluded that landfills constructed according to agency regulations can be expected to cause a total of THE RECYCLING SOLUTION 39 only 5.7 cancer-related deaths over the next 300 years. 23 It is the improper or illegal dumping of...

The Recycling Solution

Once a common way to dispose of trash, recycling today is experiencing a renaissance. Recent increases in the amounts of garbage, combined with heightened environmental awareness in developed countries such as the United States, have led to numerous government programs for recycling wastes. Most of these programs are voluntary, although some cities have recently begun to mandate recycling. Overall, recycling is widely viewed as beneficial to the environment and human health, although some commentators view it as a flawed solution to the garbage problem.

Data from waste stream analyses

MSW treatment techniques are often applied in a chain or in parallel. A more accurate but data intensive approach to data collection is to follow the streams of waste from one treatment to another taking into account the changes in composition and other parameters that affect emissions. Waste stream analyses should be combined with high quality country-specific data on waste generation and management. The approach is often complemented with modelling. When using this approach, it is good practice to verify the data using separately collected data on MSW generation, treatment and disposal, especially in cases where they are based largely on modelling. This method is only more accurate than the approaches given above if countries have good quality, detailed data on each end point and have verified the information. An example of applying the approach for estimating the amount of paper waste disposed at SWDS is given in Box 2.1, Example of Activity Data Collection for Estimation of...

Industrial Wastewater Secondary Treatment

For industrial wastewater with BOD concentrations of 400 to 2000 mg L or more, the organic loading rate is often limiting. The procedure for process design is as follows When the BOD of the applied wastewater exceeds approximately 800 mg L, the oxygen transfer from the atmosphere through the fixed film becomes limiting. The BOD removal rate will decline unless effluent recycling is practiced. In some industrial applications, effluent recycle to dilute the BOD in the raw wastewater has been used. For example, the BOD from a food processing wastewater was reduced from 1800 down to 500 mg L with an effluent recycle ratio of 3 1 (Perry et al., 1981).

Solid Waste Management

Bakery solid waste includes stale bakery products, dropped raw materials (e.g., dough), and packages. The most simple and common way is to directly transport these to landfill or incineration. Landfill can cause the waste to decompose, which eventually leads to production of methane (a greenhouse gas) and groundwater pollution (organic compounds and heavy metals). Incineration of bakery waste can also release nitrogen oxide gases.

Criteria for Accumulation of Waste Oil in Underground Storage Tanks

The Massachusetts criteria (310 CMR 30.690) for accumulating waste oil in underground storage tanks (USTs), including those resting directly on the ground, are generalized below 1. For leak detection in old tanks containing waste oil that were installed before October 15, 1983 under a grandfather clause, a dipstick test must be conducted every 30 days

Disposal of a Small Quantity of Hazardous Solid Wastes

Right now there is no easy way to dispose of very small quantity of hazardous household products, such as pesticides, batteries, outdated medicines, paint, paint removals, used motor oil, wool preservatives, acids, caustics, and so on. There are no places that accept such small quantities of wastes as generated by a small industrial commercial site. For now, the best disposal techniques are listed in Table 1, which is recommended by the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Management, Bureau of Solid Waste Disposal.

The Future for Recycling

Many supporters, however, think that recycling will continue to expand, just as it has over recent decades. They believe the United States clearly has not reached its recycling limit when 70 percent of our trash is still discarded. As the NRDC says, Since Japan, Germany, France, Sweden, Switzerland, the Netherlands, and Italy all recycle higher percentages of their wastes than does the United States, it is clear we could be doing better. 26 To boost recycling rates, the NRDC believes it is critical to improve the management of our electronic waste such as old computers, cell phones, and TVs the fastest-growing element of the waste stream. In addition, environmentalists propose banning the use of plastic shopping bags, which now are either dumped into landfills by the billions or littered as plastic pollution in cities,

Existing Methods For Ev Battery Recycling

As part of a broad assessment of the general recyclability of automotive batteries done in the mid-1990s, a report on recycling technology was prepared for the California Environmental Protection Agency Air Resources Board 16 . Ten different EV battery technologies were ranked based on their performance and recyclability. The battery chemistries that were included in this study are presented in Table 3. Because the recycling capacity available for some of these batteries was minimal in 1995 and the market for some of the materials that would be recovered was also too small and unstable to support the recycling effort alone, a mandatory deposit of 100 to 150 per battery was suggested. This figure was believed to be large enough to ensure return of the batteries to central collection sites, but not so large as to trigger theft or a battery black market. Table 3. Battery Chemistries Included in Recycling Technology Assessment Table 3. Battery Chemistries Included in Recycling Technology...

Industrial Wastes

Significant amounts of industrial waste have been reused for generations. About 60 of our domestic production of steel is from scrap, which saves an estimated 1.3 x 1018 J (1.2 x 1015 Btu) per year. Also, significant quantities of scrap iron and steel are exported and returned as finished products. The closer the scrap is to the point of production, the more likely it is to be used. In contrast, U.S. junkyards have a 17-year supply of scrap steel, mostly from discarded automobiles and appliances. lb). Plastics have an energy content of about 46 mJ kg (20,000 Btu lb). There are no consistent data on the energy savings from recycling plastics. Inorganic materials can only be used as raw materials for a process. The technology used and the energy conserved are dependent on both the type of material and its relative purity. For example, U.S. automobile aluminum is alloyed with strontium to make it ductile. Foreign car makers use antimony for the same purpose. When melted for reuse, the...

Separation and Recycling

Besides the replacement of substances, the improvement of processes on an optimization of the handling of rather concentrated liquors, for example, used in sizing, caustic treatment like mercerization, dyeing, finishing processes, or in textile printing processes is the next step. As a desired goal, a recycling of a main part of the substances should be

Solid Wastes Disposal

Small quantities of household CCA-treated timber waste (e.g., offcuts from a small job) could be placed in the owner's rubbish bin, with the rest of owner's household waste. CCA-treated timber waste from larger household building and demolition jobs is classified as inert waste, and can be disposed of to most suburban landfills.

Application of Biotechnology for Industrial Waste Treatment

Bioagents for hazardous waste treatment are biotechnological agents that can be applied to hazardous waste treatment including bacteria, fungi, algae, and protozoa. Bacteria are microorganisms with prokaryotic cells and typically range from 1 to 5 pm in size. Bacteria are most active in the biodegradation of organic matter and are used in the wastewater treatment and solid waste or soil bioremediation. Fungi are eukaryotic microorganisms that assimilate organic substances and typically range from 5 to 20 pm in size. Fungi are important degraders of biopolymers and are used in solid waste treatment, especially in composting, or in soil bioremediation for the biodegradation of hazardous organic substances. Fungal biomass is also used as an adsorbent of heavy metals or radionuclides. Algae are saprophytic eukaryotic microorganisms that assimilate light energy. Algal cells typically range from 5 to 20 pm in size. Algae are used in environmental biotechnology for the removal of organic...

Solid Wastes Reuse Technologies

As the volume of solid wastes generated out of the metal casting industry and the cost of waste disposal continue to increase, there is increased pressure and incentive to divert valuable materials from the wastestreams, recover and recycle these materials for use in secondary applications, which in turn reduces the burden on landfills and minimizes the need for virgin materials. Many examples show that it is not only better for the environment but is profitable for the metal casting industry to deliver or even sell waste materials, for instance, spent foundry sand, to an alternative user. These foundries have significantly reduced the volume of byproduct materials going to landfill and actually offset the total cost of transporting the byproduct in and out. This section summarizes reuse technologies of solid wastes from the metal casting industry. The beneficial reuse of foundry solid waste has long been carried out informally, particularly in the U.S. Foundry solid waste has always...

Hazardous Waste Recycling

The hazardous waste identification process (as discussed in Chapter 1) describes how to determine whether a material is a solid and hazardous waste. How a material is regulated under RCRA (i.e., whether or not it is a solid and potentially a hazardous waste) when it is recycled depends on what type of material it is and what type of recycling is occurring. If the recycled material is not a solid waste, then it is not a hazardous waste and is not subject to RCRA Subtitle C requirements. However, if the material qualifies as a solid and hazardous waste, it is subject to RCRA Subtitle C jurisdiction. Many hazardous wastes can be recycled safely and effectively. To address the goal of encouraging recycling while protecting human health and the environment, U.S. EPA has tried to tailor the level of regulation to reflect the actual hazard of the recycling activity. In this approach to regulation, recycling standards range from full regulation to specialized standards to exemptions from...

Hazardous Waste Recycling Used Oil And Universal Wastes

RCRA hazardous wastes do not cease to be dangerous simply because they are being reused, recycled, or reclaimed. Many hazardous waste recycling operations may pose serious health and environmental hazards and should be subject to regulation. Reuse, recycling, and reclamation should be viewed instead as ways of managing hazardous wastes, which, if properly conducted, can avoid environmental hazards, protect scarce natural resources, and reduce the nation's reliance on raw materials and energy. Promoting reuse and recovery is certainly one of the goals of RCRA however, this goal does not take precedence over assuring the proper management of hazardous waste. U.S. EPA has tried, to the extent possible, to develop regulations for hazardous waste management that foster environmentally sound recycling and conservation of resources, but at the same time provide adequate protection of human health and the environment. This chapter outlines the regulations governing recycling of hazardous...

Barriers To Solid Waste Reuse

Besides technical aspects, wide acceptance of reusing foundry solid wastes as marketable materials will only be achieved by removing barriers or limitations arising from public perception (education or training), environmental regulation, engineering guidelines and procedures, economics, and market potentials. These barriers are basically nontechnical but take considerable efforts to address. Unlike the technical aspects of a reuse program, many parties are involved, such as the government, the public, academics, and industrial and commercial departments. A coordinated and consistent framework needs to be constructed among these parties, aiming at eliminating barriers to the foundry solid waste reuse program. Public acceptance of foundry waste reuse significantly depends upon their understanding of nature and the performance of foundry waste materials and generated products. In general, negative descriptions, such as its black appearance, the presence of casting byproducts and heavy...

Longer term perspectives mineral sequestration and CO2 recycling

- Ex situ mineral sequestration is operated above ground in an industrial installation by reacting CO2 with ground rocks or with solid waste. The main drawback is the need to manipulate, grind and store considerable volumes of solid materials. Different solid phases have been investigated for use in such a process. Typically, CO2 is reacted with crushed olivine and serpentine (magnesium-rich silicate rocks) from a mine. Industrial wastes, such as blast furnace slag, composed of iron and calcium silicates, can also be used. Carbon dioxide recycling includes all possible uses in industrial or biological processes. Unfortunately the quantities of CO2 which can be recycled in that way are limited. Currently, the main application in the chemical industry is the production of urea, which requires around 80 million tons of CO2 per year 92 . A significant outlet is provided by the agro-food industry which, in Europe, consumes around 2.7 million tons of CO2. A CO2 rich atmosphere is used for...

Waste Materials

Raw materials, waste, and or off-spec liquid chemicals may have been spilled at a site, disposed of in bulk on the ground, or placed in containers such as drums or tanks. Such spillage or disposal can contaminate soil, groundwater, and surface water. Thus, these types of waste may have to be remediated either as bulk materials still in containers or as constituents absorbed in soil or water. Solid Materials. Solid waste materials are usually residuals generated by a manufacturing or treatment process. Examples include sludges from treatment of electroplating wastewaters and refinery sludges containing oils and BTEX compounds. Sludges to be remediated either may be very low in solids content or may have been dried to essentially solid form. These types of materials are often found in drums or are present as precipitates in treatment or holding lagoons that must be remediated. Other types of industrial solids may include set organic resins, powders, and materials such...

Industrial Waste

As noted previously, relatively little is known of industrial waste management, and the types of wastes between and within industries are very varied. Therefore, detailed discussion is difficult. Industry has long used home wastes (produced in the plant or factory, e.g., leftover metal from ingots) and prompt wastes (produced in the next level manufacturing facility, e.g., aluminum can scraps) when it was economical to do so. Within the context of the industrial waste program of the Department of Energy, industry is displaying great interest in the reduction or substitution of hazardous and toxic wastes to simplify and reduce environmental costs. For example, Motorola and DOE are sharing equally the development of a replacement for the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) used to clean circuit boards. By using a nitrogen blanket and adipic acid as a combined flux and cleaning agent, VOCs have been displaced and cleanliness standards retained. In a separate program, DOE and EPA are...

Recycling

Recycling via use and or reuse involves either returning a waste material to the originating process as a substitute for an input material or using it in another process as an input material. Return to original process Raw material substitution for another process Example Reuse Return to Original Process. A printer of newspaper advertising purchased an ink recycling unit to produce black newspaper ink from its various waste inks. The unit blends different colors of waste ink together with fresh black ink and black toner to create the new black ink. This ink is then filtered to remove flakes of dried ink. The recycled ink is used in place of fresh black ink and eliminates the need for the company to ship waste ink off-site for disposal. The price of the recycling unit was paid off in 18 months based only on the savings in fresh black ink purchases. The payback period improved to 9 months when the costs for disposing of ink as a hazardous waste were included. Many environmental groups...

Recycling Benefits

The government and various environmental organizations regularly tout the many benefits of recycling. First and foremost, recycling reduces the amount of wastes that must be placed into landfills or incinerated. According to some experts, this saves money compared to the costs of other methods of trash disposal. As the National Recycling Coalition states, Well-run recycling programs cost less to operate than waste collection, landfilling, and incineration. 16 Recycling advocates also argue that recycling programs create American jobs not only jobs collecting recyclables, but also jobs in the industries that purchase and process the recycled materials and manufacture them into new products. The most important benefits of recycling, however, relate to the environment and human health. Environmentalists say that by diverting materials from the waste stream going into landfills or to incinerators, recycling reduces air, ground, and water pollution that otherwise could result from these...

Recycling energy

The manufacturing and electric-power industries, by and large, capture only a small portion of the potential energy in the fuel they burn, and then discard the rest as waste energy. Many cost-effective approaches are available to recycle these waste streams, generating incremental electricity and thermal energy without increasing pollution or burning additional fossil fuel. Recycled energy's unused potential may be society's best-kept secret. Recycling waste energy can take two approaches. In the first case, power plants are sited at an industrial facility that produces a stream of waste energy, such as gas that is normally flared, hot exhaust or high-pressure gas or steam that must be decompressed back to atmospheric pressure. These plants, known in the literature as 'bottoming cycle cogeneration plants', convert the waste energy streams into electricity. The resulting electricity is typically sold back to the industrial host for use on site, thus avoiding the need for transmission...

InProcess Recycling

Solvents used to cleanse the excess from the product. The industry disposes of these wastes either by recycling them into productive reuse or by discharging them as wastes into the air, water, or land. Costly treatment is often required to reduce the toxicity and pollutants in the waste discharge before final disposal. These liquid, solid, or gaseous wastes at each stage of the production process are the source of pollution problems. Onsite recycling of process waste back into the production process will often allow manufacturers to reduce pollution and save costs for less waste treatment and disposal. For example, solvents are being recycled in many industrial processes. The current goal of solvent recycling is to recover and refine its purity similar to virgin solvent for reuse in the same process, or of sufficient purity to be used in another process application. Recycling activities may be performed either onsite or offsite. Onsite recycling activities include (a) direct use or...

Organic solid waste

The major options for the stabilization and re-use or disposal of organic solid waste from meat processing and rendering operations are composting (aerobic digestion) and vermicomposting, anaerobic digestion, disposal to landfill and incineration (Salminen and Rintala, 2002). Anaerobic digestion is a biological process where organic material is broken down under anaerobic conditions to yield methane, stabilized sludge and partially treated wastewater. Many variations of anaerobic digestion have been, and continue to be, evaluated in order to improve digester performance and maximize the systems' ability to cope with variation in abattoir solid waste output. Some advantages of this system are the production of methane as a by-product, and the ability to handle the high organic loads associated with abattoir waste. Salminen and Rintala (2002) have published an excellent review of the degradation pathways involved in the conversion of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids (typical of solid...

Table 2 Characteristics of a Typical Spent Fermentation Broth [3

Various types of waste streams were generated from this plant depending upon the manufacturing process. Waste was segregated into various waste streams such as strong process waste, dilute process waste, service water, and composite waste 12 . The strength and magnitude of various waste streams generated at the Squibb, Inc. synthetic penicillin and antifungal plant in Humaco, Puerto Rico, is given in Table 4. streams such as floor washing, also known as condensate waste, acid waste, and alkaline waste 13-15 . This plant is one of the largest of its kind in Asia and is involved in the production of various drugs, such as antipyretics, antitubercular drugs (isonicotinic acid hydrazide), antihelminthic, sulfa drugs, vitamins, and so on. Tables 5 to 8 present the characteristics of each waste stream generated from a synthetic drug plant at Hyderabad, along with the characteristics of the combined waste streams. Wastewater from this plant exhibited considerable BOD variation among...

Integrated Treatment and Disposal Facilities for Specific Pharmaceutical Waste

The above-cited studies demonstrate the performance of a particular unit system for the treatment of specific type of waste stream. A particular unit system alone may not be able to treat the wastewater to a level of effluent standard prescribed for its safe disposal. Hence a number of pretreatments, such as screening, sedimentation, equalization, and neutralization, and post-treatment units such as secondary sedimentation, sludge thickening, digestion and disposal, disinfection, and so on, are extremely important for complete treatment. The effluent treatment and disposal facilities adopted by various types of pharmaceutical industries are described in the following sections.

Chemical Oxidation Reduction

Other oxidation techniques, such as the use of hydrogen peroxide 66-68 , permanganate, persulfate, bromine, chlorine 69,70 , perchlorate, hypochlorite, and numerous other chemical oxidants, have been investigated. Many of these have been used for the regeneration of photographic bleaches, either commercially or experimentally, and in the process were discovered to degrade trace components carried into the bleach solution. Concerns in modern times with these oxidizing agents, in addition to safety and cost of handling as well as general effectiveness, include the possibility of introducing yet another pollutant into the waste stream (e.g., manganese from permanganate), or forming byproducts that are even more toxic if the oxidation reaction is only partial (e.g., forming chloramines by the partial chlorination of organic amines). About the only chemical oxidants used on any significant commercial scale in photographic processing have been hydrogen peroxide 68 and bromine sticks...

Table 1 Methods for Disposal of Small Quantities of Common Hazardous Wastes

Collection bag, put in Wash recycling available) collector water recycling) Small quantities of hazardous solid wastes (such as potassium dichromate, lead nitrate, silver nitrate, asbestos, etc.), liquid chemicals (such as chloroform, PCB, methylene chloride, etc.), petrochemicals (such as gasoline, No. 2 fuel oil, etc.), or pure metals (such as mercury, sodium, etc.), which are stored in bottles or cans, however, are not considered to be hazardous household products. Accordingly these nonhousehold hazardous solid wastes, even in small quantities, can only be properly disposed of by licenced or certified environmental professionals.

Sequential Batch Reactor System

A new technology using the sequential batch reactor (SBR) technique has been shown to provide an effective treatment of PORE 7 as shown in Fig. 9. Among the advantages of SBR over the conventional activated sludge are an automated control system, more versatility, stability, and the ability to handle high fluctuations in organic loading. A consistent output of BOD below 50 mg L was observed. With this system, the hydraulic retention time and solid sludge content could be controlled, thus eliminating the need for clarifier and sludge recycling facilities.

Characteristics of Wastewater [20

Polished potatoes were then conveyed to the cutter. The degree of size reduction depended upon the requirements of the final product. Here the surface of the potato and the amount of water used for washing determine the quantity of soluble constituent in the waste stream. The pH of the stream was about 7. The COD and BOD values were about 50 of those of the effluent from the polisher. The TDS and TSS were approximately 1390 and 460 mg L, respectively. The blanching process removed reducing sugar, inorganic salts, gelatinized starch, and smaller amounts of protein and amino acids. The effluent stream from this operation had pH 6.2, total dissolved solids 1500 mg L, phenols 8.2 mg L, COD 1000 mg L, and BOD 800 mg L, respectively.

Table 1 Typical Parameters in Wastewater

Until the middle of the 20th century, industrial wastes were considered only a casual nuisance and were handled as such by generators. Industrial plants of the time disposed of most wastes by burial in landfills, discharge into seepage basins, or by pumping directly to a body of water or into a deep well. Refinements were added over the years for example, much waste was drummed and the containerized waste sent for offsite disposal. However, little if any thought was given to the fact that these wastes, once Industrial waste generators have been made increasingly aware of the nature of their wastes and the problems that waste disposal imposes on our environment. Spurred by mandates from the USEPA as well as by their own sense of corporate responsibility, industries addressed air pollution emissions, wastewater discharges, industrial hygiene worker safety, and a variety of related issues. With rare exception, however, the actual generation of wastes was never questioned. New information...

Segregating and Separating Wastes

A drop of pollutant in a pure solution creates a container of pollution. Segregating wastes and nonwastes reduces the quantity of waste that must be handled. Various technical changes and modifications provide more precise and reliable separation of materials unavoidably mixed together in a waste stream by taking advantage of different characteristics of materials, such as boiling or freezing points, density, and solubility. Separation techniques such as distillation, supercritical extraction, membranes, reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, electrodialysis, adsorption, separate pollutants or mixed wastes back to their constituent parts (Table 6). Although simple in principle, these processes become high-tech in the precision with which they are applied to facilitate other options in the hierarchy such as recycling, treatment, and disposal.

Chicken Waste Treatment

It is used to retain solid waste such as poultry feathers, broken eggs, wasted feed, and manure. Solids separation may exclude as much as 50 of layer manure solids. The screen is a wedge-wire screen and the screen surface is medium, ranging from 0.01 to 0.1 in. The device is specially designed to be in a triangular shape as this helps the solid waste to slide down the screen (through gravity) to the lower edge of the device where the solids are collected. The separated solids, due to the high nutritious value (broken eggs, manure, and feed), are then used as fertilizers. The effluent is transported to the anaerobic tank for further treatment. A completely mixed anaerobic activated sludge system is used. The temperature of the reactor is maintained between 30 and 38 C. Anaerobic processes can achieve high levels of organic removal, with an efficiency of up to 99 . The sludge produced in the anaerobic reactor is directed to the sludge digester, where the sludge is stabilized....

Structural Point Of View

The recycling of food wastes should be considered as part of the long-term sustainability of agriculture. As Japan is a typical island state, the undesirable influence of oversea-dependent food production has become obvious. Although free trade systems are The rate of Japan's self supply of domestic food was 41 in 1970, 32 in 1990, and 29 in 1998 for N, and 33 (1970), 29 (1990), and 28 (1998) for Phosphorus, excluding grass feed 1 . These facts make the recycling of food wastes difficult in various phases. We have not enough farmlands for food wastes to be recycled. The supply of composts to paddy field for rice plantation decreased from 5.07 ton ha year in 1965 to 1.25 ton ha year in 1997 2 . Figure 2 shows a comparison of food balance between Japan and the United States. Based on international statistics on agriculture, forestry, and fisheries 3 , the United States exports food and feed of 4.2 g N capita day. However Japan imports food and feed at a rate as high as 19.4 g N capita...

Wastewater Characterization

In-plant management practices may often control the volume and quality of the treatment system influent. Volume reduction can be attained by process wastewater segregation from noncontact water, by recycling or reuse of noncontact water, and by the modification of plant processes. Control of spills, leakage, washdown, and storm runoff can also reduce the treatment system load. Modifications may include the use of vacuum pumps instead of steam ejectors, recycling caustic soda solution rather than discharging it to the treatment system, and incorporation of a more efficient solvent recovery system.

Emulsion Crumb Rubber Production

In-process controls for the reduction of wastewater flows and loads for emulsion crumb rubber plants include recycling of finishing line wastewaters and steam stripping of heavy monomer decanter wastewater. Recycling of finishing line wastewater occurs at nearly all emulsion crumb plants with the percent recycle depending primarily upon the desired final properties of the crumb. Approximately 75 recycle is an achievable rate, with recycle for white masterbatch crumb below this level and that for black masterbatch crumb exceeding it.

Table 2 Concentrations of Toxic Pollutants Found in Insulation Board Subcategory Raw Wastewater Usepa Verification Data

A unit flow of 12L kg (2800 gal ton) is considered to be representative of an SIS hardboard plant that produces a full line of hardboard products and that practises internal recycling to the extent practicable. A unit flow of 24.6 L kg (5900 gal ton) is considered to be representative of an S2S hardboard manufacturing plant that produces a full line of hardboard products and practises internal recycling to the extent possible.

Economy Of Treatment Processes

Many food-processing-related industries, including the manufacture of olive oil and table olives, are of a seasonal nature, and consequently waste is not generated throughout the entire year. Capital and operating costs of an in situ complete treatment (physical-chemical and biological processes) of these waste streams are inevitably high 91 . Thus, if a factory is located in an urban area, the most common practise for dealing with these kinds of effluents is to deliver the industrial effluent to the nearest municipal wastewater treatment plant and to pay the appropriate fee. However, the presence of inhibitory or toxic substances may have a serious effect on the overall treatment system, particularly the biological treatment process, from an operational and economical viewpoint. Thus, in the activated sludge process, phenol-type compounds in concentrations of 200 mg L and 10 mg L are known to inhibit carbonaceous removal and nitrification respectively 92 . As a result, some action...

Aerated Lagoons Stabilization Basins

Stabilization Basin Components

Keep all of the biomass in suspension (Fig. 5a). However, the system does not include a mechanism for recycling biomass or solids consequently, the HRT approaches the SRT value. Aerobic bacteria oxidize a portion of the biodegradable organics into carbon dioxide and water, and the rest is utilized to generate biomass components. Several completely mixed aerated lagoons may be linked in series to increase the HRT SRT value, thereby facilitating further stabilization of synthesized biomass and organic solids under aerobic conditions. In a partially mixed aerated lagoon (also known as facultative stabilization basin, FSB), the power input adequately satisfies the system's oxygen requirements but is insufficient for keeping the solids in suspension. This allows for settlement of biosolids by gravity sedimentation and subsequent benthal stabilization through anaerobic processes. Thus, the biological activity in facultative lagoons is partially aerobic and anaerobic. Partial mix lagoons are...

Table 24 Energy Efficiency of Biogas Production System and Incineration with Power Generation

As previously discussed, incineration of food wastes together with other miscellaneous wastes is not a suitable solution because of the generation of hazardous ash containing DXNs and heavy metals doing so also threatens food recycling efforts. A recommended option would be composting followed by the combination of biogas production and composting of the sludge. 2. Ushikubo, A. Present state of food wastes and countermeasures for Food Recycling Act 4. Fukunaga, I. Recent advances of the treatment and disposal of wastewater and solid waste in food industry. Foods and Food Ingredients J. Japan, 1995, 165, 21-30 (in Japanese). 5. Mavrov Belieres. Reduction of water consumption and wastewater quantities in the food industry by water recycling using membrane processes. Desalination 2000, 131, 75-86. 21. Teijin Ltd. Technical Report on PET recycling Teijin Ltd., 2000. 35. Zuxuan, Z. Zepeng, C. Zeshu, Q. Status quo and prospects on the study of anaerobic digestion for industrial wastewater...

Chevron refinery as cooling tower makeup From

Zero Liquid Discharge Figure Diagram

The concept of water reuse and zero liquid discharge in petroleum refineries has been proposed and debated for many years 77 . The principal drawback for zero liquid discharge is the generation of large amount of solid waste, mostly salt from the wastewater. It is this problem that caused USEPA to back off from zero liquid discharge in the 1970s, and it remains the primary deterrent today. However, there are two refineries in Mexico that have recently gone to zero discharge 78 . Wastewater from the refineries and nearby municipalities are treated with biological, physical chemical processes, RO, brine concentrator evaporator and crystallizer to maximize water recycle to the refineries, minimize water makeup from the river and to attain zero liquid discharge. Figure 21 shows a process schematic diagram of the refinery wastewater recycle zero liquid discharge system.

Solution Crumb Rubber Production

Solution crumb rubber production plants have lower raw wastewater loads than emulsion crumb plants because of the thorough steam stripping of product cement to remove solvent and permit effective coagulation. Recycling in this industry is comparable to that in the emulsion crumb industry, with about 75 of the wastewater being recirculated.

Drying and Sweetening

The most common waste stream from drying and sweetening operations is spent caustic. The spent caustic is characterized as phenolic or sulfidic, depending on which is present in the largest concentration this in turn is mainly determined by the product stream being treated. Phenolic spent caustics contain phenol, cresols, xylenols, sulfur compounds, and neutral oils. Sulfidic spent caustics are rich in sulfides, but do not contain any phenols. These spent caustics have very high BOD and COD. The phenolic caustic streams are usually sold for the recovery of phenolic materials. Other waste streams from the process result from water washing of the treated product and regeneration of the treating solution such as sodium plumbite (Na2PbO2) in doctor sweetening. These waste streams contain small amounts of oil and the treating material, such as sodium plumbite (or copper from copper chloride sweetening).

Principle of Fluidized Moving Beds Flumov

The drying of solid waste (or alpeorujo) is required before this waste may be used to recover orujo oil by extraction with hexane and for other processes such as the production of compost, activated coal, biopolymers, and so on. The classical driers, for example, rotary kilns (trommels) and trays, have a low thermal efficiency due to the poor air-solid contact and can present several problems because of the high moisture and sugar contents of the alpeorujo. The presence of the moving zone in flumov allows the fresh product feed to have a higher degree of moisture. Moreover, it favors the solid transport to the fluidized bed contactor, since part of the water is eliminated in the moving zone and the solid enters into the fluidized zone with a relatively low level of moisture 86 .

Environmentally Balanced Industrial Complexes

Unlike common industrial parks where factories are selected simply on the basis of their willingness to share the real estate, environmentally balanced industrial complexes (EBIC) are a selective collection of compatible industrial plants located together in a complex so as to minimize environmental impacts and industrial production costs 24,33 . These objectives are accomplished by utilizing the waste materials of one plant as the raw materials for another with a minimum of transportation, storage, and raw materials preparation costs. It is obvious that when an industry neither needs to treat its wastes, nor is required to import, store, and pretreat its raw materials, its overall production costs must be reduced significantly. Additionally, any material reuse costs in an EBIC will be difficult to identify and more easily absorbed into reasonable production costs. A second example presented was an EBIC centered phosphate fertilizer plant, with a cement production plant, a sulfiiric...

Fats Oil and Grease Removal

Air Flotation and Dissolved Air Flotation. Mechanical removal of FOG with dissolved air flotation (DAF) involves aerating a fraction of recycled wastewater at a pressure of about 400-600 kPa in a pressure chamber, then introducing it into a flotation tank containing untreated dairy processing wastewater. The dissolved air is converted to minute air bubbles under the normal atmospheric pressure in the tank 6,32 . Heavy solids form sediment while the air bubbles attach to the fat particles and the remaining suspended matter as they are passed through the effluent 6,9,25 . The resulting scum is removed and will become odorous if stored in an open tank. It is an unstable waste material that should preferably not be mixed with sludge from biological and chemical treatment processes since it is very difficult to dewater. FOG waste should be removed and disposed of according to approved methods 32 . DAF components require regular maintenance and the running costs are usually fairly high.

Alternative Offsite Disposal and Waste Concentration Options

As a final comment, the management of any chemical waste discharges, including photographic processing wastes, is a constantly shifting target, both because of evolving regulations as well as advances in photography and waste treatment technology. Consultation with manufacturers of photographic products and reliable engineering and legal sources should be sought by any laboratory considering the appropriate, up-to-date management of its particular waste stream. 35. Pavlostathis, S.G. Sridhar, K. Morrison, D. Aerobic treatment of photoprocessing effluents. In Hazardous and Industrial Wastes Neufeld, R.D., Casson, L.W., Eds. Technomic Publishing Co. Lancaster, PA, 1991 175-187. 71. Kreiman, R.T. Photo wash water recycling system utilizes ion exchange technology. J. Imaging Technol. 1984, 10, 244-246. 119. Meckl, H. Recycling of color paper developer. J. Appl. Photo. Eng. 1979, 5, 216-219.

Olive Oil Mill Technology

Olive Wastes

The alpeorujo (solid liquid waste) has a moisture content of 60-65 at the decanter output while the moisture content of the solid waste using the three-phase decanter is about 50 , and by traditional pressing is about 25 . One drawback is that two-phase alpeorujo is more difficult to store due to its humidity. Comparing the three different solids (orujo press cake, three-phase decanter orujo, and two-phase decanter alpeorujo), the two-phase decanter alpeorujo is the best residue to be reprocessed for oil 9 .

Combined Treatment of Industrial and Municipal Wastes

At 3 and 6 by vol. industrial waste combination, slight to no biological inhibition was caused either to the fixed-film or activated sludge system. The results of sample analysis from the inhibitory runs showed that in two of the three cases, the possible cause of inhibition was the presence of chloroxylenes and brominated compounds. The third case represented only temporary inhibition, since the rolling tubes provided adequate treatment after a period of acclimation. Finally, the general conclusion reached in the investigation was that the detergent factory effluent may be accepted at 3 by vol. equalized flow to the municipal fixed-film treatment plant, that is, up to 200 m3 day (36.7 gpm), without any noticeable efficiency reduction.

Table 8 Average Composition of Raw Cotton

The high costs for the consumed NaOH and the costs for neutralization of the NaOH in wastewater favor the recycling of NaOH by reconcentration procedures. Normally a reconcentration is made up to at least 400 g L NaOH. Starting from a diluted NaOH containing 50 g L NaOH, 7.8 L of water has to be removed to obtain 1 L NaOH with 440 g L. The reconcentration is usually made by reboiling. For this purpose evaporation plants with several evaporation stages are in use. The use of several stages (normally at least three stages) is of

Discussion Topics And Problems

The BOD5 and flow of various types of waste streams generated from Abbott Laboratory (a typical pharmaceutical plant) is given in the following table. Type of waste streamFlow (MGD) BOD5 (mg L) Chemical waste 0.262 2520 2. A synthetic organic chemical plant generates mainly two types of waste streams, i.e. strong process waste and dilute process waste. The BOD5 of the 45,000 GPD of combined waste generated from the plant is 75,000 mg L. If the BOD5 and flow of the dilute process waste are 1200 mg L and 33,800 GPD, respectively, estimate (a) BOD5 of the strong process waste and (b) the BOD load of each waste stream and their contribution to the total BOD load of the plant. 8. The PAC-fed activated sludge process is designed to treat the alkaline waste stream generated from a synthetic organic chemical plant. The influent BOD5 of the alkaline waste is 1275 mg L, which can be treated to a BOD5 of 275 mg L by the activated sludge process. The addition of PAC at a dose of 500 mg L gives a...

Ammonium Phosphate Fertilizer and Phosphoric Acid Plant

Drying and cooling the products of ammonium phosphate production are conventionally achieved in a rotary drum, and a means must be provided to remove the dust particles from the air streams to be exhausted to the atmosphere. At the Minnesota plant, a high-efficiency dry cyclone recovery system followed by a wet scrubber was designed. In this way, material recovered from the dry collector (and recycled to the process) pays for the dry system and minimizes the load and disposal problem in the wet scrubber, because it eliminates the need for a system to recover the wet waste material that is discharged to the gypsum disposal pond for settling.

Metalworking Fluid Management and Control

Metalworking fluids become contaminated as they are used. A primary problem is contamination with tramp oil. The degree of contamination can be minimized through maintenance and periodic change of seal and wipers. Other maintenance measures include use of stable cutting and grinding fluids, use of demineralized water for mixing, fluid concentration control, control of fluid chemistry, and regular cleaning of fluid through filtering or centrifugation. Recycling of deteriorated fluids reduces the amount to be disposed of or hauled, and minimizes replacement with new fluid material 4 . While small plants and shops prefer offsite recycling, larger plants can apply in-plant recycle using the methods described in the metalworking fluid treatment in the Section 5.5.

Table 11 Lube Subcategory Raw Waste Load Effluent from Refinery API Separatora

Industrial Solid Wastes

Figure 8 Refinery schematic diagram indicating representative sources of solid waste in refinery system. Most solid wastes from refineries are Figure 8 Refinery schematic diagram indicating representative sources of solid waste in refinery system. Most solid wastes from refineries are Figure 9 Refinery schematic diagram indicating representative sources of solid waste in utility water system. These wastes may not be classified as hazardous in the United States. (From Ref. 18.) Figure 9 Refinery schematic diagram indicating representative sources of solid waste in utility water system. These wastes may not be classified as hazardous in the United States. (From Ref. 18.) Figure 10 Refinery schematic diagram indicating representative sources of solid waste in wastewater treatment system. All wastes except waste activated sludge are classified as hazardous wastes because of their oil contents. (From Ref. 18.) Figure 10 Refinery schematic diagram indicating representative sources of solid...

Agro Industries in Tropical Countries

Solid waste from the extraction process of cassava is known as cassava pulp 27 . The quantity of discharged pulp (60-75 moisture content) is about 15-20 of the root weight (65-75 moisture content) being crushed. This is equivalent to about 1.5-2.0 million tons of pulp discharged each year from 10 million tons of root crushed. Discharged pulp still contains a high starch content (around 50 dry basis). This is due to the inextricable starch that is trapped inside the cells. Pulp is sun dried to reduce the moisture content and used as filler in animal feed. Environmental problems from the solid waste occur only if the storage of pulp is badly managed and it becomes exposed to rain. Utilization of pulp as a substrate for industrial fermentation has been investigated, but to date there has been no success. An attempt to extract the starch from the pulp by means of enzyme hydrolysis has been reported. Treatment of pulp with a mixture of cellulase and pectinase increased starch recovery by...

Pretreatment Screening

Typically, the screen is the first device encountered by wastewater entering the treatment plant. Screening is often used to remove large pieces of waste so that the water can be reused within the processing plant. Three types of screens are commonly used stationary gravity screens, rotary screens, and vibratory screens. These units are similar to screens used in dewatering products during processing. Coarse solids are normally removed in a fine screen with a mesh size of 1 mm. The simplest type of stationary screen consists of a number of bars eventually spaced across the wastewater channel (bar rack). In modern wastewater treatment plants, the racks are cleaned mechanically. Rotary screens are used to a large extent and a variety of types are available. The most common type is the drum screen, which consists of a revolving mesh where wastewater is fed into the middle of the drum, and solids are retained on the peripheral mesh as the water flows outward. Another type of rotary screen...

Fixer and Bleach Fix Reuse

The primary factors limiting the direct recycling of fixers and bleach-fixes are the buildup of silver, halide ions, sulfate, and, in some cases, oxidized developer products that can stain the product. However, with appropriate chemical treatment most fixers or bleach-fixes can be reused, although the degree of reuse possible varies from solution to solution.

Conventional Composting of Organic Wastes

Technologically, composting is the simplest way to treat solid waste containing hazardous substances. Composting converts biologically unstable organic matter into a more stable humuslike product that can be used as a soil conditioner or organic fertilizer. Additional benefits of composting of organic wastes include prevention of odors from rotting wastes, destruction of pathogens and parasites (especially in thermophilic composting), and retention of nutrients in the endproducts. There are three main types of composting technology the windrow system, the static pile system, and the in-vessel system.

Zero Emission in Beer Breweries

Waste recycling systems in beer breweries are very complete. Kirin Beer Co. Ltd. has achieved zero-emission for its industrial wastes since 1998. Table 22 shows the amounts for each of the wastes and their uses 46 . Moreover, the emission factor of wastes has itself also decreased from 0.205 kg L in 1996 to 0.140 kg L in 2001. Wastewater is treated by a UASB reactor and activated sludge method in 10 out of 12 factories in this company. In fact, 18,860x103 m3 of wastewater generate 4800 tons of methane gas from UASB reactors, corresponding to 5200 kL of oil. The biogas is used for the fuel of boiler and cogeneration systems. In another big beer company in Japan, we can see similar situations. They treat wastewater in eight out of nine factories by UASB or EGSB reactors and activated sludge. They produce 8315 tons of methane from 14,652x103 m3 of wastewater.

Phosphate Manufacturing

Fluorine, and that it makes the treatment of effluents easier and in some cases allows specific recycling. Finally, the new process produced a small reduction in water consumption, either by recycle or discharging a small volume of polluted process water downstream, and required no particular equipment and very few alterations in the mainstream lines of the old process.

Table 1 Manure Characteristics of Dairy Cattle

Flowing onto an animal feeding operation, and other materials polluted by livestock 1,35 . Livestock and poultry wastes can be categorized as solid, semisolid, and liquid wastes. Solid waste contains more than 20 solids, such as bedding and waste feed. Waste is deemed semisolid if it has 10-20 solids. Liquid waste has less than 10 solids. For systems designed to transfer wastes by pumping, the optimum liquid waste contains less than 4 solids.

Vessels Containers and Wrapping Wastes

Another type of waste relating to food industries is the waste originating from containers, vessels, bottles, and wrapping materials. These wastes occupy a large portion of municipal solid waste (MSW). Among these wastes, plastic wastes in particular should be focused on from an environmental standpoint. One company, FP Co. Ltd., has developed a good recycling system for polystylene paper (PSP) trays in Japan. They employ a whole network of transportation systems from factories through markets and back to factories again. The recycling is a tray-to-tray system. However, the rate of recycling is restricted one-third, because the efficiency of transportation for wastes of PSP tray is one-third of that for the products that can be packed compactly. Polyethylene terephtalate (PET) bottles are the most suitable wastes for material recycling. They can be recycled as polyester fiber products through PET flake and to raw chemicals through chemical recycling. However, the amount of incinerated...

InPlant Control and Recycle

The largest in-plant modification that can be made is the changing or replacement of the barometric condensers (subcategories A, B, D, and E). The wastewater quantity discharged from these processes can be significantly reduced by recycling the barometric cooling water through fat skimmers, from which valuable fats and oils can be recovered, and then through the cooling towers. The only waste with this type of cooling would be the continuous small blowdown from Besselievre 2 has reported in a review of water reuse and recycling by the industry that soap and detergent manufacturing facilities have shown an average ratio of reused and recycled water to total wastewater effluent of about 2 1. That is, over two-thirds of the generated wastewater stream in an average plant has been reused and recycled. Of this volume, about 66 has been used as cooling water and the remaining 34 for the process or other purposes.

Pollution Prevention in Rinsing

Rinsing (see Section 5.2 for a description of purpose and requirements) is the most extensively studied system due to its importance in pollution prevention. There are many alternatives that have been applied for pollution prevention. These alternatives can be divided into two groups alternative rinsing practices and rinse water recycling and recovery techniques.

Metalworking Fluid Treatment and Recovery

Metalworking fluids are costly to replace and difficult to treat. They are considered as hazardous waste due to their content and concentrated nature. Therefore, they are intended to be recycled in-house, or offsite. In either case, their effective segregation is required. Spills and contamination to wastewater should be minimized. There are several technologies used for recycling and treatment of metalworking fluids. Gravity and vacuum filtration are used to separate solids. Generally, disposable filters are used 4 .

Incineration Ash of Food Wastes

Incineration is the most popular method of disposing of combustible solid wastes in Japan, especially for MSW from restaurants, hotels, and supermarkets. For a long time incineration was perceived as a progressive method and the percentage of incineration of MSW was near 80 . However, the evaluation of this method has changed with the discovery of dioxins (DXNs). After incineration, ash containing DXNs is inevitably generated, resulting in another type of hazardous wastes derived from food products. Recently, it has become popular in Japan to recycle the ash to cement raw material. Table 8 illustrates two methods for this type of recycling (a) eco-cement which uses MSW ash at 39 of total This method is considered to be tentative as the final means of recycling. Essentially the goal should be to recycle back to farmland not only major nutrients like N and P but also various minor nutrients like Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mo, and B. This means mineral resources derived from food are...

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