Make Money in the Recycling Business

Home Based Recycling Business

Make Money! Join the many individuals and families who are learning to prosper in the salvage and recycling business starting with little or no cash. You'll learn: How to bootstrap your business without going into debt. How to get your salvage for free or for pennies on the dollar. (In some cases you will be paid to take the material away). How to find the best price in the least amount of time. The tools and equipment you will need many easily fabricated. Information based on my experience in salvage, recycle and reuse in the following areas: Construction and building materials. Deconstruction and recycled lumber. Farm and ranch equipment and supplies. Heavy equipment salvaging for high value parts. Scrap metal ferrous and non-ferrous. Electronic, communication, and computer scrap and recycling. Salvage for alternative energy systems. Antiques and collectibles. Promoting and marketing. Always treating everyone with fairness and respect and not profiting from the misfortune of others ways to create win-win situations for All parties involved. How to deal with scrap and recycling dealers and brokers. Innovative businesses you can start using various salvaged materials. How to arrange transportation, interim storage, cheap yard space without dealing with high cost commercial operators. How to be paid for your work before you ever start. How to get the equipment and tools you need. How to stay solvent and operate on a cash basis. Continue reading...

Home Based Recycling Business Overview

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Collection Efficiency And Recycling Rate

Each country establishing a collection scheme is trying to bring its own definition of recycling and collection rates. It appears that a standardisation at the european level is needed. The various european directives on waste management do not present a clear definition of terms as collection rates and recycling rates. There is a general trend to forget that recycling is a generic term for a sequence of operations starting with collection, consolidation, sorting, processing and finally re-use and or recycling of recovered materials. Disposal in landfill is another end of life management of materials that cannot be re-used advantageously. So, if collection and or recycling rates are evaluated , batteries in temporary storage should not be considered as they are not a waste. One should take into account the quantities available for collection and not the quantities introduced into the market. As we have seen in Section 3 of this chapter, a significant fraction of the rechargeable...

Separation and Recycling

Besides the replacement of substances, the improvement of processes on an optimization of the handling of rather concentrated liquors, for example, used in sizing, caustic treatment like mercerization, dyeing, finishing processes, or in textile printing processes is the next step. As a desired goal, a recycling of a main part of the substances should be

The Recycling Solution

Once a common way to dispose of trash, recycling today is experiencing a renaissance. Recent increases in the amounts of garbage, combined with heightened environmental awareness in developed countries such as the United States, have led to numerous government programs for recycling wastes. Most of these programs are voluntary, although some cities have recently begun to mandate recycling. Overall, recycling is widely viewed as beneficial to the environment and human health, although some commentators view it as a flawed solution to the garbage problem.

Hazardous Waste Recycling Used Oil And Universal Wastes

RCRA hazardous wastes do not cease to be dangerous simply because they are being reused, recycled, or reclaimed. Many hazardous waste recycling operations may pose serious health and environmental hazards and should be subject to regulation. Reuse, recycling, and reclamation should be viewed instead as ways of managing hazardous wastes, which, if properly conducted, can avoid environmental hazards, protect scarce natural resources, and reduce the nation's reliance on raw materials and energy. Promoting reuse and recovery is certainly one of the goals of RCRA however, this goal does not take precedence over assuring the proper management of hazardous waste. U.S. EPA has tried, to the extent possible, to develop regulations for hazardous waste management that foster environmentally sound recycling and conservation of resources, but at the same time provide adequate protection of human health and the environment. This chapter outlines the regulations governing recycling of hazardous...

Hazardous Waste Recycling

The hazardous waste identification process (as discussed in Chapter 1) describes how to determine whether a material is a solid and hazardous waste. How a material is regulated under RCRA (i.e., whether or not it is a solid and potentially a hazardous waste) when it is recycled depends on what type of material it is and what type of recycling is occurring. If the recycled material is not a solid waste, then it is not a hazardous waste and is not subject to RCRA Subtitle C requirements. However, if the material qualifies as a solid and hazardous waste, it is subject to RCRA Subtitle C jurisdiction. Many hazardous wastes can be recycled safely and effectively. To address the goal of encouraging recycling while protecting human health and the environment, U.S. EPA has tried to tailor the level of regulation to reflect the actual hazard of the recycling activity. In this approach to regulation, recycling standards range from full regulation to specialized standards to exemptions from...

No Profit from Recycling

Analyses typically show that recycling does not pay from a private economic point of view. Bjorn Lomborg, a Danish author, academic, and environmental writer. A few critics also challenge the idea that recycling is beneficial to the environment. Professor Daniel Benjamin, for example, claims that recycling itself is a manufacturing process that uses trucks and facilities and that produces greenhouse gases and other pollution just like other industries. He argues Curbside recycling . . . uses huge amounts of capital and labor per pound of material recycled. . . . The bulk of all curbside recycling programs simply waste resources.22 And according to Benjamin's view, modern municipal landfills are a safe alternative to recycling. He notes that the EPA has concluded that landfills constructed according to agency regulations can be expected to cause a total of THE RECYCLING SOLUTION 39 only 5.7 cancer-related deaths over the next 300 years.23 It is the improper or illegal dumping of...

The Future for Recycling

Many supporters, however, think that recycling will continue to expand, just as it has over recent decades. They believe the United States clearly has not reached its recycling limit when 70 percent of our trash is still discarded. As the NRDC says, Since Japan, Germany, France, Sweden, Switzerland, the Netherlands, and Italy all recycle higher percentages of their wastes than does the United States, it is clear we could be doing better.26 To boost recycling rates, the NRDC believes it is critical to improve the management of our electronic waste such as old computers, cell phones, and TVs the fastest-growing element of the waste stream. In addition, environmentalists propose banning the use of plastic shopping bags, which now are either dumped into landfills by the billions or littered as plastic pollution in cities,

The Hazards And Safety Aspects Of Recycling Lithium Batteries

In the case of the primary lithium systems, the hazards for the most part involve the safe processing and management of the elemental lithium and associated hydrogen gas. Eliminating the random very violent reactions is paramount when considering the safe processing of the batteries for recycling. Once lithium and hydrogen are controlled, the components within the battery can be exposed, separated, neutralized, reprocessed, and Recycling lithium rechargeable battery systems does not involve elemental lithium under normal conditions. It is the authors belief that a fully charged large nickel metal-hydride battery has the potential to be much more reactive than a comparably sized lithium secondary. The metal-hydride battery worst-case hazards include the possibility of very high hydrogen concentrations within the battery case. In certain situations this could result in a violent hydrogen reaction (this violent reaction, by the way, would not be considered deflagration but instead is an...

Existing Methods For Ev Battery Recycling

As part of a broad assessment of the general recyclability of automotive batteries done in the mid-1990s, a report on recycling technology was prepared for the California Environmental Protection Agency Air Resources Board 16 . Ten different EV battery technologies were ranked based on their performance and recyclability. The battery chemistries that were included in this study are presented in Table 3. Because the recycling capacity available for some of these batteries was minimal in 1995 and the market for some of the materials that would be recovered was also too small and unstable to support the recycling effort alone, a mandatory deposit of 100 to 150 per battery was suggested. This figure was believed to be large enough to ensure return of the batteries to central collection sites, but not so large as to trigger theft or a battery black market. Table 3. Battery Chemistries Included in Recycling Technology Assessment Table 3. Battery Chemistries Included in Recycling Technology...

Longer term perspectives mineral sequestration and CO2 recycling

Carbon dioxide recycling includes all possible uses in industrial or biological processes. Unfortunately the quantities of CO2 which can be recycled in that way are limited. Currently, the main application in the chemical industry is the production of urea, which requires around 80 million tons of CO2 per year 92 . A significant outlet is provided by the agro-food industry which, in Europe, consumes around 2.7 million tons of CO2. A CO2 rich atmosphere is used for accelerating the growth of plants cultivated in greenhouses. This outlet is also limited, but it is possible to widen the applications of the biomass produced in a CO2 enriched atmosphere by investigating new applications in the agro-food, chemical and energy industries.

NiMH Batteries Recycling Scheme

Figure 10 Schematic Presentation of a Ni-MH Battery Recycling INMETCO is primarly a stainless steel recycler. They process about 50,000 tons of materials containing iron, nickel, and chromium per year, and return an Fe-Ni-Cr alloy back to the stainless steel industry for production of new alloys. As part of their recycling operation INMETCO has accepted both NiCd and NiFe batteries as well as EAF dust, electroplating sludges, and process wastes, all of which may contain some cadmium. The cadmium, and the other low melting elements, lead and zinc, are fumed off either during a rotary hearth furnace treatment or electric arc furnace melting operation. The zinc, lead and cadmium dust which is fumed off during these two operations is collected as a filter cake from a wet scrubber or as a bag-house dust. This Zn-Pb-Cd product is subsequently sent to Horsehead Resources Development Corporation where it is separated into zinc, lead, and cadmium and returned to the marketplace. INMETCO is...

The Recycling Content Symbol

Zinc Recycle Symbol

The internationally recognized U.S. symbol for recycling three arrows traveling in a triangle was developed in the 1970s. During this period, many Americans were becoming concerned about the environment, and a producer of paper products the Container Corporation of America decided to publicize the fact that its products were manufactured using content that was recycled or recyclable. As part of this promotion, the company sponsored a nationwide art contest for a design that would signify recycling. The winner of the contest and an award of a 2,500 tuition scholarship was a twenty-three-year-old student from the University of Southern California at Los Angeles, Gary Dean Anderson. Anderson's design was influenced by the M bius strip a geometric shape that forms a continuous loop having only one side and one edge. Over the years, several variations of Anderson's design have been developed, and today the most common version is the one used by the U.S. plastics industry to surround the...

Optimized Recycling Processes For Advanced Batteries Nickel Metal Hydride NiMH

Operating revenue that could be generated from chemical separation or physical chemical separation processes for recycling Ni MH batteries was compared to a pyrometallurgical process in a report prepared for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), a DOE facility located in Golden, Colorado 34 , The pyrometallurgical process has similarities to the process operated by INMETCO. Revenues (or costs) were estimated for both AB2 and AB5 hydride alloy battery designs. Other general assumptions in the cost calculations were that the plant was sited in California and was processing 30,000 metric tons of EV batteries annually. The chemical process is based on an acid leach of the battery materials, followed by In the most favorable case (physical separation chemical process), the revenue from the recovered products obtained by the recycling process was predicted to be between 16.70 kWh of batteries processed for the AB5 alloy and 18.50 kWh for the AB2 alloy. This is largely because of...

Water Recycling In Other Parts Of The World

Reverse Recycling

Water recycling is an obvious choice in water-stressed regions where it is the only option to grow or even to survive. Many of these regions can be often found in less developed regions in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Kalahari Desert is also dry. Windhoek is located in between these deserts, too far away from the rivers in north and south (750 and 900 km, respectively). It has ca. 250 000 inhabitants and relied originally on groundwater. When the city grew, other sources had to be found by constructing dams catching water from ephemeral rivers. The Avis Dam was constructed in 1933 (2.4 Mm3), the Goreangab Dam in 1958 (3.6 Mm3). Potable water was produced in a conventional treatment plant. From 1969 on, the effluent from the Gammams Wastewater Treatment Plant was also treated in this plant. This was the start of the first, and to date still the only water recycling plant for direct potable reuse 23 . The initial capacity was 4300 m3 day after a number of upgrades this became 7500...

Recycling Not a Universal Good

Recycling is a manufacturing process, and therefore it too has an environmental impact. . . . Recycling changes the nature of pollution, sometimes increasing it and sometimes decreasing it. Daniel K. Benjamin, economics professor and former adviser to President Ronald Reagan. Daniel K. Benjamin, Eight Great Myths of Recycling, Property and Environment Research Center, September 2003, p. 17. www.perc.org pdfrps28.pdf. Moreover, those plastics that are recycled are often made into products that cannot themselves be recycled, so recycling of plastics really only delays the time when the material ends up in a landfill. Recycled PET and HDPE plastics, for example, are typically used to make items that generally cannot be recycled at the end of their product life. As reporter Emily Gurnon explains All in all, plastic recycling appears to fall far short of its promise. Even if recycled under the best of conditions, a plastic bottle or margarine tub will probably have only one additional...

General Recycling Issues And Drivers Economics and Planning

Economics is an important consideration when designing a recycling process. Some generic constraints that determine whether recycling is economically viable have been discussed 5 , These include the ability of the market to absorb the large quantity of recycled material that could result in the long term assuming that it is not recycled directly into new batteries. Market size is likely to differ for each of the specific materials that can be recovered. Price collapse or possibly an inability to sell the reclaimed products at all could be the result if a limited market is flooded with recycled material. A fundamental precept of chemical process economics (the Exclusion Principle) states that high-priced materials tend to have limited markets, while high volume materials have low unit prices 10 . It is therefore unrealistic to expect to enter a large size market for a particular commodity and command a high unit price. Another general expectation is that the establishment of a new,...

Precipitation recycling

The amount of precipitation falling over a region can be divided into (1) precipitation associated with water vapor transported into the region (advected precipitation) (2) precipitation associated with water that evaporates from the surface of the region and falls within the same region (locally derived precipitation). The precipitation recycling ratio is defined as Pl P, where Pl is the precipitation of local origin and P is the total precipitation. The recycling ratio can be thought of as providing a sense of the importance of land-surface processes on the hydrologic budget. The topic has a long history, starting with Mikhail Budyko and associates in the Soviet Union in the 1950s. More recent studies include Brubaker et al. (1993), Eltahir and Bras (1996) and Trenberth (1998). Estimates of the recycling ratio are contingent on the size of the region considered. The ratio is smaller for areas of limited extent and increases for larger regions (Brubaker et al., 1993). Obviously, all...

Switzerland Organization For Portable Battery Recycling

Led by the OECD member states, legislation has been put in place mandating the collection and recycling of cadmium, lead and mercury batteries. Industry organizations have been established for the purpose of educating the consumer and developing collection recycling programs. We may mention the Portable Rechargeable Battery Association (PRBA) and the Rechargeable Battery Recycling Corporation (RBRC) in the U.S.A., and the European Portable Battery Association (EPBA) and CollectNiCad in Europe. As a consequence of these laws and programs, increasing quantities of spent batteries are being collected and recycled. Recycling batteries with their varied chemistries is a difficult task. The success of the industry in meeting this challenge has been important to the advancement of this effort. We wish to express our deep gratitude to the contributors of the various chapters of this book and to the organizations and companies that have provided us general information and encouragement. Many...

The Birth of Modern Recycling Programs

Garbage Barge Mobro 4000

Even though recycling was commonly practiced by all households during pre-industrial ages, large-scale recycling programs did not arise until the twentieth century. The first organized programs were created in the 1930s and 1940s, when a worldwide depression limited people's ability to purchase new goods and the outbreak of World War II dramatically increased demands for certain materials. Throughout the war, goods such as nylon, rubber, and various metals were recycled and reused to produce weapons and other materials needed to support the war effort. After the war ended in 1945, however, the United States and other countries experienced a postwar economic boom that produced many new products and caused recycling to fade into oblivion for several decades. It was not until the environmental movement of the 1960s and 1970s that recycling once again emerged as a popular idea. This movement began in 1962 with the publication of Rachel Carson's book Silent Spring, detailing the toxic...

The Global Water Recycling Situation

Water Recycling in the USA 45 5. Water Recycling in Asia 52 6. Water Recycling in Europe 54 7. Water Recycling in Australia 56 8. Water Recycling in other Parts of the World 58 The awareness that water recycling is the only possible answer to the world's growing water needs is ever increasing. Governments are developing policies of incentives and or permits to stimulate water recycling in an industrial context. Possible tools that can be deployed are increasing taxes on wastewater discharge, requiring the development of wastewater treatment techniques that result in enhanced removal of a wide range of contaminants, and linking permits to progressive use of alternative water sources. The industry itself is working actively on water reuse projects, mainly for economic reasons, but also from the perspective of environmental responsibility. The benefits of water reuse for the industry include 1 a supplemental and reliable water source to augment or replace...

Lithium Battery Recycling Technologies

In the recent past most lithium batteries were either put into a landfill or incinerated. Many of the larger lithium primary systems had no known method of disposal, much less recycling. The older large primary lithium batteries were, many times, so reactive that open detonation was used as an effective disposal method. The recycling technologies are only now being fully developed. The marketability of the components and the labor dollars invested to process the batteries are the driving considerations. Many research oriented agencies have proposed recycling methodologies which consider the battery chemicals as simply chemicals. Usually the battery characteristics are either overlooked completely or given inadequate planning. The neutralization of chemicals is the primary focus and either economics or safety is limited (at best). For these reasons many lithium battery recycling operations have started but most could not sustain either economic or physical losses. Some of the secondary...

Water Recycling In Australia

It could be assumed that due to successful examples, the idea of water recycling would be picked up easily in other regions with similar water supply problems, in the Middle East, Asia, northern Africa, the southwest USA, and Australia. However, public perception is still problematic, impeding new initiatives. This was proved again in 2006 in Toowoomba, Queensland, Australia, where a poll to mix treated wastewater with raw surface water for drinking water production had a negative outcome. Nevertheless, other examples of water recycling can be found throughout Australia, and the debate on water recycling is probably nowhere as intense as in Australia. Recent droughts played a role in the awareness that water sources are limited 20 . A good overview of water recycling projects in the Australian context is given by Radcliffe 12 . Figure 5 Process scheme for water recycling in Rouse Hill, New South Wales, Australia. Figure 5 Process scheme for water recycling in Rouse Hill, New South...

Environmental Concerns Of Recycling Lithium Batteries

Lithium batteries are no exception. Even when discharged, the batteries contain some form of lithium, organic solvents, and other chemicals most of which are toxic. When not fully discharged, the batteries have the potential to start fires. Aside from the known environmental concerns of today, it is not unlikely that in the future new environmental requirements or concerns may evolve from the disposal of batteries. In one eastern block country there is a huge problem with lead acid batteries contaminating ground water. One middle eastern country had a landfill fire that burned out of control for many days due to lithium batteries. In North America several lithium-recycling facilities have been shut down for environmental reasons. The only sure solution is appropriate recycling. Prior to the processing of any lithium battery for recycling, the battery's material safety data sheet should be reviewed, and, if necessary, a complete analysis should be...

Spent Portable Nickel Cadmium Batteries Quantities processed for recycling in 2000

The originality of SCRELEC's program is to integrate all actors of the recycling operations and to drive the system economically in all the steps. 2. the development of national collection and recycling associations in countries without collection organization in 2000, Figure 28. The Collection and Recycling Scheme Under the Control of SCRELEC Schematic Presentation of Operations, Logistics and Financials Aspects Figure 28. The Collection and Recycling Scheme Under the Control of SCRELEC Schematic Presentation of Operations, Logistics and Financials Aspects

The Limits of Recycling

Despite the benefits of recycling programs and their growing popularity, however, recycling has not solved the garbage problem. It is undisputed, for example, that recycling has not reduced the total amount of municipal wastes being generated by Americans. As conservationist Helen Spiegelman acknowledges, Even after the enormous exertions of America's cities and towns to recycle bottles, cans, newspapers and other consumer products, seventy percent of the products we buy are still going to landfills and incinerators.18 And recycling has no effect on how products are produced or packaged by manufacturers. As journalist and filmmaker Heather Rogers explains Recycling treats wastes only after they've already been made. It does nothing to stem rubbish production in the first place. Recycling has contributed to a scaling back in the demands of the public and environmentalists by convincing us that it will remedy the situation. What gets left out of the discussion are more radical calls for...

The Growth of Recycling

Due to Americans' growing acceptance of recycling, over the last several decades the amount of waste recycled has increased each year in the United States. One by one, cities and municipalities have voluntarily implemented convenient curbside recycling programs, and laws have required the use of recycled content in certain manufacturing processes. One of the first curbside collection programs was established in 1973 in California. It collected mostly newspapers and other kinds of paper, but as the size of the waste stream grew and the costs of landfilling increased, other states and localities gradually adopted similar programs, and many expanded the types of recyclables these programs collected. Today recycling is ubiquitous across the United States. According to an article written by garbage experts Heather Rogers and Christian Parenti in 2002, More Americans recycle than vote.13 The latest EPA statistics (2005) show the A child's toy and plastic packaging are recycled at the San...

Recycling Prospects For Future Advanced Battery Systems Sodium Sulfur NaS

Much of the effort to develop the Na S battery was aimed at its use in electric vehicles. Current applications of this advanced battery system are now mainly in the stationary battery area, but feasibility studies were done on the recycling of this system before the EV development efforts were suspended. Sodium sulfur batteries contain reactive and corrosive materials, but not toxic ones. By treatment of the battery waste, the reactivity problems can be removed. The major difficulty in recycling this chemistry is that most of the constituents have low value or are difficult to recover in a form that could be used in a high-value application (e.g., the beta alumina electrolyte). A patented proposed recycling scheme has been evaluated on a pilot scale and found to be acceptable from a cost and technical standpoint 37 . This process replaced incineration, which was used earlier in the development program, but judged too expensive for large numbers of batteries. In the recycling process,...

Recycling Alternatives

Some recycling alternatives use whole tires, thus requiring no extensive processing other alternatives require that tires be split or punched to make products and still other alternatives involve tires that are finely ground enabling the manufacture of crumb rubber products. Some applications for each alternative are listed below All of the tire recycling alternatives listed above are being used to varying degrees. However, the total usage of tires for recycling currently is estimated to be less than 7 of the annual generation. The markets for most of the products may be increased, but, even if increased to their fullest potential, appear to be small compared to the number of tires generated each year. Ground rubber applications hold the greatest promise. The tire recycling alternative with the greatest potential to significantly reduce the scrap tire problem of the United States is in asphalt highway construction.

Recycling a Great Solution

Recycling saves energy, preserves natural resources, reduces greenhouse-gas emissions, and keeps toxins from leaking out of landfills. Marc Gunther, a writer and speaker on business and the environment. In 2007, for example, the EPA reported that the nation recycled and composted 85 million tons (77 million metric tons), or 33.4 percent of all municipal solid wastes a vast increase from 1960, when only 6.4 percent was recycled. And this rise in recycling has occurred despite the fact that the total amount of waste has increased, from 3.7 to 4.6 pounds (1.7 to 2.1 kg) per person per day between 1960 and 2007. In fact, as the NRDC notes, The amount of material we recycle today . . . equals the total quantity of garbage the United States produced in 1960.14 Recycling success stories in 2007 included the recycling of 54 percent of paper and paperboard wastes and 64 percent of yard trimmings. And about 35 percent of metals such as aluminum, steel, and mixed metals were recycled an effort...

Physiology and Biochemistry of Nitrogen Recycling in Rice Plants

Under sufficient light conditions, the assimilation of inorganic nitrogen and efficient recycling of the assimilates within plants are the most important processes for determining the productivity and quality of many crops. The major source of nitrogen for developing leaves and spikelets in rice plants is the nitrogen remobilized, via the phloem, from older, senescing organs.1 In particular, senescing leaf blades are the major source of nitrogen and they contribute about half of the nitrogen in the developing spikelets (Fig. 17.1). This intricate process of nitrogen recycling, from the senescing organs to the developing organs, is very important in determining the productivity and the quality of rice plants. Nitrogen recycling consists of at least the following four major steps

Recycling

In 1985, a survey conducted by the National Paint & Coatings Association's Manufacturing Management Committee showed that over 82 of the respondents recycled all of their solvent waste either on-site or off-site. With current costs of disposal, onsite distillation of solvent can be economically justified for as little as eight gallons of solvent waste generated per day. Of all the solvent that is recycled, 75 percent is recovered with the remaining portion disposed of as sludge. Many facilities are also investigating the use of sludge dryers to further reduce the amount of waste generated. According to one sludge dryer manufacturer, the dried sludge material can be used as pigment material. For facilities that produce caustic-based sludge, some have been able to reformulate their cleaning sludge into a marketable product. Other useful methods for recycling materials include

Recycling Benefits

The government and various environmental organizations regularly tout the many benefits of recycling. First and foremost, recycling reduces the amount of wastes that must be placed into landfills or incinerated. According to some experts, this saves money compared to the costs of other methods of trash disposal. As the National Recycling Coalition states, Well-run recycling programs cost less to operate than waste collection, landfilling, and incineration.16 Recycling advocates also argue that recycling programs create American jobs not only jobs collecting recyclables, but also jobs in the industries that purchase and process the recycled materials and manufacture them into new products. The most important benefits of recycling, however, relate to the environment and human health. Environmentalists say that by diverting materials from the waste stream going into landfills or to incinerators, recycling reduces air, ground, and water pollution that otherwise could result from these...

Recycling energy

Recycling waste energy can take two approaches. In the first case, power plants are sited at an industrial facility that produces a stream of waste energy, such as gas that is normally flared, hot exhaust or high-pressure gas or steam that must be decompressed back to atmospheric pressure. These plants, known in the literature as 'bottoming cycle cogeneration plants', convert the waste energy streams into electricity. The resulting electricity is typically sold back to the industrial host for use on site, thus avoiding the need for transmission and distribution wires and avoiding the losses associated with transmitting the same power over great distances. In the second case, explained in more detail below, power plants burn fuel to generate electricity and then recycle the inevitable waste heat to replace the supply of thermal energy from a separate boiler. These local power plant facilities convert 33-45 per cent of the fuel's potential energy to electricity, just like their larger...

InProcess Recycling

Solvents used to cleanse the excess from the product. The industry disposes of these wastes either by recycling them into productive reuse or by discharging them as wastes into the air, water, or land. Costly treatment is often required to reduce the toxicity and pollutants in the waste discharge before final disposal. These liquid, solid, or gaseous wastes at each stage of the production process are the source of pollution problems. Onsite recycling of process waste back into the production process will often allow manufacturers to reduce pollution and save costs for less waste treatment and disposal. For example, solvents are being recycled in many industrial processes. The current goal of solvent recycling is to recover and refine its purity similar to virgin solvent for reuse in the same process, or of sufficient purity to be used in another process application. Recycling activities may be performed either onsite or offsite. Onsite recycling activities include (a) direct use or...

Introduction And Background

Pollution prevention practices have become part of the U.S. National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program, working in conjunction with best management practices (BMPs) to reduce potential pollutant releases. Pollution prevention methods have been shown to reduce costs as well as pollution risks through source reduction and recycling reuse techniques.5 4. Water conservation reuse recycle. In this, the aim is to achieve optimum efficiency in relation to water use, looking at the possible elimination of use, the regulation of use to only specific requirements, sequential use, or reuse and in-process recycling.

Biomass and soil carbon inventories

Most forests hold between 100 and 500tCha-1 in the form of biomass or soil organic carbon. The division between these pools varies with latitude. For example, in a typical boreal black spruce forest, 3901C ha-1 are stored in the soil, but only 60t C ha-1 in biomass Malhi et al. (1999) . In contrast, in a central Amazonian tropical forest, 240tCha-1 are stored in biomass, and 200tCha-1 in biomass. The primary reason for this difference is the effect of temperature on plant and soil metabolic activity At high latitudes low temperatures restrict the decomposition of soil organic matter, allowing for the build-up of soil carbon but also restricting the recycling and availability of nutrients that are necessary for new growth. At tropical temperatures the soil organic matter is broken down ten times faster, allowing for more rapid biomass growth but resulting in a smaller soil carbon pool Malhi et al. (1999) .

Rethinking Society Dependence

Carbon sequestration Diversification Disease control Employment Food security Higher biodiversity Higher relative plant density Less soil erosion Mitigate climate change Nutrient recycling Pest control Water quality Diversification Food security Recycling farm wastes Alternative fertilisation Food security Increases plant growth Increases soil N Less, no mineral fertilisers Local fertiliser Mitigate climate change Nutrient recycling Nutrient recycling

Figure 6 Schematic of anaerobic baffled reactor followed by thin film sulfide oxidizing reactor

With biological sulfide oxidation was carried out and evaluated. The schematic view of the combined treatment system is given in Fig. 6. The wastewater used in the study contained isopropyl acetate, sulfate, and cellular product. The COD and sulfate concentration of the wastewater were 40,000 mg L and 5000 mg L, respectively. Treatment of the wastewater using an anaerobic baffled reactor alone was found effective at 10 dilution but at higher concentration, sulfide inhibition reduced the efficiency of both COD conversion and sulfate conversion. To reduce sulfide inhibition, the treated effluent was subjected to a thin film sulfide oxidizing reactor to facilitate biological oxidation of sulfide into elemental sulfur. The study indicated that at an influent concentration of 40 and HRT of 1 day, COD removal efficiencies greater than 50 can be achieved. The conversion of influent sulfate was greater than 95 with effluent sulfide concentration less than 20 mg L 60 . Coupled anaerobic...

American Electric Power

IGCC technology is proven to work well with high-British thermal unit (Btu) coals such as the bituminous Appalachian coals readily available in AEP's eastern area. With this technology, AEP has concentrated research on developing technologies for carbon capture and storage. AEP became a founding member of the Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX), the first voluntary GHG credit trading system in the United States, and committed itself to reducing GHG emissions below baseline emission levels. The total cumulative CO2 equivalent reduction requirement to meet the CCX commitment is approximately 46 million metric tons by 2010. AEP also committed to the recycling of its coal combustion products through the Coal Combustion Products Partnership in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Coal ash of the highest quality is dispensed to customers as products and unsuitable ash is identified and diverted for disposal. Examples of the utilization of coal ash include the construction...

Other Solar System planets and satellites

A major question about Titan is why it has an atmosphere left at all . Given the low gravity, the N2 atmosphere would be expected to escape fairly quickly (we'll have a look at the relevant physics in Chapter 8). Moreover, the chemical reactions in the atmosphere should gradually convert all the methane into a tarry sludge sequestered at the surface. In some way or another, the atmosphere of Titan must be dynamically maintained by recycling of chemicals deposted on the surface, and by outgassing of N2 (probably in the form of ammonia) and CH4 from the interior. Precisely how this happens is one of the Big Questions of Titan.

Cleaner Production

All of the rinsing systems have been modified so that some of the circulating (overflow) rinses have been changed to static rinses. A similar system has been installed for nickel and cyanide. The final rinse tank in each rinsing sequence has been equipped with ion exchange columns, which permit water recycling and raw materials recovery.

Equilibration of the terrestrial water nitrogen and carbon cycles

ABSTRACT Recent advances in biologically based ecosystem models of the coupled terrestrial, hydrological, carbon, and nutrient cycles have provided new perspectives on the terrestrial biosphere's behavior globally, over a range of time scales. We used the terrestrial ecosystem model Century to examine relationships between carbon, nitrogen, and water dynamics. The model, run to a quasi-steady-state, shows strong correlations between carbon, water, and nitrogen fluxes that lead to equilibration of water energy and nitrogen limitation of net primary productivity. This occurs because as the water flux increases, the potentials for carbon uptake (photosynthesis), and inputs and losses of nitrogen, all increase. As the flux of carbon increases, the amount of nitrogen that can be captured into organic matter and then recycled also increases. Because most plant-available nitrogen is derived from internal recycling, this latter process is critical to sustaining high productivity in...

Introduction consumer interests as a key driver to improve waste management in food processing

In the past, most of the waste of the food processing industry has been used as landfill, or has been fed to farm animals. Recent changes in the legislative framework, which have been enacted as a response to various food safety incidences such as the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis, have forced the food industry to reconsider recycling practices. However, at the present time, increasing attention is being paid to the concept of sustainability. As a consequence, this issue is becoming increasingly important to the food industry and other food producers. In addition, In considering the issue of food-waste recycling as an integral part of the food chain, some key questions regarding consumer attitudes to resultant novel products need to be asked. These include, for example, questions about our understanding of how the public conceptualises sustainability, and whether this differs from expert views regarding sustainable food production practices. It is also important to...

Risk management and transparency

It should also be remembered that food choice is as much a cultural, social and emotional process as it is a rational choice, and the purchase of products perceived as recycled waste may be problematic in terms of perceived quality reduction. Consumers also demand the enforcement of effective traceability systems and, as a consequence, are likely to demand the introduction of utilitarian labelling strategies focusing on both sustainabil-ity and food production. Consumer perceptions that food-waste recycling is occurring in a non-transparent manner may compromise acceptability of the resultant products, particularly in the food sector. Potentially negative emotional responses regarding the consumption of food waste may also be problematic. Finally, consumers are not homogeneous with respect to their attitudes, perceptions, and food choices, and what is acceptable or desirable to some consumers may be viewed negatively by others. It is important, therefore, to ensure that consumers are...

Implications for food processors

What consumers understand by sustainability, and how this might be introduced into product design. Consumers must not be regarded as passive recipients in the process of the introduction of new food products, but should be taken into partnerships as the potential sources of inspiration regarding new innovations. Several studies have demonstrated that there is a positive effect associated with consumer involvement in product development. This explains why producers of innovative food products who work closely with consumers have a larger innovation success rate (e.g. Von Hippel, 1976, 1988, 2001 Lundvall, 1988, 1992 Coombs et al, 2001 Hoogma and Schot, 2001). Adopting such a strategy may overcome consumer negativity linked to the application of food technologies to food production. Such consumer negativity may be problematic in the context of food-waste recycling, particularly if the resulting novel products are destined for human or animal consumption. Depending on its research agenda...

Spent Caustics Treatment

At least four companies process spent caustics to market the phenolics and the sodium hyposulfite. However, the market is limited and most of the spent caustics are very dilute, so the cost of shipping the water makes this operation uneconomic. Concentration can be increased by recycling spent caustics at the treater or recycling the spent caustics found in the water bottoms of intermediate product tanks 39 .

Stratosphere Troposphere Exchange

Although the stratospheric NO,, source seems small compared to boundary layer NO,, sources, it is comparable in magnitude to other free tropospheric sources such as emissions from subsonic aircraft. Unlike subsonic aircraft emissions and lightning, which predominantly release NO directly into the free troposphere, input of NO,, from the middle stratosphere should primarily consist of HN03 with only a small, approximately 25 or less (i.e., 0.25TgN yr), contribution from NO, (Russell et al., 1988 Notholt et al., 1995). However, because removal of NO in the upper troposphere is extremely inefficient compared to that in the lower atmosphere, the NO,, from the stratosphere may have a long enough lifetime to impact the distribution of NO, through recycling reactions, thereby influencing ozone production in the free troposphere.

Good housekeeping recommendations for specific industries to reduce waste

This waste includes raw products, sauces, grease, spices, additives, oils, drippings, off-spec product, spoiled materials, and damaged finished products. Waste can be decreased by appropriately storing raw vegetables in reusable containers to prevent dehydration and spoilage, and recycling used grease, cooking oil, and meat fat. Prepared food waste can be reused or recycled by donating unspoiled perishable or non-perishable foods, processing it into animal feed, composting it, or rendering it. The principal steps in processing livestock include (1) rendering and bleeding (2) scalding and or skin removal (3) internal organ evisceration (4) washing, chilling, and cooling (5) packaging and (6) clean-up (US-AEP 1997). Waste includes carcasses, hides, hoofs, heads, feathers, manure, offal, viscera, bones, fat and meat trimmings, blood and other fluids, and off-spec animals and meat. There are several options for reducing this waste. Install strainers along evisceration lines to keep...

Early Biological Wastewater Treatment Processes

Experiments in ways to increase the specific wastewater load (in m3 (ha day)-1) compared with that of irrigation fields resulted in the development of intermittent soil filtration. The following operational conditions had to be met for the first sites (a) the groundwater level must be low enough, (b) the percolating water must be collected in lateral ditches for recycling and (c) the application of wastewater must be intermittent, so that water levels in the ground recede and allow the simultaneous flow of air downwards to provide oxygen for bacterial growth, respiration and degradation of organics. Although this biological process was not completely understood, it was tested with increasing success.

Solute enhancement in the proglacial zone

Ferences between subglacial and proglacial environments are that the surface of the proglacial zone freezes, thaws and dries on an annual basis, and that it is a deposition site for snow and rain. Further, there may be ingress of atmospheric gases through the dry surface sediment. These processes perturb the composition of groundwaters within the proglacial zone, for example, there is concentration and recycling of salts via evapoconcentration and freeze concentration and oxic and anoxic conditions may prevail in groundwaters under different conditions of saturation.

A word about methodology

(C N) increases with increasing CO2 (e.g Bazzaz, 1996 Drake et al., 1997). This change in C N ratio may be accompanied by concomitant increases in carbohydrate, lignin, and or cellulose content (Bazzaz, 1996). Consequently, there are a number of anticipated changes that include changed decomposition rates, with reductions in nitrogen recycling (but see Billings et al., 2003), as well as potential changes in leaf-freezing resistance (e.g. Obrist et al., 2001).

Table 8 Hazardous Wastes of Metal Finishing Industry [119

Used solvents can be recycled onsite. If it proves feasible, onsite recycling reduces the amount of waste to be disposed of or hauled, lowers liability and possibly unit cost, enables closer control of reclaimed solvent purity, and reduces paperwork. However, disadvantages include a high capital cost, the requirement for trained personnel, the imposition of liabilities through occupational health, spills, and other risks. In some cases, the operation may result in low efficiencies and even loss of solvent. Gravity separation and filtration using reusable filters such as metal mesh or filter bags are used before distillation. The distillation or fractionation process is the main method for solvent recycling. Solids and high boiling point (> 200 C) liquids remain as residues. In same cases, distilled solvent may be further dried using a molecular sieve, ion exchange, or a

Pollution Prevention Approach

USEPA defines pollution prevention as any practice that reduces the amount of any hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant entering the waste stream or otherwise released to the environment prior to recycling, treatment, or disposal, and reduces the hazards to public health and the environment. The application of pollution prevention is based on source control. Source control generally is a process of minimizing the pollution onsite recycling and recovery offsite recycling and recovery. Waste stream segregation covers several different applications. The first is the segregation of domestic wastewaters and nonprocess (dilute waste streams) wastewaters originating from noncontact cooling, boilers, water conditioning, and so on, from process wastewaters. Segregation of regulated process waste streams can be fulfilled by making these separations however, more than one regulated process wastewaters may exist in large and complex plants. The second application is the separation of...

Other Process Configurations

For clarity above, we have considered the main thermochemical routes and simplest cases to evaluate and illustrate the key issues in high-yield liquid fuel production. Design and cost numbers were developed for only one set of conditions to facilitate comparisons among processes (comparative economics). These numbers do not represent business-case economics. There are many other process configurations that could be considered using different biomass types, different coals, and different gasification technologies with a large number of engineering design and operational variants. Generally, the conclusions drawn from the above numbers would not change, although the exact numbers would depend on the details of each situation. However, a different process configuration that alters the perspective on the overall picture involves passing the synthesis gas once through the synthesis reactor (OT) and not recycling the unconverted synthesis gas back to the reactor to maximize liquid...

Photographic Industry

The photographic industry generates approximately 18,431 Mg yr of wastewaters. High concentrations of silver are used in making films, whereas cadmium and chromium are found in bleaches and developer solutions. The film-developing process involves a series of baths that include the developer, the bleach, the fixing agent, and the stabilizer. The fixing agent bath contains the greatest concentration of silver. Recently, silver prices have increased and silver recovery has become widely applied. Recycling of baths 1s the most coraaon recovery method however, other methods such as metallic replacement, chemical precipitation, electroplating, and ion exchange are also being used for metal recovery. Electrolytic plating can recover 99 percent pure silver from a bath. An emerging technology for silver recovery is electrodialysis. Some facilities, such as hospitals, medical laboratories, schools, and government agencies, still use off-site recovery facilities.

Industry Size and Geographic Distribution

The U.S. is the world's largest recycler of lead scrap and is able to meet about 72 of its total refined lead production needs from scrap recycling. The secondary lead industry consists of 16 companies that operate 23 battery breakers-smelters with capacities of between 10,000 and 120,000 t yr five smaller operations with capacities between 6000 and 10,000 t yr and 15 smaller plants that produce mainly specialty alloys for solders, brass and bronze ingots, and miscellaneous uses.

Recommended Resources For The Reader

Equipment manufacturers and engineering companies. The book is written as a training guide. It explains how to monitor and maintain RO systems. This knowledge is critical for the daily evaluation of RO system performance. The book goes on to cover various aspects of membrane cleaning and sanitization. It also discusses most of the common RO system problems that should be investigated when troubleshooting an RO concern. These topics make the book an excellent tool for technicians who maintain RO systems. Some of the more common and some of the more interesting applications of reverse osmosis are discussed in detail. These include two-pass RO for high-purity water production, pharmaceutical water treatment, seawater desalinization, application of RO for juice concentration, plating metal recycling, the treatment of secondary sewage effluent, and the final filtration of deionized (DI) water. For anyone who works with industrial RO systems, the book will provide practical insights into...

Gas Movement In Sediments Mechanisms And Models 31 Driving forces for flow

The concentration of methane in pore waters generally increases with depth in the sediment due to a combination of in situ and deep thermogenic sources, methane recycling at the base of the hydrate zone and the thermodynamic equilibrium in the two phase region (Fig. 4). Free methane is strongly buoyant even beneath 3-4 km of water its density is only 200-300 kg rrf3 compared with 1024 kg m3 for seawater. In most shallow gas systems these two factors contribute to a dominant flux of methane and associated gases towards the seabed. Water saturated with dissolved methane is also lighter than normal pore water (Park et al. 1990), and overpressure may exist at depth as a consequence of disequilibrium compaction or through the process of hydrocarbon generation itself (Hedberg 1974, Hunt 1997), so that additional mechanisms can drive methane-charged waters from depth.

Energy And Technology

A large variety of thermal, physical, chemical, and biological technologies are available to use wastes productively. The appropriate technology depends on the state of the waste (solid, liquid, or gas), the type of waste (organic or inorganic), and the end product (material or fuel). Organic wastes can be used economically as fuels or as raw materials that is, they can produce or conserve energy. Inorganic wastes can only be used as raw materials. In general, the thermal technologies produce either energy or gaseous or liquid fuels. The physical and chemical technologies produce raw materials for recycling, products, or solid fuels. The biochemical technologies produce gaseous or liquid fuels or chemicals.

Industrial Wastes

Plastics have an energy content of about 46 mJ kg (20,000 Btu lb). There are no consistent data on the energy savings from recycling plastics. Inorganic materials can only be used as raw materials for a process. The technology used and the energy conserved are dependent on both the type of material and its relative purity. For example, U.S. automobile aluminum is alloyed with strontium to make it ductile. Foreign car makers use antimony for the same purpose. When melted for reuse, the two alloying metals combine to cancel the desired ductile effects. A method to neutralize one is in development to protect this valuable scrap market. Although the energy savings from this particular scrap have not been traced, they can be assumed to approach the 10-MJ savings from recycling aluminum can stock.

Ultrafiltration and Nanofiltration

In a specific motion picture process in 1995, the nanofiltration technique was shown to be very efficient in eliminating most of the pollutants from washes, and may enable the recycling of up to 80 of wash water. It is especially efficient in silver recovery. However, among the practical concerns, which have not yet been established through long-term studies, is membrane life. The stability of membranes could have significant impact on the final cost of using nanofiltration in film processing. In addition, the possibility of reusing recovered concentrate as a replenisher as well as recycling permeate water would bring a faster return on investment than recycling water alone 82 .

Thou Shalt Consider the Life Cycle

There's a significant energy supply and a significant energy demand reduction opportunity available to the nation. Supply and demand are not opposites they are complements. Both must be pursued. Experience is proving that the use of waste as fuel and as a raw material are complementary. Introducing both into the solid waste management system improves each. Removing grass and other wet yard waste for composting and cans and bottles for recycling actually improves combustion. Where there are recycling and energy markets for paper and plastic, the recovery for both uses is enhanced. The construction of oversized energy plants seen in the late 1970s has not been repeated, and the conflict between energy and recycling does not exist.

Washwater Conservation

Perhaps the most commonly practiced methods of reducing water use involve ion exchange. A process such as the former PACEX water recycling system incorporated ionexchange technology together with filtration and bacterial control to remove contaminants 71 . In such a process, an anion-exchange resin removes silver thiosulfate complex from solution. An oxidizing agent subsequently oxidizes residual thiosulfate to sulfate and a biocide minimizes biological growth. A filter removes unwanted sediment. Depending on the process, reduction in washwater usage from 50-80 may be possible. This method not only conserves water and recovers silver but also provides energy savings by minimizing the quantity of fresh water that needs to be heated. Other manufacturers have announced similar water reclamation systems in the past. The photoprocessing laboratory has the responsibility of ensuring that any recycling device operates properly and is constantly monitored for chemical build-up, such that the...

Implications For Hydrate Habitat 41 Bottom Simulating Reflectors

The free gas at low saturations in the pore space will most likely be trapped as a mist of isolated bubbles, that will be buried with the sediment. Henry et al. (1999) suggest that a threshold saturation necessary for gas movment would typically be about 20 , which represents the percolation threshold for buoyant separate phase movement. This obviously impedes recycling of gas into the hydrate zone (Paull et al. 1994). Pecher et al. (1998) among others note that the free gas responsible for accentuating most geophysically mappable BSRs probably comes from melting of prexisting hydrate rather representing a trapped pool that is sourced from below. This inference is based on the finding that on the Central and South American margins BSRs are largely confined to geological units that are downwarping tectonically or subsiding due to continued sedimentation. Very importantly, in this scenario the amount of gas is tied to the amount of hydrate that has melted to source the gas (see Dickens...

Efficiency and environment

The whole environmental policy sphere is complex and replete with competing discourses, though in energy policy circles economic, physics and engineering discourses are so dominant that this complexity is poorly articulated and largely invisible to the general public. A simple illustration of this discursive complexity in wider society can be conducted with any group of people ask them what the word 'environment' means to them and answers will include images that evoke storylines concerning wild nature, clean air and water, recycling, park benches and litter collection, noisy neighbours, the Gaia hypothesis, sustainable development, corporate greed, the evils of industrialism, natural capital, quality of life and the list goes on. Dryzek (1997) brings some conceptual order to the different underlying environmental discourses that can be observed in modern society by distinguishing between reformist and radical environmental discourses, and within these, those that are prosaic and...

Sustainability of Energy Crop Cultivation in Central Europe

The assessment of the sustainability of the cultivation of energy crops includes the input and recycling of nutrients, the application of pesticides, the water-use efficiency, the consumption of fossil fuels and the balance of soil carbon. The aim is to recycle the nutrients, which is simple in the case of anaerobic digestion by applying the digestate to the field. If crops are combusted many of the minerals can be returned via the ash. In the case of liquid biofuels, exported nutrients are lost and have to be replaced. The application of pesticides, mainly herbicides, can often be reduced in comparison to food production, but the energy yield per hectare might be reduced if the share of weeds exceeds certain thresholds. Water use efficiency,

Other methods of obtaining extra nutrients

Sustained entirely from honeydew secretions of scale insects in the leaf domatia and by eating glands on the leaf surface. Therefore, any absorption of nutrients by the leaf domatia will very largely be recycling of material originating from the plant. Labelling experiments failed to demonstrate any uptake by stem domatia of Macaranga (Fiala et al. 1991). Tropical trees can also develop adventitious roots into debris-filled cavities within their own hollow trunks (Dickinson & Tanner 1978 de Foresta & Kahn 1984). Janzen (1976a) conjectured that being hollow might be an advantage to big, old trees if it allows some recycling of nutrients locked away in the heartwood and exploitation of waste products from roosting or nesting vertebrates.

Design and Construction

Most foundries have installed sand reclamation systems that screen the metal and debris out of the sand so that a good, clean product is available for reuse in a variety of applications and industries. This is a good start in the strategy of reusing foundry solid waste. Depending on the projected end-use, it may be important to segregate wastestreams at the foundry, as each stream can have different characteristics. Additionally, some waste materials, such as bulk spent sand, are typically unrecoverable during the shakeout and finishing processes. These sands may be contaminated with metal or very large chunks of burned cores (referred to as core butts) and will need to undergo some type of segregation, crushing, and screening before recycling. Some hard chunks may not even be crushable, and have to be landfilled.

Barriers To Solid Waste Reuse

Solid waste regulations are frequently cited as barriers for metal industrial byproduct recycling. Research indicates that most ferrous spent foundry sand meets nonhazardous standards under the Economical factors, such as disposal costs, the availability of conventional materials, and transportation costs, are critical considerations. As with any material, transportation costs are generally the highest cost factor in recycling solid waste. The most economically sustainable options for recycling foundry solid waste will generally match the volume and characteristics of the materials with nearby businesses and construction projects. Small foundries may not generate enough material on a weekly or monthly basis to satisfy the need for construction sands. In this case, it may be necessary to collect similar wastestreams from multiple sources or to partially substitute for conventional materials in order to meet volume requirements.

Fiberspecific Processes

The activities described in this section intend to minimize or avoid the release of chemicals into the stream wastewater by substitution, optimization, reuse, and recycling. Besides a lowering of the costs for following up general wastewater treatment, benefits due to minimization of chemical consumption are intended. As there are various specific problems arising from the particular treatment steps applied for different fibers, this

Desizing Pretreatment

Theoretically, polymer-containing wastewater from desizing can be purified for water recycling by removal and reconcentration of the polymer by ultrafiltration or evaporation, but the high costs of investment and additional expenses for the disposal of the concentrate hinder the introduction of such techniques as a general treatment process. The application of evaporation processes for purification and recycling of wastewater has been used in various concepts. The main problems that have to be considered are

Rechargeable Batteries

For the collection and recycling of portable rechargeable batteries in Japan, both NiCd batteries and the products using NiCd batteries were specified as 1st and 2nd category products by the Law for the Promotion and Utilization of Recyclable Sources issued in June 1993. Since then, BAJ began a collection & recycling program of spent NiCd batteries. After that, other portable batteries like NiMH and lithium ion were gradually found in waste landfills. Considering that they contain so much valuable metals and that collection activity of NiCd battery should be further strengthened, BAJ made a decision to start a nationwide voluntary collection and recycling program for all types of portable rechargeable batteries. This began in July 1998.

Functional mechanisms of biodiversity

Based on observations at a broader scale, chaparral vegetation in southern California has provided the opportunity to gain some insights into the temporal role of diversity in system function during the post-fire period of that fire-prone vegetation. Fire is essential for the release and recycling of nutrients tied up in mature vegetation. However, released nutrients are vulnerable to loss from the system by volatilization and with post-fire runoff. As much as 66 of nitrogen in the soil and litter layer can be lost from a chaparral system during an intense fire (DeBano et al. 1979), and natural input levels are so low that full replacement of soil nitrogen could take more than 60 years for pre-fire levels to be reached where industrial pollution makes no contribution (Schiesinger and Gray 1982). Rundel (1983) has pointed out that on many chaparral sites symbiotic nitrogen-fixers such as annual Luptnua species, or the subshrub Lotus scoparius are post-fire pioneers, while less...

Table 13 Effluent Limitations mgL except for pH for Subpart E Defluorinated Phosphoric Acid

Recycling and treatment, were discussed in Section 9.2. The pollution control and treatment methods and unit processes used are discussed in more detail in the following. The details of the process design criteria for these unit treatment processes can be found in any design handbook.

Table 14 Effluent Limitations mgL except for pH for Subpart F Sodium Phosphates

Remove dissolved gases and other contaminants, and clarification). By recycling, the amount of these wastewaters can be reduced by 80-90 , with a corresponding reduction in gas content and suspended solids in the wastes discharged to sewers or surface water 18,35,36 . Wang 35,36 , Caswell 37 , and Hallett 38 introduce new technologies and methodologies for cooling water treatment and recycle.

Assumptions Of Current Economic Models

All of these studies make assumptions about future data. For example, each study makes assumptions on the future costs of money. The IPCC TAR assumes certain economic offsets, through tradable emissions permits, and makes additional assumptions within projected ranges for monies generated or saved through taxing structures, incentive sector tax cuts rewarding greater fuel efficiencies or encouraging alternative forms of energy, incentive sector tax increases reducing carbon fuel consumption, the costs of labor, market conditions, the value of technological innovation, and recycling methods. Assumptions are also made about the rate of regulatory and policy changes and the impact of these changes. For example, different studies make different reduction projections of carbon intense energy by assuming different lengths of possible life extensions of existing nuclear power generation plants,

Choice of activity data

The Tier 2 method requires collection of clinker production data. It is suggested that if national surveys currently canvass cement production data, the inventory compiler should investigate the possibility of expanding them to collect clinker production data. It is good practice to collect clinker production data directly from national statistics or, preferably, from individual plants. It is also suggested that inventory compilers collect information on the CaO content of the clinker and the fraction of this CaO from carbonate. Where data are available on CaO from non-carbonate sources (e.g., slags and fly ash), this CaO should not be included in the CaO content of clinker used for calculating emissions. If possible, data should be collected to document CKD collection and recycling practices at the plants and likewise on the average or typical composition and calcination fraction of the CKD. Collecting data from individual producers (if complete), rather than using national totals,...

Enzymefiltration combination processes

The pulp and paper industry is applying new, ecologically sound technology in its manufacturing processes. The technologies implemented tend to change the existing industrial process as little as possible. Commercial applications include xylanases in pre-bleaching kraft pulps and the use of various enzymes in recycling paper. In the future, value-added products could be built around enzyme processes (Kenealy and Jeffries, 2003).

The Environmental Issues

As a consequence, the transportation, storage and handling of used NiCd batteries immediately came under the jurisdiction of the United States' Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) under which waste generators are required to obtain identification numbers from federal and state regulators, transporters must meet stringent regulatory requirements, and collection and recycling facilities need comprehensive and expensive permits. Such an array of regulatory requirements immediately halted the voluntary collection and recycling programs previously started for NiCd batteries even though some states were beginning to put legislation in place requiring collection and recycling. To add further to the confusion, RCRA requirements on used batteries did not apply to those generated from household wastes, but did apply to batteries from institutional generators. If a mixture of batteries from both sources were collected, then all were regulated. Previously, the U.S. EPA had specifically...

Regulatory Framework

The regulatory framework of the federal environmental laws (and such states as California) do not deem everything as hazardous and mandate its disposal in a Class I landfill or by incineration. A review of current regulations proves quite the contrary. The letter, spirit, and intent of current hazardous materials legislation is to promote and develop alternative technology that encourages the use, reuse, and recycling of materials rather than the archaic load, haul, and dump remediation techniques that have produced more environmental problems than they ever solved. Specifically, the recycling of affected soil into EPA is, for example, carried out in California under the following enabling legislation The above are the main sections that deal with the use, reuse, and recycling of materials. There are a myriad of subsections and cross references to other sections that the reader will note upon review of these main listed regulations. Briefly stated, to paraphrase CHSC 25143.2(b),...

Reporting and Documentation tier

Tier 2 documentation should include the quantity of glass melted in each manufacturing process outlined in Table 2.6, including any calculation necessary to convert different types of glass into the same units (e.g., convert bottles into kilogram). Emission factors by glass type and cullet ratio should be reported, indicating if defaults are used, and whether data were collected on the plant level or at the national level. It is also useful to report whether cullet was internally generated at the facility or is post-consumer cullet (i.e., purchased cullet). This information may be important for identifying, or verifying, mitigation activities that are based on recycling.

Partnerships And Programs

Another significant area of programming for the EPA is the sponsorship of voluntary partnerships and programs. The regional offices and headquarters of the EPA work with over 10,000 businesses, nonprofit organizations, local governments, and industries on voluntary programs. These groups engage in approximately 40 different programs promoting energy conservation and efficiency, as well as pollution prevention and education. Partners undertake projects in many areas including finding ways to conserve water, reducing greenhouse gases and toxic emissions, recycling solid wastes, mitigating indoor air pollution problems, and better understanding pesticide risks.

Impact of rice cultivation systems

The available database indicates that the CH4 emission per unit area and season follows the order continuously flooded irrigated rice > intermittently flooded irrigated rice > deepwater rice > regular (flood-prone) rainfed rice > drought-prone rainfed rice (Table 8.1). Upland rice is not a source of CH4, since it is grown in aerated soils that never become flooded for any significant period of time. However, this ranking only provides an initial assessment of the emission potentials that can locally be superseded by crop management favouring or lowering actual emission rates (Wassmann et al, 2000a, 2000b). The flooding pattern before the cultivation period significantly influences the emission rates (Fitzgerald et al, 2000 Cai et al, 2003). Differences in residue recycling, organic amendments, scheduled short aeration periods, soils, fertilization and rice cultivars are major additional causes for variations of CH4 fluxes in rice fields. Various organic amendments incorporated...

Introduction And Principal Findings

Nonetheless, concern exists that after the useful lives of these batteries has ended, they may become a source of cadmium and nickel that reaches the environment. Recycling Ni-Cd batteries addresses this concern and also conserves valuable natural resources. However, used Ni-Cd batteries do not trade freely as commodities because the cost of collecting them for recycling exceeds the value of their reclaimed constituents. Faced with this challenge, companies that manufacture and use these batteries have developed and implemented collection programs in several national jurisdictions, and are now working to coordinate these activities internationally. There are only a handful of appropriate facilities in the world for reclaiming nickel cadmium batteries, and all are subject to scrutiny and permitting by their national governments. Therefore, identification of an appropriate recycling destination is simple and, so long as collected materials are routed to one of these facilities, the...

Designing Climate Policy Instruments

Questions about how to distribute permits also complicate carbon trading. A government could sell permits to the highest bidders in an auction-style system, hand them out gratis according to some formula such as grandfa-thering (that is, the government assigns permits to existing emitters relative to a historical base year), or combine the two approaches somehow. The choice would force policy makers to address trade-offs among goals of economic efficiency, distributional equity, and political feasibility. Efficiency increases with greater auctioning (or with recycling of carbon tax revenues) because the revenues can be used to offset existing distortionary taxes (Parry, Roberton, & Goulder, 1999). Gratis permit allocation can target the distribution of a valued commodity toward the people most adversely affected by the policy (for example, low-income households and coal miners) or to those wielding the greatest political influence over the distribution of trading profits and...

Miscellaneous Statutory Provisions

Consistent with RCRA's focus on recycling, the statute contains provisions for U.S. EPA to encourage recycling and promote the development of markets for items with recovered materials content. To help achieve this goal, U.S. EPA publishes federal procurement guidelines that set minimum recovered materials content standards for certain designated items. RCRA requires federal procuring agencies to purchase items composed of the highest percentage of recovered materials practicable. These requirements are specified in Comprehensive Procurement Guidelines (CPGs) and Recovered Materials Advisory Notices (RMANs).

The Rbrc Program Canada And The Us

The Rechargeable Battery Recycling Corporation is a not-for-profit corporation funded by rechargeable battery manufacturers and created to implement and maintain Ni-Cd battery collection and recycling programs in the U.S. and in Canada. The RBRC program, Charge Up to Recycle , has created various recycling plans to collect Ni-Cd batteries, which are then sent to INMETCO (Ellwood City, Pennsylvania) for processing and recycling. At the facility, the nickel and iron are separated from the cadmium and shipped to specialty steel producers for use in stainless steel products. The recovered high-purity cadmium is used to produce new Ni-Cd rechargeable batteries. Within the Charge Up to Recycle program, three different plans for collecting used Ni-Cd batteries are set up for retailers, communities, and business& public agencies. To reach high recycling levels, widespread public education is carried out. The recycling program is paid for by the rechargeable power industry. To date,...

Other reduction reactions

In this case, a new route can be developed for recycling carbon through the conversion of captured CO2 into methanol, which may find a practical application during the transition period to the 'H2-economy'. In fact, such methanol could be used either as a fuel or as a starting material in the chemical industry.

Collected sealed cells power Packs

With the majority of these processes, a sorting operation is necessary. The basic purpose of these processes is in fact recycling of the chief components, zinc and manganese. The forms in which they are recycled and the market for which they are intended often preclude too high a content of one or another impurity, whether it be mercury, lead, cadmium and sometimes even nickel. The purpose of this mandatory sorting is to extract the type(s) of battery and or accumulator responsible for these impurities. Very brief economic examination shows that, whatever the reason for sorting, its cost only increases fractionally if it is pursued beyond its initial objective. Moreover, the cost of treating nickel-cadmium batteries is quite clear - the supplier contributes to the cost, i.e. that part of the cost not covered by recycling the nickel and the cadmium - and significantly below the cost for saline and alkaline batteries. With NiMH batteries, the advantage is even greater, since recycling...

Universal Waste Handlers

There are two types of handlers of universal waste. The first type of handler is a person who generates, or creates, universal waste. For example, this may include a person who uses batteries, pesticides, thermostats, or lamps and who eventually decides that they are no longer usable. The second type of handler is a person who receives universal waste from other handlers, accumulates the waste, and then sends it on to other handlers, recyclers, or treatment or disposal facilities without performing the actual treatment, recycling, or disposal. This may include a person who collects batteries, pesticides, or thermostats from small businesses and sends the wastes to a recycling facility. The universal waste handler requirements depend on how much universal waste a handler accumulates at any one time.

Table 3 Identification of Hazardous Wastes

The generator needs an USEPA-ID number and must use a manifest if it ships its waste offsite and may use a licenced hazardous waste transporter or a precious metal transporter and recycling facility 2. The generator can use a recovery device directly connected by pipe to the film processor at the site of generation (no recycling permit is required operation can begin within 10 days of the receipt of the application if applicant does not hear from the State) and

Kinetic Constants in the Denitrification Process

The value of the saturation constant KD is very low. Davies (1973), found the Kd value for suspended growth systems to be 0,08 mg l nitrate nitrogen without solids recycling. For attached growth systems the value of KD was found to be 0,06 mg l nitrate nitrogen at 25 C. Using these small KD values in equation (4.29), that is Sdenjt is above 1-2 mg nitrate nitrogen, the denitrification will approach a zero order rate.

Hazardous Wastes Regulations Governing Generators Transporters And Tsdfs

Oversee the ultimate fate of the waste. RCRA requires generators to ensure and fully document that the hazardous waste they produce is properly identified, managed, and treated prior to recycling or disposal. The degree of regulation to which each generator is subject depends to a large extent on how much waste each generator produces every calendar month. The regulations applicable to generators of hazardous waste can be found in Ref. 9.

Design Features Of A Green Home

Durable materials used in the construction are sourced locally to avoid unnecessary transportation. All wood is Forest Stewardship Council certified, and products are chosen from an environmentally preferable product list, which favors recycled and recyclable materials and rapidly renewable materials. Waste during construction is minimized, and waste is recycled during construction and during use (for example, through curb-side recycling and back-yard composting).

Option of Transporting Wastes to a Licenced Facility

The company in Lenox also had an option to transport its wastes to a licenced treatment, storage or disposal facility, or permitted recycling facility, with the facility's permission. There were many licenced facilities in Massachusetts that were willing to accept the company's spent fixer and spent developer for final disposal. The company's owner finally decided to use a licenced transporter and a licenced facility for transportation, treatment, and disposal of its untreated wastes, even though the option of recycling, treatment, POTW discharge, and the option of self-transportation to a licenced facility were equally feasible. The licenced transporter and the licenced facility can be owned by two different firms or by one firm. In this particular case, the company in Lenox, which was a VSQG, selected an environmental service company in Albany, New York, which was a licenced transporter as well as a licenced facility. The costs for picking up, transporting, and disposing of six 55...

Cement Kiln Monitoring and Control

Under the newly adopted federal regulations for facilities using hazardous waste fuels, cement kilns must comply with stringent testing and permitting requirements before they can recycle the wastes. These procedures ensure that cement companies wanting to recycle hazardous wastes as fuel will do so safely. Those facilities unable to meet the rigorous RCRA standards will not be allowed to burn hazardous waste fuel. Under the USEPA BIF rule (Burning Hazardous Waste in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces), cement kilns recycling hazardous waste as fuel are now perhaps the most regulated form of thermal treatment. Major components of the regulatory approach include monitoring and control allowing operators to detect problems in the process and control the system on a continuing basis. This ensures the process always stays within a safe window of operating conditions and that emissions always remain within the strict limits prescribed by USEPA. Cement manufacturers use a number of quality...

Sorting Trash as a Moral

Sorting trash for recycling which people used to do for money has become a moral act, a symbol of care about the environment. Susan Strasser, a historian of American consumer culture. Yet environmental groups believe that recycling actions by consumers alone will not be enough. Many advocates, for example, propose expanding state container deposit laws, which require companies to take back the bottles used for their drink products, in order to increase the recycling of bottles and cans. Some experts also support expanding this idea to require producers of other types of products to take back, or recycle, their products at the end of their useful lives. In certain countries in Europe and in the Canadian province of British Columbia, for example, governments have begun adopting a waste policy known as Extended Producer Responsibility, or EPR, to require any company that sells a consumer product to provide cradle-to-grave take-back service to its customers. Helen Spiegelman describes the...

Table 4 Roles of Biotechnological Applications in Hazardous Waste Management

Hazardous waste recycling Solubilization precipitation and recycling of heavy metals from waste. Bioassimilation, precipitation, and recycling of ammonia, nitrate, and nitrite. waste collection in biodegradable containers hazardous waste toxicity reduction by of hazardous substances and hazardous waste recycling by recycling of nutrients during hazardous waste treatment.

Reporting and Documentation

In the magnesium industry, there are a number of potential emission sources and gases. The amount and type of emission from the magnesium industry will reflect the raw material used for primary magnesium metal production and or the type of cover gas mixture used in the casting and recycling foundries to prevent oxidation of molten magnesium. It is good practice to consider, in a disaggregated way if possible, all segments of the magnesium industry and their related emissions. A list of possible greenhouse gas emissions, which may be associated with primary, and secondary magnesium metal production and casting operations, is provided in Table 4.18. Secondary magnesium production includes the recovery and recycling of metallic magnesium from a variety of magnesium containing scrap materials e.g., post consumer parts, machine cuttings, casting scraps, furnace residues, etc. Magnesium casting processes may involve metal from both primary production and secondary magnesium production....

Choice of emission factors

The underlying assumption for the Tier 1 approach is that all SF6 consumption in this industry segment is emitted, though. as described in Section 4.5.1, this assumption will potentially overestimate the GHG emissions. The Tier 1 method also assumes no knowledge of type of magnesium handling- or casting operation (recycling, billet casting or die-casting, etc.) Under recommended conditions for die-casting, the consumption rates are about 1 kg SF6 per tonne magnesium produced or smelted (Gjestland and Magers, 1996). Although the SF6

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