Make Money in the Recycling Business

Home Based Recycling Business

Make Money! Join the many individuals and families who are learning to prosper in the salvage and recycling business starting with little or no cash. You'll learn: How to bootstrap your business without going into debt. How to get your salvage for free or for pennies on the dollar. (In some cases you will be paid to take the material away). How to find the best price in the least amount of time. The tools and equipment you will need many easily fabricated. Information based on my experience in salvage, recycle and reuse in the following areas: Construction and building materials. Deconstruction and recycled lumber. Farm and ranch equipment and supplies. Heavy equipment salvaging for high value parts. Scrap metal ferrous and non-ferrous. Electronic, communication, and computer scrap and recycling. Salvage for alternative energy systems. Antiques and collectibles. Promoting and marketing. Always treating everyone with fairness and respect and not profiting from the misfortune of others ways to create win-win situations for All parties involved. How to deal with scrap and recycling dealers and brokers. Innovative businesses you can start using various salvaged materials. How to arrange transportation, interim storage, cheap yard space without dealing with high cost commercial operators. How to be paid for your work before you ever start. How to get the equipment and tools you need. How to stay solvent and operate on a cash basis. Continue reading...

Home Based Recycling Business Summary


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NiMH Batteries Recycling Scheme

Figure 10 Schematic Presentation of a Ni-MH Battery Recycling INMETCO is primarly a stainless steel recycler. They process about 50,000 tons of materials containing iron, nickel, and chromium per year, and return an Fe-Ni-Cr alloy back to the stainless steel industry for production of new alloys. As part of their recycling operation INMETCO has accepted both NiCd and NiFe batteries as well as EAF dust, electroplating sludges, and process wastes, all of which may contain some cadmium. The cadmium, and the other low melting elements, lead and zinc, are fumed off either during a rotary hearth furnace treatment or electric arc furnace melting operation. The zinc, lead and cadmium dust which is fumed off during these two operations is collected as a filter cake from a wet scrubber or as a bag-house dust. This Zn-Pb-Cd product is subsequently sent to Horsehead Resources Development Corporation where it is separated into zinc, lead, and cadmium and returned to the marketplace. INMETCO is...

The Recycling Content Symbol

Zinc Recycle Symbol

The internationally recognized U.S. symbol for recycling three arrows traveling in a triangle was developed in the 1970s. During this period, many Americans were becoming concerned about the environment, and a producer of paper products the Container Corporation of America decided to publicize the fact that its products were manufactured using content that was recycled or recyclable. As part of this promotion, the company sponsored a nationwide art contest for a design that would signify recycling. The winner of the contest and an award of a 2,500 tuition scholarship was a twenty-three-year-old student from the University of Southern California at Los Angeles, Gary Dean Anderson. Anderson's design was influenced by the M bius strip a geometric shape that forms a continuous loop having only one side and one edge. Over the years, several variations of Anderson's design have been developed, and today the most common version is the one used by the U.S. plastics industry to surround the...

Optimized Recycling Processes For Advanced Batteries Nickel Metal Hydride NiMH

Operating revenue that could be generated from chemical separation or physical chemical separation processes for recycling Ni MH batteries was compared to a pyrometallurgical process in a report prepared for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), a DOE facility located in Golden, Colorado 34 , The pyrometallurgical process has similarities to the process operated by INMETCO. Revenues (or costs) were estimated for both AB2 and AB5 hydride alloy battery designs. Other general assumptions in the cost calculations were that the plant was sited in California and was processing 30,000 metric tons of EV batteries annually. The chemical process is based on an acid leach of the battery materials, followed by In the most favorable case (physical separation chemical process), the revenue from the recovered products obtained by the recycling process was predicted to be between 16.70 kWh of batteries processed for the AB5 alloy and 18.50 kWh for the AB2 alloy. This is largely because of...

Water Recycling In Other Parts Of The World

Reverse Recycling

Water recycling is an obvious choice in water-stressed regions where it is the only option to grow or even to survive. Many of these regions can be often found in less developed regions in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Kalahari Desert is also dry. Windhoek is located in between these deserts, too far away from the rivers in north and south (750 and 900 km, respectively). It has ca. 250 000 inhabitants and relied originally on groundwater. When the city grew, other sources had to be found by constructing dams catching water from ephemeral rivers. The Avis Dam was constructed in 1933 (2.4 Mm3), the Goreangab Dam in 1958 (3.6 Mm3). Potable water was produced in a conventional treatment plant. From 1969 on, the effluent from the Gammams Wastewater Treatment Plant was also treated in this plant. This was the start of the first, and to date still the only water recycling plant for direct potable reuse 23 . The initial capacity was 4300 m3 day after a number of upgrades this became 7500...

Recycling Not a Universal Good

Recycling is a manufacturing process, and therefore it too has an environmental impact. . . . Recycling changes the nature of pollution, sometimes increasing it and sometimes decreasing it. Daniel K. Benjamin, economics professor and former adviser to President Ronald Reagan. Daniel K. Benjamin, Eight Great Myths of Recycling, Property and Environment Research Center, September 2003, p. 17. pdfrps28.pdf. The largest categories of plastic wastes include containers (for foods, drinks, and cosmetic and household items), product packaging, durable goods such as appliances and furniture, and nondurable goods such as baby diapers, trash bags, cups and utensils, and medical devices. Although 37 percent of PET bottles and 28 percent of HDPE bottles were recycled in 2007, this represents only a tiny fraction of all plastics in the waste stream. In fact, according to the EPA, only 6.8 percent of all plastic wastes generated in 2007 were recycled the rest was buried in landfills....

General Recycling Issues And Drivers Economics and Planning

Economics is an important consideration when designing a recycling process. Some generic constraints that determine whether recycling is economically viable have been discussed 5 , These include the ability of the market to absorb the large quantity of recycled material that could result in the long term assuming that it is not recycled directly into new batteries. Market size is likely to differ for each of the specific materials that can be recovered. Price collapse or possibly an inability to sell the reclaimed products at all could be the result if a limited market is flooded with recycled material. A fundamental precept of chemical process economics (the Exclusion Principle) states that high-priced materials tend to have limited markets, while high volume materials have low unit prices 10 . It is therefore unrealistic to expect to enter a large size market for a particular commodity and command a high unit price. Another general expectation is that the establishment of a new,...

Precipitation recycling

The amount of precipitation falling over a region can be divided into (1) precipitation associated with water vapor transported into the region (advected precipitation) (2) precipitation associated with water that evaporates from the surface of the region and falls within the same region (locally derived precipitation). The precipitation recycling ratio is defined as Pl P, where Pl is the precipitation of local origin and P is the total precipitation. The recycling ratio can be thought of as providing a sense of the importance of land-surface processes on the hydrologic budget. The topic has a long history, starting with Mikhail Budyko and associates in the Soviet Union in the 1950s. More recent studies include Brubaker et al. (1993), Eltahir and Bras (1996) and Trenberth (1998). Estimates of the recycling ratio are contingent on the size of the region considered. The ratio is smaller for areas of limited extent and increases for larger regions (Brubaker et al., 1993). Obviously, all...

Switzerland Organization For Portable Battery Recycling

Led by the OECD member states, legislation has been put in place mandating the collection and recycling of cadmium, lead and mercury batteries. Industry organizations have been established for the purpose of educating the consumer and developing collection recycling programs. We may mention the Portable Rechargeable Battery Association (PRBA) and the Rechargeable Battery Recycling Corporation (RBRC) in the U.S.A., and the European Portable Battery Association (EPBA) and CollectNiCad in Europe. As a consequence of these laws and programs, increasing quantities of spent batteries are being collected and recycled. Recycling batteries with their varied chemistries is a difficult task. The success of the industry in meeting this challenge has been important to the advancement of this effort. We wish to express our deep gratitude to the contributors of the various chapters of this book and to the organizations and companies that have provided us general information and encouragement. Many...

The Birth of Modern Recycling Programs

Garbage Barge Mobro 4000

Even though recycling was commonly practiced by all households during pre-industrial ages, large-scale recycling programs did not arise until the twentieth century. The first organized programs were created in the 1930s and 1940s, when a worldwide depression limited people's ability to purchase new goods and the outbreak of World War II dramatically increased demands for certain materials. Throughout the war, goods such as nylon, rubber, and various metals were recycled and reused to produce weapons and other materials needed to support the war effort. After the war ended in 1945, however, the United States and other countries experienced a postwar economic boom that produced many new products and caused recycling to fade into oblivion for several decades. It was not until the environmental movement of the 1960s and 1970s that recycling once again emerged as a popular idea. This movement began in 1962 with the publication of Rachel Carson's book Silent Spring, detailing the toxic...

The Global Water Recycling Situation

Water Recycling in the USA 45 5. Water Recycling in Asia 52 6. Water Recycling in Europe 54 7. Water Recycling in Australia 56 8. Water Recycling in other Parts of the World 58 The awareness that water recycling is the only possible answer to the world's growing water needs is ever increasing. Governments are developing policies of incentives and or permits to stimulate water recycling in an industrial context. Possible tools that can be deployed are increasing taxes on wastewater discharge, requiring the development of wastewater treatment techniques that result in enhanced removal of a wide range of contaminants, and linking permits to progressive use of alternative water sources. The industry itself is working actively on water reuse projects, mainly for economic reasons, but also from the perspective of environmental responsibility. The benefits of water reuse for the industry include 1 a supplemental and reliable water source to augment or replace...

Lithium Battery Recycling Technologies

In the recent past most lithium batteries were either put into a landfill or incinerated. Many of the larger lithium primary systems had no known method of disposal, much less recycling. The older large primary lithium batteries were, many times, so reactive that open detonation was used as an effective disposal method. The recycling technologies are only now being fully developed. The marketability of the components and the labor dollars invested to process the batteries are the driving considerations. Many research oriented agencies have proposed recycling methodologies which consider the battery chemicals as simply chemicals. Usually the battery characteristics are either overlooked completely or given inadequate planning. The neutralization of chemicals is the primary focus and either economics or safety is limited (at best). For these reasons many lithium battery recycling operations have started but most could not sustain either economic or physical losses. Some of the secondary...

Water Recycling In Australia

It could be assumed that due to successful examples, the idea of water recycling would be picked up easily in other regions with similar water supply problems, in the Middle East, Asia, northern Africa, the southwest USA, and Australia. However, public perception is still problematic, impeding new initiatives. This was proved again in 2006 in Toowoomba, Queensland, Australia, where a poll to mix treated wastewater with raw surface water for drinking water production had a negative outcome. Nevertheless, other examples of water recycling can be found throughout Australia, and the debate on water recycling is probably nowhere as intense as in Australia. Recent droughts played a role in the awareness that water sources are limited 20 . A good overview of water recycling projects in the Australian context is given by Radcliffe 12 . Figure 5 Process scheme for water recycling in Rouse Hill, New South Wales, Australia. Figure 5 Process scheme for water recycling in Rouse Hill, New South...

Environmental Concerns Of Recycling Lithium Batteries

Lithium batteries are no exception. Even when discharged, the batteries contain some form of lithium, organic solvents, and other chemicals most of which are toxic. When not fully discharged, the batteries have the potential to start fires. Aside from the known environmental concerns of today, it is not unlikely that in the future new environmental requirements or concerns may evolve from the disposal of batteries. In one eastern block country there is a huge problem with lead acid batteries contaminating ground water. One middle eastern country had a landfill fire that burned out of control for many days due to lithium batteries. In North America several lithium-recycling facilities have been shut down for environmental reasons. The only sure solution is appropriate recycling. Prior to the processing of any lithium battery for recycling, the battery's material safety data sheet should be reviewed, and, if necessary, a complete analysis should be...

Spent Portable Nickel Cadmium Batteries Quantities processed for recycling in 2000

The originality of SCRELEC's program is to integrate all actors of the recycling operations and to drive the system economically in all the steps. 2. the development of national collection and recycling associations in countries without collection organization in 2000, Figure 28. The Collection and Recycling Scheme Under the Control of SCRELEC Schematic Presentation of Operations, Logistics and Financials Aspects Figure 28. The Collection and Recycling Scheme Under the Control of SCRELEC Schematic Presentation of Operations, Logistics and Financials Aspects

The Limits of Recycling

Trade Waste Policy

Despite the benefits of recycling programs and their growing popularity, however, recycling has not solved the garbage problem. It is undisputed, for example, that recycling has not reduced the total amount of municipal wastes being generated by Americans. As conservationist Helen Spiegelman acknowledges, Even after the enormous exertions of America's cities and towns to recycle bottles, cans, newspapers and other consumer products, seventy percent of the products we buy are still going to landfills and incinerators.18 And recycling has no effect on how products are produced or packaged by manufacturers. As journalist and filmmaker Heather Rogers explains Recycling treats wastes only after they've already been made. It does nothing to stem rubbish production in the first place. Recycling has contributed to a scaling back in the demands of the public and environmentalists by convincing us that it will remedy the situation. What gets left out of the discussion are more radical calls for...

The Growth of Recycling

Sri Lanka Red Tea

Due to Americans' growing acceptance of recycling, over the last several decades the amount of waste recycled has increased each year in the United States. One by one, cities and municipalities have voluntarily implemented convenient curbside recycling programs, and laws have required the use of recycled content in certain manufacturing processes. One of the first curbside collection programs was established in 1973 in California. It collected mostly newspapers and other kinds of paper, but as the size of the waste stream grew and the costs of landfilling increased, other states and localities gradually adopted similar programs, and many expanded the types of recyclables these programs collected. Today recycling is ubiquitous across the United States. According to an article written by garbage experts Heather Rogers and Christian Parenti in 2002, More Americans recycle than vote.13 The latest EPA statistics (2005) show the A child's toy and plastic packaging are recycled at the San...

Recycling Prospects For Future Advanced Battery Systems Sodium Sulfur NaS

Much of the effort to develop the Na S battery was aimed at its use in electric vehicles. Current applications of this advanced battery system are now mainly in the stationary battery area, but feasibility studies were done on the recycling of this system before the EV development efforts were suspended. Sodium sulfur batteries contain reactive and corrosive materials, but not toxic ones. By treatment of the battery waste, the reactivity problems can be removed. The major difficulty in recycling this chemistry is that most of the constituents have low value or are difficult to recover in a form that could be used in a high-value application (e.g., the beta alumina electrolyte). A patented proposed recycling scheme has been evaluated on a pilot scale and found to be acceptable from a cost and technical standpoint 37 . This process replaced incineration, which was used earlier in the development program, but judged too expensive for large numbers of batteries. In the recycling process,...

Recycling Alternatives

Some recycling alternatives use whole tires, thus requiring no extensive processing other alternatives require that tires be split or punched to make products and still other alternatives involve tires that are finely ground enabling the manufacture of crumb rubber products. Some applications for each alternative are listed below All of the tire recycling alternatives listed above are being used to varying degrees. However, the total usage of tires for recycling currently is estimated to be less than 7 of the annual generation. The markets for most of the products may be increased, but, even if increased to their fullest potential, appear to be small compared to the number of tires generated each year. Ground rubber applications hold the greatest promise. The tire recycling alternative with the greatest potential to significantly reduce the scrap tire problem of the United States is in asphalt highway construction.

Recycling a Great Solution

Recycling saves energy, preserves natural resources, reduces greenhouse-gas emissions, and keeps toxins from leaking out of landfills. Marc Gunther, a writer and speaker on business and the environment. In 2007, for example, the EPA reported that the nation recycled and composted 85 million tons (77 million metric tons), or 33.4 percent of all municipal solid wastes a vast increase from 1960, when only 6.4 percent was recycled. And this rise in recycling has occurred despite the fact that the total amount of waste has increased, from 3.7 to 4.6 pounds (1.7 to 2.1 kg) per person per day between 1960 and 2007. In fact, as the NRDC notes, The amount of material we recycle today . . . equals the total quantity of garbage the United States produced in 1960.14 Recycling success stories in 2007 included the recycling of 54 percent of paper and paperboard wastes and 64 percent of yard trimmings. And about 35 percent of metals such as aluminum, steel, and mixed metals were recycled an effort...

Physiology and Biochemistry of Nitrogen Recycling in Rice Plants

Under sufficient light conditions, the assimilation of inorganic nitrogen and efficient recycling of the assimilates within plants are the most important processes for determining the productivity and quality of many crops. The major source of nitrogen for developing leaves and spikelets in rice plants is the nitrogen remobilized, via the phloem, from older, senescing organs.1 In particular, senescing leaf blades are the major source of nitrogen and they contribute about half of the nitrogen in the developing spikelets (Fig. 17.1). This intricate process of nitrogen recycling, from the senescing organs to the developing organs, is very important in determining the productivity and the quality of rice plants. Nitrogen recycling consists of at least the following four major steps

The Hazards And Safety Aspects Of Recycling Lithium Batteries

In the case of the primary lithium systems, the hazards for the most part involve the safe processing and management of the elemental lithium and associated hydrogen gas. Eliminating the random very violent reactions is paramount when considering the safe processing of the batteries for recycling. Once lithium and hydrogen are controlled, the components within the battery can be exposed, separated, neutralized, reprocessed, and Recycling lithium rechargeable battery systems does not involve elemental lithium under normal conditions. It is the authors belief that a fully charged large nickel metal-hydride battery has the potential to be much more reactive than a comparably sized lithium secondary. The metal-hydride battery worst-case hazards include the possibility of very high hydrogen concentrations within the battery case. In certain situations this could result in a violent hydrogen reaction (this violent reaction, by the way, would not be considered deflagration but instead is an...

Collection Efficiency And Recycling Rate

Each country establishing a collection scheme is trying to bring its own definition of recycling and collection rates. It appears that a standardisation at the european level is needed. The various european directives on waste management do not present a clear definition of terms as collection rates and recycling rates. There is a general trend to forget that recycling is a generic term for a sequence of operations starting with collection, consolidation, sorting, processing and finally re-use and or recycling of recovered materials. Disposal in landfill is another end of life management of materials that cannot be re-used advantageously. So, if collection and or recycling rates are evaluated , batteries in temporary storage should not be considered as they are not a waste. One should take into account the quantities available for collection and not the quantities introduced into the market. As we have seen in Section 3 of this chapter, a significant fraction of the rechargeable...

No Profit from Recycling

Analyses typically show that recycling does not pay from a private economic point of view. Bjorn Lomborg, a Danish author, academic, and environmental writer. A few critics also challenge the idea that recycling is beneficial to the environment. Professor Daniel Benjamin, for example, claims that recycling itself is a manufacturing process that uses trucks and facilities and that produces greenhouse gases and other pollution just like other industries. He argues Curbside recycling . . . uses huge amounts of capital and labor per pound of material recycled. . . . The bulk of all curbside recycling programs simply waste resources.22 And according to Benjamin's view, modern municipal landfills are a safe alternative to recycling. He notes that the EPA has concluded that landfills constructed according to agency regulations can be expected to cause a total of THE RECYCLING SOLUTION 39 only 5.7 cancer-related deaths over the next 300 years.23 It is the improper or illegal dumping of...

The Recycling Solution

Once a common way to dispose of trash, recycling today is experiencing a renaissance. Recent increases in the amounts of garbage, combined with heightened environmental awareness in developed countries such as the United States, have led to numerous government programs for recycling wastes. Most of these programs are voluntary, although some cities have recently begun to mandate recycling. Overall, recycling is widely viewed as beneficial to the environment and human health, although some commentators view it as a flawed solution to the garbage problem.

The Future for Recycling

Many supporters, however, think that recycling will continue to expand, just as it has over recent decades. They believe the United States clearly has not reached its recycling limit when 70 percent of our trash is still discarded. As the NRDC says, Since Japan, Germany, France, Sweden, Switzerland, the Netherlands, and Italy all recycle higher percentages of their wastes than does the United States, it is clear we could be doing better.26 To boost recycling rates, the NRDC believes it is critical to improve the management of our electronic waste such as old computers, cell phones, and TVs the fastest-growing element of the waste stream. In addition, environmentalists propose banning the use of plastic shopping bags, which now are either dumped into landfills by the billions or littered as plastic pollution in cities,

Existing Methods For Ev Battery Recycling

As part of a broad assessment of the general recyclability of automotive batteries done in the mid-1990s, a report on recycling technology was prepared for the California Environmental Protection Agency Air Resources Board 16 . Ten different EV battery technologies were ranked based on their performance and recyclability. The battery chemistries that were included in this study are presented in Table 3. Because the recycling capacity available for some of these batteries was minimal in 1995 and the market for some of the materials that would be recovered was also too small and unstable to support the recycling effort alone, a mandatory deposit of 100 to 150 per battery was suggested. This figure was believed to be large enough to ensure return of the batteries to central collection sites, but not so large as to trigger theft or a battery black market. Table 3. Battery Chemistries Included in Recycling Technology Assessment Table 3. Battery Chemistries Included in Recycling Technology...

Separation and Recycling

Besides the replacement of substances, the improvement of processes on an optimization of the handling of rather concentrated liquors, for example, used in sizing, caustic treatment like mercerization, dyeing, finishing processes, or in textile printing processes is the next step. As a desired goal, a recycling of a main part of the substances should be

Hazardous Waste Recycling

The hazardous waste identification process (as discussed in Chapter 1) describes how to determine whether a material is a solid and hazardous waste. How a material is regulated under RCRA (i.e., whether or not it is a solid and potentially a hazardous waste) when it is recycled depends on what type of material it is and what type of recycling is occurring. If the recycled material is not a solid waste, then it is not a hazardous waste and is not subject to RCRA Subtitle C requirements. However, if the material qualifies as a solid and hazardous waste, it is subject to RCRA Subtitle C jurisdiction. Many hazardous wastes can be recycled safely and effectively. To address the goal of encouraging recycling while protecting human health and the environment, U.S. EPA has tried to tailor the level of regulation to reflect the actual hazard of the recycling activity. In this approach to regulation, recycling standards range from full regulation to specialized standards to exemptions from...

Hazardous Waste Recycling Used Oil And Universal Wastes

RCRA hazardous wastes do not cease to be dangerous simply because they are being reused, recycled, or reclaimed. Many hazardous waste recycling operations may pose serious health and environmental hazards and should be subject to regulation. Reuse, recycling, and reclamation should be viewed instead as ways of managing hazardous wastes, which, if properly conducted, can avoid environmental hazards, protect scarce natural resources, and reduce the nation's reliance on raw materials and energy. Promoting reuse and recovery is certainly one of the goals of RCRA however, this goal does not take precedence over assuring the proper management of hazardous waste. U.S. EPA has tried, to the extent possible, to develop regulations for hazardous waste management that foster environmentally sound recycling and conservation of resources, but at the same time provide adequate protection of human health and the environment. This chapter outlines the regulations governing recycling of hazardous...

Longer term perspectives mineral sequestration and CO2 recycling

Carbon dioxide recycling includes all possible uses in industrial or biological processes. Unfortunately the quantities of CO2 which can be recycled in that way are limited. Currently, the main application in the chemical industry is the production of urea, which requires around 80 million tons of CO2 per year 92 . A significant outlet is provided by the agro-food industry which, in Europe, consumes around 2.7 million tons of CO2. A CO2 rich atmosphere is used for accelerating the growth of plants cultivated in greenhouses. This outlet is also limited, but it is possible to widen the applications of the biomass produced in a CO2 enriched atmosphere by investigating new applications in the agro-food, chemical and energy industries.


Recycling via use and or reuse involves either returning a waste material to the originating process as a substitute for an input material or using it in another process as an input material. Return to original process Raw material substitution for another process Example Reuse Return to Original Process. A printer of newspaper advertising purchased an ink recycling unit to produce black newspaper ink from its various waste inks. The unit blends different colors of waste ink together with fresh black ink and black toner to create the new black ink. This ink is then filtered to remove flakes of dried ink. The recycled ink is used in place of fresh black ink and eliminates the need for the company to ship waste ink off-site for disposal. The price of the recycling unit was paid off in 18 months based only on the savings in fresh black ink purchases. The payback period improved to 9 months when the costs for disposing of ink as a hazardous waste were included. Many environmental groups...

Recycling Benefits

The government and various environmental organizations regularly tout the many benefits of recycling. First and foremost, recycling reduces the amount of wastes that must be placed into landfills or incinerated. According to some experts, this saves money compared to the costs of other methods of trash disposal. As the National Recycling Coalition states, Well-run recycling programs cost less to operate than waste collection, landfilling, and incineration.16 Recycling advocates also argue that recycling programs create American jobs not only jobs collecting recyclables, but also jobs in the industries that purchase and process the recycled materials and manufacture them into new products. The most important benefits of recycling, however, relate to the environment and human health. Environmentalists say that by diverting materials from the waste stream going into landfills or to incinerators, recycling reduces air, ground, and water pollution that otherwise could result from these...

Recycling energy

Recycling waste energy can take two approaches. In the first case, power plants are sited at an industrial facility that produces a stream of waste energy, such as gas that is normally flared, hot exhaust or high-pressure gas or steam that must be decompressed back to atmospheric pressure. These plants, known in the literature as 'bottoming cycle cogeneration plants', convert the waste energy streams into electricity. The resulting electricity is typically sold back to the industrial host for use on site, thus avoiding the need for transmission and distribution wires and avoiding the losses associated with transmitting the same power over great distances. In the second case, explained in more detail below, power plants burn fuel to generate electricity and then recycle the inevitable waste heat to replace the supply of thermal energy from a separate boiler. These local power plant facilities convert 33-45 per cent of the fuel's potential energy to electricity, just like their larger...

InProcess Recycling

Solvents used to cleanse the excess from the product. The industry disposes of these wastes either by recycling them into productive reuse or by discharging them as wastes into the air, water, or land. Costly treatment is often required to reduce the toxicity and pollutants in the waste discharge before final disposal. These liquid, solid, or gaseous wastes at each stage of the production process are the source of pollution problems. Onsite recycling of process waste back into the production process will often allow manufacturers to reduce pollution and save costs for less waste treatment and disposal. For example, solvents are being recycled in many industrial processes. The current goal of solvent recycling is to recover and refine its purity similar to virgin solvent for reuse in the same process, or of sufficient purity to be used in another process application. Recycling activities may be performed either onsite or offsite. Onsite recycling activities include (a) direct use or...

Biomass and soil carbon inventories

Most forests hold between 100 and 500tCha-1 in the form of biomass or soil organic carbon. The division between these pools varies with latitude. For example, in a typical boreal black spruce forest, 3901C ha-1 are stored in the soil, but only 60t C ha-1 in biomass Malhi et al. (1999) . In contrast, in a central Amazonian tropical forest, 240tCha-1 are stored in biomass, and 200tCha-1 in biomass. The primary reason for this difference is the effect of temperature on plant and soil metabolic activity At high latitudes low temperatures restrict the decomposition of soil organic matter, allowing for the build-up of soil carbon but also restricting the recycling and availability of nutrients that are necessary for new growth. At tropical temperatures the soil organic matter is broken down ten times faster, allowing for more rapid biomass growth but resulting in a smaller soil carbon pool Malhi et al. (1999) .

The Rbrc Program Canada And The Us

The Rechargeable Battery Recycling Corporation is a not-for-profit corporation funded by rechargeable battery manufacturers and created to implement and maintain Ni-Cd battery collection and recycling programs in the U.S. and in Canada. The RBRC program, Charge Up to Recycle , has created various recycling plans to collect Ni-Cd batteries, which are then sent to INMETCO (Ellwood City, Pennsylvania) for processing and recycling. At the facility, the nickel and iron are separated from the cadmium and shipped to specialty steel producers for use in stainless steel products. The recovered high-purity cadmium is used to produce new Ni-Cd rechargeable batteries. Within the Charge Up to Recycle program, three different plans for collecting used Ni-Cd batteries are set up for retailers, communities, and business& public agencies. To reach high recycling levels, widespread public education is carried out. The recycling program is paid for by the rechargeable power industry. To date,...

Choice of activity data

For the Tier 1 method, it is good practice to disaggregate production data into segments using SF6, if possible, (e.g., primary production, recycling, billet casting, die casting, gravity casting, etc.) and apply available segment-specific emission factors. Where disaggregated data are not available, more aggregated production data, possibly combining output from several different processes, may be used to provide an estimate. In the absence of SF6 consumption data or magnesium production data, the alternative is to collect annual national data on SF6 sales to the magnesium industry. SF6 producers may be able to provide these data directly, or they may be available from national statistics. It is good practice to consider data on consumption by other industries that use SF6 (e.g., electrical equipment) when estimating the share consumed by the magnesium industry.

Carbon stored in products

Simpler approaches would be to ignore this storage and assume the carbon will return to the atmosphere sooner or later. Another approach is to try to apply an average discounted tonne factor as an offset to the total harvest. Neither approach creates an incentive to prolong the life of carbon stored by not destroying structures or by recycling used lumber, assuming there is value to temporary storage. Crediting via a discounted tonne approach gets us back to the problem of estimating this discount factor, which we rejected earlier.

Agricultural intensification

Specialised cash-crop systems A common outcome of intensification is the increase in the proportion of specialised fields, some of them devoted to high value crops. These often form part of traditional economies, yielding products which can be bartered for other materials. As more structured markets develop, these crops may become important components of the cash economy. The traditional cash crops include a diversity of fruit trees, bananas, ginger, pineapples, yams and special products like broom grass (for broom making) or bamboo (for a variety of purposes). With the coming of the industrial revolution, small-scale plantation crops of rubber, cocoa, oil-palm or coffee were incorporated in farming systems in many parts of the world. These fields often require intensive management at certain times of the year, either in field preparation, pest management, harvest or post-harvest activities. Nonetheless they arc traditionally handled internally, labour coming exclusively from within...

Choice of emission factors

Modifications for the recovery and recycling of solvents can be applied if an appropriate estimate of retrofitted equipment can be obtained. While HFC and PFC solvents may be recovered and recycled multiple times during their use owing to their high costs, in most emissive end uses (sub-applications) these chemicals will be released considerably more quickly after being placed in use than those in sealed refrigeration applications.

Focus on Building Materials and Product Labels

The current trend of a rapidly growing number of 'green' testing and labeling efforts is causing confusion in the marketplace and limiting the potential growth in the sale and use of products that are better for climate change and human health. Currently, the labels are either not recognized by users, are not trusted by users, or do not address the broad attributes of green, which is a careful integration of the energy, indoor air quality, water, and recycling implications, and the impacts of operating and maintaining products over their lifetime.

Summary and conclusions

N fertilizer can also be replaced by better integrating animal manure in the arable production system, or by recycling human N and P. Our simple calculation shows that a considerable 13 per cent reduction of N2O emission from the global arable land is possible by replacing fertilizer by animal manure (Table 5.3). The feasibility of this option depends on the spatial separation of livestock and crop production activities. Finally, measures in the production process in the livestock sector may also have an impact on N2O emissions from cropland. Improving animal diets aimed at improving the N use efficiency by animals and thus reducing the N in animal manure (by 20 per cent) may lead to important reductions (5 per cent) in N2O from arable land. Finally, the use of nitrification inhibitors is an effective way to mitigate perhaps 50 per cent of N2O emissions from arable fields. However, these inhibitors are not used on a large scale yet.

Minimization of NDMA formation

In certain waters, such as nonnitrified secondary municipal wastewaters in some wastewater recycling operations, ammonia is present in the influent water. In these situations, chloramines could be preformed under conditions promoting monochloramine formation (i.e., high pH with chlorine added prior to ammonia), and then applied to the process stream. This process was successfully pilot-tested at a wastewater recycling facility 81 .

Revival of nuclear energy

In the longer term, by 2030-2040, fast neutron reactors (fourth generation) will be developed 52, 53 . Fast neutron reactors operating as 'breeder reactors' can use uranium 238, producing fissile plutonium (isotopes 239 and 241) by neutron capture on uranium 238. By successively recycling the plutonium produced from the uranium 238, 70-90 of the initial uranium can be fissioned, depending on whether or not the minor actinides also produced are recycled. Uranium resources could then be used for a period at least fifty times longer compared with the current situation 54-56 . The investment required for a fast neutron reactor (FNR) is higher than for a PWR, but the cost of the kWh produced becomes almost independent of the price of natural uranium. A certain number of technical problems still remain to be examined and the reliability of the process must be demonstrated before large-scale industrial deployment. One problem is the resistance of the materials, in particular steel, under...

The Imperatives Of Ecological Democracy

The challenge of an ecologically sustainable form of global social development is to safeguard what remains of the biological heritage of the planet. In addition, the task is to provide people all over the world with a broad mix of stable jobs, goods, and services that meet human needs in ways that promote equity, efficiency, and environmental protection. This goes well beyond recycling green products, building ecological business parks, conserving rainforests, controlling greenhouse gas emissions, and so on. The current proliferation of mass extinction indicates that the contemporary global model of development is socially and ecologically unsustainable. As the 1987 Brundtland Report notes, the conventional model of development cannot but compromise the ability of the future generations to meet their needs.64 The dominant geoculture is out of synch with ecological reality.

Sequential Batch Reactor System

A new technology using the sequential batch reactor (SBR) technique has been shown to provide an effective treatment of PORE 7 as shown in Fig. 9. Among the advantages of SBR over the conventional activated sludge are an automated control system, more versatility, stability, and the ability to handle high fluctuations in organic loading. A consistent output of BOD below 50 mg L was observed. With this system, the hydraulic retention time and solid sludge content could be controlled, thus eliminating the need for clarifier and sludge recycling facilities.

Trace Elements in Antarctic Marine Waters

Bruland 1980 Danielsson et al. 1985) show that uptake by phytoplankton, assimilation and recycling by zooplankton and scavenging generally determine an increase in concentrations of major nutrients and trace elements such as Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn with depth (i.e. with increasing age of the water). In the Southern Ocean, bioutilised trace metals such as Zn, Cu and Ni do not usually show co-limitation with Fe and, under Fe-depleted conditions, their concentrations in waters are not decreased by algal uptake as expected (Frew et al. 2001). This chapter discusses the distribution and cycling of these trace elements, particularly of metals of environmental and toxicological concern such as Cd, Pb and Hg. The reader interested in general aspects of trace element biogeochemistry in the marine environment can refer to specific books such as those by Riley and Chester (1983), Libes (1992), Bidoglio and Stumm (1994), Salbu and Steiness (1995) and Stumm and Morgan...

Selection of Test Systems

In this review we consider exclusively land treatment systems. Land treatment, or landfarming, is a method by which contaminated soils or sludges are excavated and placed in a lined treatment cell. This technique has several distinct advantages over in situ treatment. As previously mentioned, it allows for better control of the system by controlling the depth of soil and the surface area exposed. In turn, one is able to more accurately control soil temperature, nutrient concentrations, moisture content, and oxygen availability. Placing a liner with a leachate collection system beneath the soil column prevents any additional contamination potential and provides for recovery and recycling of water and nutrient. An added benefit of landfarming is found in the ease of sampling and hence cleanup verification. Zones of slow degradation can be readily identified and targeted for enhancement. This method allows for system optimization in a manner in which other techniques do not.

Modification of global iron balance

Iron is supplied to the surface ocean via the atmospheric transport of dust and its deposition, as well as by the upwelling, entrainment or mixing of deeper waters that are relatively rich in iron and other nutrients (Watson 1997). These sources supply new iron to the euphotic zone (i.e. not acquired via recycling). Rivers and continental margin sediments are also a significant source of iron to coastal waters (Tappin 2002 Laes et al. 2003). However, uptake by coastal phytoplankton and sedimentation of the fluvial inputs are likely to render this iron supply inaccessible to oceanic phytoplankton. In the oceanic euphotic zone, iron is also recycled from living matter to sustain regenerated biological production. The currently projected iron additions by the ocean iron fertilization (OIF) industries are estimated as 10 000 tonnes per year, which is less than 0.1 per cent of the amount delivered to the ocean by dust (15.5 x 106 tonnes yr-1) or rivers (650 x 106 tonnes yr-1). Consequently,

Application and Policy Integration

Japan clearly is the international forerunner in sustainable resource policy. In 2003 the Japanese government enacted the Basic Law for Establishing a Sound Material-Cycle Society. It includes two laws on waste management and public cleansing and promotion of the use of recyclable resources (OECD 2004a). As the title indicates, the Japanese policy focuses on reduction of consumption of natural resources through the enforcement of recycling and reuse to reduce the environmental load. MFA is specifically used as an accounting framework from which indicators such as DMI, DPO, and material use efficiency can be derived. The Japanese government set three quantitative sustainability targets for the period 2000 2010 and focused on the containment of material flows

Explanation of the Issue

Tree species chosen for a plantation in the context of forest restoration can provide benefits from the tree products (timber, fuelwood, leaf mulches, etc.), and from their ecological effects, for example, nutrient recycling, or attracting birds and other wildlife to the landscape. The choice of a tree species depends on whether both productive and ecological advantages can be achieved in the same system, and in some cases one function, either productive or environmental, may be desired. Within a forest landscape, the preferred choice for restoration would be natural regeneration. Planting would only be a secondary option, to be used in cases where natural regeneration cannot proceed due to the obstacles mentioned above (poor soil conditions, long distances to seed sources, isolation, invasion by aggressive grasses). Within a landscape context, there should be a balance of socioeconomic goals (e.g., productivity) and biodiversity objectives for restoration.

Of the Transported Glutamine in Developing Organs

We have recently determined the gene structure for NADH-GOGAT in rice plants.23 To obtain direct evidence to support the possible role of NADH-GOGAT in nitrogen recycling, a cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter was fused with a fragment of NADH-GOGAT cDNA in the antisense orientation, and the chimeric construct was introduced into rice calli by the methods of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.24 The experiments to look at the effects of expression of the antisense RNA in these transformants are now in progress. We have just obtained results which show that the weight of 1,000 grains from some of the transformants at the T0 generation is significantly reduced when compared to the grain weight of the control transformants introduced to vector without the NADH-GOGAT cDNA fragment (Fig. 17.2).

Needs for Increased N Uptake and NUE

Factors influencing crop production and yield such as increased photosynthesis (see above), or determining mineral nutrient availability (as influenced by rainfall patterns) will impact on demands for nutrients and efficiency of use this applies equally to all nutrients but is exemplified by N, a major limit on yield and a costly input for production. As additional N inputs are to be preferentially avoided for both economic and environmental reasons, increases in NUE are preferred. The overall trait of NUE is the product of two complex subtraits, namely N uptake efficiency (NUpE) and N utilization efficiency (NUtE) (Fig. 8.2). NUpE (N taken up by the crop as a function of the available N) is a trait associated with root characteristics of both architecture and function, including activity of transporters and assimilatory pathway enzymes. NUtE (yield of harvested material as a function of the total N taken up by a crop) is dependent on canopy functions such as photosynthesis and...

The Impact of Coastal Scientific Stations

At McMurdo Station (Ross Island) through the 1970s, wastes (drums, laboratory chemicals, obsolete vehicles, tyres, piping and other refuse) were routinely discharged along the eastern shoreline of Winter Quarters Bay (Manheim 1992). The bay provides docking facilities to visiting ships in an area adjacent to the former dumpsite. In 1988 the US National Science Foundation, in response to criticism by Greenpeace and other environmental groups, began a dumpsite cleanup and abatement programme. Inland and shoreline waste dumps were removed and waste was returned to the US. In 1989 a rigorous programme was initiated for reducing and recycling materials and for environmental monitoring. Within the framework of environmental studies aimed at evaluating the impact of human activities at specific Antarctic sites, Winter Quarters Bay became one of the most studied marine areas on the continent. Risebrough et al. (1990) determined the distribution of PCBs, Poly-chlorinated Terphenyls (PCTs) and...

Background and preconditions

Source reduction and waste recycling are two important options to improve waste management which is second in the range after waste avoidance. In the case of recycling the material is used in place of a virgin input in the manufacturing process, instead of being disposed and managed as waste. The material after its first use is recovered and prepared for a second use in the same field of application. Examples are the paper recycling or the use of retread tires. In a closed loop recycling the material is used to produce new material of the same kind, for example newspapers which are recycled into new newspapers. However, most of the material is recycled into a broader variety of manufactured products. This type of recycling is named as open loop. Benefits of recycling due to GHG emission reduction are calculated as the difference between GHG emissions when manufacturing from recycled or unhandled virgin material only. New fields of application of waste components may also be opened for...

Impact of grazing on ironinduced blooms

All SO OIF experiments were carried out outside the region inhabited by Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) which forms the food base of the Antarctic fauna whales, seals and penguins. The zooplankton of HNLC regions is dominated by salps (large, watery, barrel-shaped organisms that filter particles indiscriminately from water pumped through their gills) and copepods which, as the experiments demonstrate, were unable to prevent diatom biomass from accumulating. The situation might be different in the more productive regions around the continental margin frequented by krill in particular, the Southwest Sector of the Atlantic reported to harbour more than 60 per cent of the entire population (Atkinson et al. 2004). Krill feed voraciously on diatom blooms, macerating the shells in gastric mills, and producing copious amounts of faecal matter in the form of loose strings with potentially high sinking rates. However, the friable faeces are also recycled in the surface layer (Gonzalez...

Cultural And Historical Perspectives Of The Present Agrolandscape

Various ideologies resulting from this second nature, especially how nature should be managed or controlled, have contributed to the present fragmented landscape. The evolutionary significance of the mature (model) system, including how natural selection has resulted in the evolution of efficient mechanisms for insect pest control, nutrient recycling, and mutualistic behavior, is often poorly understood. A hallmark of these mature and sustainable ecological systems is also maximum biological diversity (Moffat, 1996 Tilman et al., 1996 Tilman, 1997). Environmental literacy must increase if societies are to develop sustainable agriculture and sustainable agrolandscapes (Barrett, 1992 Orr, 1992). For example, natural processes and concepts such as pulsing, carrying capacity, natural pest control, nutrient cycling, positive and negative feedback (cybernetics), and net primary productivity must be understood by ecologically literate societies in order to provide a quality environment for...

Sustainable Agro Urban Development

The present challenge for agrolandscape management is to minimize the infringement of urbanization on agricultural land, to restore biological diversity (genetic niche, species, and landscape) at greater temporal and spatial scales, to establish linkages (ecological and economic) between urban and rural (heterotrophic and autotrophic) patch elements, and to achieve sustainable productivity (P R 1) at agro-urban (regional) scales. Goals for achieving sustainable agrolandscape management should focus on (1) achieving stability regarding P R ratios among het-erotrophic and autotrophic systems at these scales (2) creating both natural corridor and human transport linkages between rural and urban systems (3) protecting the integrity of ecosystem watershed processes, such as nutrient recycling and primary productivity and (4) establishing management policies for optimal land use within transition suburban areas that ecologically and economically form an interface between urban and...

Economic Adaptive Measures

When water resources are inexpensive, or there are no financial incentive to conserve, recycle or substitute water use, economic policy instruments can be employed to change this, usually through market forces. The largest gains will be made in agriculture and industry, which are the biggest water users and polluters. Lack of water conservations is most pronounced in agriculture, which accounts for just 70 of the water consumed globally, 85 of which is used for irrigation. Traditionally, governments worldwide heavily subsidise water supply costs for agriculture, so farmers have little incentive to conserve water, especially that used in irrigation where vast quantities are lost though evaporation. Reductions in domestic water consumption can also save significant amounts of water, especially water used for toilets, showers and laundry and garden irrigation. Taxing water use in agriculture, industry and households is a means of re-valuing it as a commodity to encourage conservation....

Future and Environmental Concerns

Conventional energy intensive processes, like distillation and catalytic cracking can be upgraded by more efficient and less energy demanding new technologies. Heat should be supplied in common furnaces where all fuels will be burned with minimal excess air. All high temperature demands will share the radiating section of this furnace with maximum heat absorption. Since it is a unique furnace, the overall flue gas flow can be directed to a waste heat boiler that will require minimum supplementary fuel, just for adjustment of steam temperature and generating extra steam flow for balance purposes. Because of this design option, processes will be much closer and a much greater and improved heat recovery will be possible through a wider integration between diverse products and feedstock flows. In these innovative designed heat exchangers, fouling will be essentially eliminated. Placement of flows near each other, gives the opportunity to dispose most of the pumps side by side, enabling a...

Segregating and Separating Wastes

A drop of pollutant in a pure solution creates a container of pollution. Segregating wastes and nonwastes reduces the quantity of waste that must be handled. Various technical changes and modifications provide more precise and reliable separation of materials unavoidably mixed together in a waste stream by taking advantage of different characteristics of materials, such as boiling or freezing points, density, and solubility. Separation techniques such as distillation, supercritical extraction, membranes, reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, electrodialysis, adsorption, separate pollutants or mixed wastes back to their constituent parts (Table 6). Although simple in principle, these processes become high-tech in the precision with which they are applied to facilitate other options in the hierarchy such as recycling, treatment, and disposal.

Biogeochemical roles of microbes

We previously concluded from Fig. 3 that heterotrophic metabolism and nutrient recycling are balanced, and we had explained that PPreg is based on recycled nutrients. Hence, the biogeochemical processes of nutrient recycling, respiration and PPreg are controlled by heterotrophs, which are dominated by microbes.

Sterilization Using Ozone

Generated from air, 4 kWh lb from oxygen, and 5.5 kWh lb from oxygen-recycling systems. Operating costs for air systems are essentially the electric power costs for oxygen systems the cost of oxygen (2 to 30 lb) must be added to the electrical cost. Capital costs of large integrated ozone systems are 300 to 400 a pound per day of ozone generated and 100 a pound per day of ozone for the generator alone. Actual uses of ozone include odor control, industrial chemicals synthesis, industrial water and wastewater treatment, and drinking water. Lesser applications appear in fields of combustion and propulsion, foods and pharmaceuticals, flue gas-sulfur removal, and mineral and metal refining. Potential markets include pulp and paper bleaching, power plant cooling water, and municipal wastewater treatment. The odor control market is the largest and much of this market is in sewage treatment plants. Use of ozone for odor control is comparatively simple and efficient. The application is for...

Environmental effects including climate change

The next point concerns the effects of environmental changes on pelagic microbes and biogeochemical fluxes. Such changes can be bottom-up or top-down. Examples of bottom-up environmental changes are the increasing ocean temperature and the decreasing nutrient concentrations caused by increased stratification. As a response to increasing water temperature, the metabolic rates of heterotrophic microbes will increase faster than those of both phytoplankton (Lopez-Urrutia et al. 2006) and metazoans (because of higher surface volume ratio), causing more recycling among microbes and less transfer to other compartments. As a response to decreasing nutrients, bacteria may compete more efficiently for inorganic nutrients than phytoplankton because their affinity for nutrients is generally lower than that of phytoplankton (Kirchman 2000). Examples of top-down environmental changes are the drastic reduction in the numbers of top predators by commercial fisheries, and the introduction of invasive...

Adding Climate Change To The C02 Fertilization Effect

A further step is to consider how the direct C02 effect might set off the sorts of climate feedbacks from vegetation I mentioned in Chapters 5 and 6. If plants are opening their stomata less under increased CO and thus losing less water by evaporation, this means slower less efficient recycling of rainwater (which allows more water to run straight oil' the land to rivers instead). Less recycling may mean an overall decrease in rainfall, which takes away some of the benefit to the water balance of the plants from having increased C02. On the other hand, the increase in vegetation leaf coverage resulting from direct C02 effects would decrease albedo the lightness of the surface. In arid areas this darkening of the surface would tend to increase rainfall by promoting convection (Chapter 5). In colder climates, the decreased albedo would also tend to warm the climate (Chapter 6). Hence, an initial

Optimising the climate impacts of the MBP technology

As was shown in figure 12.6, MPB technology in addition to the recycling material including the RDF fraction leads to a product which after biological treatment is to be deposited. For suitable information on climate effects of MPB as a whole, the effect of the deposited material on the landfill has to be taken into account. A better pre-treatment comes up with lower organic residues and thus with lower landfill gas emissions. On the other hand, longer treatment requires higher energy input, e.g. for aeration, which as a consequence leads to enhanced greenhouse gas emissions in this process step. This is a typical technological compromise situation (see chapter 8) for which the best solution has to be found.

Prices and substitution

1 Revenue recycling The revenues raised from a carbon tax could be considerable. The macroeconomic effect of the tax can be expected to vary depending on whether the tax is retained or recycled through the economy, and how such recycling is effected. 3 Distortions No economy is at a point of non-distortionary equilibrium. There are distortions due to current taxation patterns, which bear most heavily on labour and there are distortions due to market failure, such as, perhaps, in the market for energy efficiency, and, of course, the negative externality exhibited by the phenomenon of global warming itself. The macroeconomic effect of a carbon tax will depend on whether the mode of recycling its revenues, or other associated policy, affects the distortions.

Materials And Process Analysis

Typically, pollution control and waste minimization have been thought of as logistical or engineering functions. A more effective approach would require managers at all organizational levels to know what all of their inputs are (materials, energy, utilities) and to examine their input stream for reductions. Focusing on first reducing the amount of inputs can eliminate much waste. Often smaller quantities can be ordered, less toxic material substituted, or some items eliminated entirely. Working with suppliers can be especially helpful, as suppliers of hazardous materials are under intense pressure to reduce the hazard level of their products, to reduce packaging, and to accept empty containers for reuse or recycling. The third, and final, step is to control and properly dispose of the wastes that are generated. This requires disposal systems and options, and education of the installation population. The primary type of disposal of wastes from military facilities should be recycling....

Land Application of Biosolids

The purpose of land application of biosolids is to dispose of the treated biosolids in an environmentally sound manner by recycling nutrients and soil conditioners. To be land applied, wastewater biosolids must comply with state and federal biosolids management and disposal regulations. Biosolids must not contain materials that are dangerous to human health (e.g., toxicity, pathogenic organisms) or dangerous to the environment (e.g., toxicity, pesticides, heavy metals). Treated biosolids are land applied by either direct injection or application and plowing in (incorporation).

Mobilization And Deployment

A unique military environmental problem is the amount of waste generated by military mobilizations and deployments. During times of national emergency or war, the population of an installation can double or triple in the space of 2 or 3 days. Industrial and production activities, such as maintenance and ammunition manufacturing, can go from very low rates to very high rates in a matter of days. Surging troop populations preparing for overseas deployment demand all manner of goods and services, resulting in the generation of large amounts of waste of all types in a short time period. It is difficult to minimize waste during mobilizations, since they are short-duration, resource-intensive activities. Good planning, however, can prevent pollution and recover such waste for recycling. contracts for waste disposal and recycling. Should planning estimates reveal that likely mobilization surges will overwhelm existing capacity, arrangements should be made to have contingency contracts...

Nitrous oxide emissions from stationary combustion

With respect to SO2, both NO2 and NO behave as oxidants, oxidizing SO2 to SO3 and thereby being reduced to NO and N2O, respectively. On the contrary, with respect to SO3, NO behaves as a reductant, reducing SO3 again to SO2 and thereby being oxidized to NO2. In this way, a recycling of SO2 becomes possible when an excess of NO is present, which explains some experimental findings that the amount of N2O formed may exceed the initial amount of SO2 being present in the sample (De Soete, 1989).

Handling Management And Disposal Of Electrical And Electronic Wastes The Us Experience

In the United States, the Universal Waste Regulations have so far streamlined the hazardous waste management standards for the above U.S. Federal universal wastes (batteries, pesticides, thermostats, and lamps). The regulations govern the collection and management of these widely generated wastes. This facilitates environmentally sound collection and increases the proper recycling or treatment of the universal wastes mentioned above. These U.S. regulations have eased the regulatory burden on American retail stores and others that wish to collect or generate these wastes. In addition, these regulations also facilitate programs developed to reduce the quantity of these wastes going to MSW landfills or combustors. They also ensure that the wastes subject to this system will go to appropriate treatment or recycling facilities pursuant to the full hazardous waste regulatory controls.

General Requirements For Collection Separation And Disposal Of Electrical And Electronic Wastes Containing Particularly

Stripping of electrical and electronic waste appliances must be carried out properly. During the processing of waste appliances (e.g., in shredders), it is essential to avoid that components highly contaminated with hazardous substances end up in fractions that are intended for recycling. It is furthermore necessary to ensure that the disposal of treatment residues (e.g., shredder residues) is not impeded by the presence of hazardous substances. As a rule, components containing particularly hazardous substances are to be removed manually. Future disposal processes, such as pyro-lysis, may allow recycling of appliances without prior removal of hazardous substances, in which case it will be possible to do without the disassembly of hazardous components.411 Fractions containing halogenated flame retardants (e.g., from printed circuit boards, cable insulation, and plastic housings) must be incinerated in suitable plants if recycling is not possible.

General Management and Disposal of Electronic Waste Appliances

The objectives for disposal of electronic waste appliances are (a) stripping of hazardous substances (b) reduction of pollutant and metal contents in the plastic fraction, thus permitting recycling or incineration in waste incineration plants or cement works (c) recovery of nonferrous metals and (d) attainment of commercially recyclable scrap quality. 2. Shredding of appliances and separation of fractions The stripped appliances are, as a rule, ground in a fine shredder (e.g., rotary cutter). The material resulting from this can be further processed by several methods. Possible processes are air classification, riddle screening, cyclone, turborotor, sink-float, eddy current, or magnetic separation. The separated fractions are handed on to workable lots for further processing or recycling, or to resellers. 3. Recycling and disposal of waste fractions. 8. Recycling of plastic-sheathed cables Electrical cables are sent to cable recycling plants that separate the plastic and copper...

Free Molecular Oxygen

To the discharge of nitrite ions and nitrate ions from specific industries. Denitrification problems associated with the headworks of the treatment plant and the primary clarifiers are due to the discharge of nitrite ions and nitrate ions from specific industries or the recycling of these ions in the RAS to the head of the treatment plant. Denitrification problems associated with the secondary clarifiers, chlorine contact tanks, thickeners, and anaerobic digesters may be due to the discharge of nitrite ions and nitrate ions from specific industries but usually are due to the production of these ions through nitrification in the aeration tanks.

Structural Point Of View

The recycling of food wastes should be considered as part of the long-term sustainability of agriculture. As Japan is a typical island state, the undesirable influence of oversea-dependent food production has become obvious. Although free trade systems are The rate of Japan's self supply of domestic food was 41 in 1970, 32 in 1990, and 29 in 1998 for N, and 33 (1970), 29 (1990), and 28 (1998) for Phosphorus, excluding grass feed 1 . These facts make the recycling of food wastes difficult in various phases. We have not enough farmlands for food wastes to be recycled. The supply of composts to paddy field for rice plantation decreased from 5.07 ton ha year in 1965 to 1.25 ton ha year in 1997 2 . Figure 2 shows a comparison of food balance between Japan and the United States. Based on international statistics on agriculture, forestry, and fisheries 3 , the United States exports food and feed of 4.2 g N capita day. However Japan imports food and feed at a rate as high as 19.4 g N capita...

Management and Disposal of a Specific Electronic Waste CRTs

To encourage more reuse and recycling, intact CRTs being sent for possible reuse are considered to be products rather than wastes and therefore not regulated unless they are being disposed of. If CRT handlers disassemble the CRTs and send the glass for recycling, the U.S. EPA is also proposing to exclude them from being a waste, provided they comply with simplified storage, labeling, and transportation requirements. Furthermore, the U.S. EPA believes that if broken CRTs are properly containerized and labeled when stored or shipped before recycling, they resemble commodities more than waste. Finally, processed glass being sent to a CRT glass manufacturer or a lead smelter is excluded from hazardous waste management under most conditions. If the glass is being sent to any other kind of recycler, it must be packaged and labeled the same as broken CRTs. The U.S. EPA believes that these proposed changes will encourage the recycling of these materials, while minimizing the possibility of...

Management and Disposal of Mercury Containing Equipment Including Lamps

Main recycling disposal path FIGURE 29.3 Flow diagram of the management, separation, recycling, and disposal of waste CRTs. From SAEFL, Waste Management Guidelines for the Ordinance on the Return, the Taking Back and the Disposal of Electrical and Electronic Appliances (ORDEA), Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forests and Landscape, p. 76, Bern, Switzerland, 2000. With permission. U.S. EPA initiated a mercury-containing lamp recycling outreach program in 2002 to promote mercury lamp recycling by commercial and industrial users. The outreach program aims to increase awareness of the proper disposal methods of these lamps in compliance with Federal and State Universal Waste Rules. This outreach effort will be effective in increasing the amount of lamps recycled in the short term, as well as have a lasting impact over the long term. The U.S. EPA's goal is to raise the national recycling rate for mercury lamps from the current 20 to 40 by 2005, and to 80 by 2009. U.S. EPA awarded funds...

Council Directive of 18 March 1991 on batteries and accumulators containing certain dangerous substances 91157EEC

Whereas collection and recycling of spent batteries and accumulators can help avoid unnecessary use of raw materials Whereas recourse to economic instruments such as the setting up of a deposit system may encourage the separate collection and recycling of spent batteries and accumulators - where appropriate, recycling, - promotion of research aimed at reducing the dangerous-substance content and favouring the use of less polluting substitute substances in batteries and accumulators, and research into methods of recycling, 1. Member States shall ensure the efficient organization of separate collection and, where appropriate, the setting up of a deposit system. Furthermore, Member States may introduce measures such as economic instruments in order to encourage recycling. These measures must be introduced after consultation with the parties concerned, be based on valid ecological and economic criteria and avoid distortions of competition.

Environmental Implications

There can be little question that the presence of plastic debris and other persistent synthetic litter on remote and wilderness beaches, let alone shores close to metropolitan centres, is aesthetically offensive. While larger items are a particular eyesore to most observers, the environmental hazards and problems they and less conspicuous smaller fragments present are not so clearly manifest.

Quality Assurance Quality Control

Reduce the amount of paper discards each year by the amount of paper that is recovered for recycling each year using FAO data on amount of recovered paper produced. d. Estimate the amount of solidwood and paper deposited in SWDS each year by multiply the discard amount (after recovery for recycling) by the fraction that goes to SWDS.

Water Usage In Food Processing

Water conservation, reuse, and recycling are increasingly being implemented. Some common practices have been applied in water conservation for example, installing shutoff valves and flow reduction devices, choosing dry cleaning instead of wet cleaning methods, and so on. As the waste-water from food processing mainly contains organics, it can be treated biologically and subsequently reclaimed by a combination of physico-chemical and biological approaches. Application of the reclaimed water into food processing can in turn save cost and decrease the consumption of fresh water. Many successful experiences have been witnessed in the food industry for instance, the starch industry has reduced the use of fresh water by 20 . This substantial cost reduction is attributed to process integration and the internal recycling of process water. Cooling water systems have also been optimized to minimize the cooling water requirement and use of fresh water.3 The concept and practice of ecoefficiency...

Waste Reduction Options

When identifying options, team members should follow the waste reduction hierarchy in which source reduction possibilities are explored first, followed by recycling options. With an ever-increasing emphasis being placed on zero-discharge and on-site recycling, waste treatment technology will eventually be phased out of many operations. Source reduction is preferred because it reduces or eliminates waste from the beginning of a process. Recycling should be considered only when all attempts at performing source reduction have been exhausted, and then on-site recycling should be the primary method considered.

University of Michigan

Enterprises is affiliated with the School of Business and fosters global sustainable enterprise through interdisciplinary research and education initiatives. Even the operations of the university itself strive to be environmentally sensitive, with UM Waste Management Services encouraging recycling on campus. The university operates a 13,000-acre (53 sq. km.) biological station in the northern Lower Peninsula of Michigan one of only 47 biosphere reserves in the United States.

Commission Directive 98101EC of 22 December 1998 adapting to technical progress Council Directive 91157EEC on batteries

10. recycling means the reprocessing in a production process of the waste materials for the original purpose or for other purposes but excluding energy recovery. Energy recovery means the use of combustible waste as a means to generate energy through direct incineration with or without other waste but with recovery of the heat

Article 7 Freedom to place on the market

Member States shall aim at achieving no later than 31 December 2004 a minimum recycling rate of 55 by weight of the materials contained in the collected spent batteries and accumulators. No later than 31 December 2008 this recycling target shall be reviewed in accordance with the procedure by which this Directive is adopted.

Wastewater Characterization

In-plant management practices may often control the volume and quality of the treatment system influent. Volume reduction can be attained by process wastewater segregation from noncontact water, by recycling or reuse of noncontact water, and by the modification of plant processes. Control of spills, leakage, washdown, and storm runoff can also reduce the treatment system load. Modifications may include the use of vacuum pumps instead of steam ejectors, recycling caustic soda solution rather than discharging it to the treatment system, and incorporation of a more efficient solvent recovery system.

Emulsion Crumb Rubber Production

In-process controls for the reduction of wastewater flows and loads for emulsion crumb rubber plants include recycling of finishing line wastewaters and steam stripping of heavy monomer decanter wastewater. Recycling of finishing line wastewater occurs at nearly all emulsion crumb plants with the percent recycle depending primarily upon the desired final properties of the crumb. Approximately 75 recycle is an achievable rate, with recycle for white masterbatch crumb below this level and that for black masterbatch crumb exceeding it.

Table 2 Concentrations of Toxic Pollutants Found in Insulation Board Subcategory Raw Wastewater Usepa Verification Data

A unit flow of 12L kg (2800 gal ton) is considered to be representative of an SIS hardboard plant that produces a full line of hardboard products and that practises internal recycling to the extent practicable. A unit flow of 24.6 L kg (5900 gal ton) is considered to be representative of an S2S hardboard manufacturing plant that produces a full line of hardboard products and practises internal recycling to the extent possible.

California Department of Health Services US Environmental Protection Agency

This book analyzes alternatives to land disposal of hazardous metal waste streams, focusing on methods that prevent waste generation. Source reduction, recycling and treatment strategies are examined. The boot* examines industrial operations found wifhin many industries that are responsible for generating most ot their metal wastes. These operations include metal casting surface cleaning and stripping surface treatment and plating draining and rinsing and coating as well as auxiliary plant operationsand general operating practices. A so examine dare refinery processes, printed circuit board manufacturing, and photo-finishing. Metal-bearing waste streams Irom these activities include 3pent process solutions, contaminated rinsewaters, and emission waste collected by air pollution control equipment. Currently used and promising future source reduction, recycling andtreatmeni opportunities are identified and examined for each of these streams.

Common Practice and Future Needs

Comprehensive sustainability is built upon three pillars which consider environmental, economical and societal aspects. These dimensions can be covered within the Sustainable Assessment (SustAss). It is based upon (i) the ecologically oriented LCA with the carbon footprint as an important element, (ii) the life cycle costing (LCC) and (iii) the social life cycle assessment (SLCA) 42 . Every assessment refers to a specific item (e.g., a product), typically evaluated from raw material acquisition to product disposal recycling (cradle , to -grave). Ideally, the system boundaries of all three evaluation fields correspond with each other following consistent assumptions and are distinct to avoid double counting. Only under consideration of the entire life cycle, can problems referring to sustainability and their possible shifts to other issues when solved (e.g., the sourcing of renewable feedstocks could cause food shortage), be identified and anticipated 43 . Currently, the social...

Fuel vs Food and other Misbalances

Ecological sustainable production and consumption often conflict with other ethical imperatives. Philosophers refer to such situations where two (or more) actions that are both morally imperative (or forbidden) cannot be realized simultaneously -46 - A paradigm of such a situation provides the use of biomass as a substitute for fossil resources. The required land area competes with agriculturally used land. The tortilla crisis gave some insight into this steeply growing potential for conflict - growing, as due to depletion the price of fossil resources rises, caused by a steep increase of world population. This growth, the increasing standard of living and the growing demand for energy supply based on renewable sources will lead to a bottleneck of land area in the future. To widen the area for cultivation, the use of marine-based feedstock is another option. For example, given the same solar irradiation algae can yield up to ten times more than typical land crops, since algae are able...

PRC Environmental Management

The study identifies three categories of waste reduction technologies that are available to metal finishers. (1) source reduction, (2) recycling and resource recovery, and (3) alternative treatment. The costs associated with implementing these technologies range from a few hundred dollars for making simple improvements in housekeeping and minor process modifications to tens of thousands of dollars for installing recovery or treatment units. The benefits realized from implementing such improvements include reductions in material purchase and waste disposal costs, as well as reduction in the liability associated with generating, handling, and disposing of hazardous wastes. A generic audit procedure has been developed and described, to help individual facilities realize these benefits. 5. RECYCLING AND RESOURCE RECOVERY Rinse Water and Process Bath Recycling Solvent Recycling Source Reduction Material Substitution Rinse Efficiency Drag-out Reduction Recycling and Resource Recovery Waste...

The Sludge Pasteurization Process

In the United States procedures to reduce the number of pathogenic organisms are a requirement before sale of sludge or sludge-containing products to the public as a soil conditioner, or before recycling sludge to croplands. Since the final use or disposal of sludge may differ greatly with respect to health concerns, and since a great number of treatment options effecting various degrees of pathogen reduction are available, the system chosen for the reduction of pathogens should be tailored to the specific application. Thermal conditioning of sludge in a closed, pressurized system destroys pathogenic organisms and permits dewatering. The product generally has a good heating value or can be used for land filling or fertilizer base. In this process, sewage sludge is ground and pumped through a heat exchanger and sent with air to a reactor where it is heated to a temperature of 350-400 F. The processed sludge and air are returned through the heat exchanger to recover heat. The...

Air Flotation Systems

Air Floatation And Precipitation

A typical DAF process is not simply a physical separation technique. One must consider the entire treatment process, which is based on chemical coagulation, clarification and rapid sand filtration. This process train is widely accepted and is very applicable to the treatment of colored and turbid surface waters for municipal and industrial applications. Normally the clarification stage employs DAF. The suspended solid matter in the chemically treated water is separated by introducing a recycle stream containing small bubbles which floats this material to the surface of the tank. This is achieved by recycling a portion of the clarified flow back to the DAF unit. The recycle flow is pumped to higher pressure and is then mixed with compressed air. The flow passes through a tank where the air dissolves to saturation at the higher pressure. When the pressure is released at the clarifier, the dissolved air precipitates as a cloud of micro bubbles which attach to the particulate matter...

S Wayne Rosenbaum Recontek

The recycling of F006 metal hydroxide sludges can be viewed as a sinple problem in extractive metallurgy. Extractive metallurgy is the science of extracting and purifying metals frcm ore bodies. Most of the techniques required for the successful recycling of F006 sludges had been fully developed by 1920. REOONIEK has applied those techniques to a grcwing market as an alternative to landfill disposal. its economic viability. In the past, hydrcmetallurgy could not ccrrpete with landfill disposal. In the past two years this has changed as a result of higher metal prices coupled with more stringent environmental regulations on land fills. Today, the economics of recycling are better than those for landfills as shewn by the following analysis. It is clear frcm this analysis that hydrcmetallurgical recycling as practiced by REOCNIEK is new cost competitive with land fill disposal. Further, as regulations cn land fills, such as leachate collection and treatment, become more stringent the...

CIP cleaning solutions

CIP systems rely on sensors to monitor the cycle and the adequacy of cleaning therefore it is possible to divert the spent cleaning fluid for recycling. To prolong the life of detergent, it is common practice to eliminate the soil particles by sedimentation, centrifugation or by membrane technology (Schindler 1993). In recent years membrane filtration processes such as microfiltration, ultrafiltration and nanofiltration have been applied to CIP solution regeneration, resulting in significant removal of both suspended solids and soluble solids (Dresch et al. 2001). A number of studies (Dresch et al. 2001 Merin et al. 2001 Gesan-Guiziou et al. 2002 Rasanen et al. 2002) have examined the use of nanofil-tration to recycle spent caustic solutions, whereby milk solids are removed by nanofiltration and the cleaned caustic collected in the nanofiltration permeate for reuse. Studies by Lundekvam and Flaten (1997) show that membrane recycling of cleaning solutions leads to energy savings of 16...

Upgrading of the monooligomeric components

Fruit and vegetable by-products are rich in fermentescible sugars, and as such they can be used as raw material for ethanol production. Production of ethanol from agricultural and forestry residues or other sources of ligno-cellulosic biomass is of both economic and environmental interest. It could be a way to counter the inevitable depletion of the world's petroleum supply and to decrease air pollution. Ethanol can be produced from glucose and xylose fermentation, both originating from cell wall polysaccharide degradation. Sugar cane bagasse is the main raw material used for this purpose but other biomass is also used, such as hardwood and grasses. Some other wastes have been studied, e.g. chicory roots (Leplus, 2004). The biomass can be treated by a concentrated acid process that uses sulphuric acid (Fig. 16.4). In that case, very efficient acid recycling is required for the process to be economically acceptable. The second possibility to recover the monomers is to degrade the...

Need for Savings in Environmentally Relevant Resources 551 Fertilisers

Crop residues remaining on the field (straw, leaves and roots) as well as the recycling and refeeding of the residues and wastes of the crop products used for energy purposes such as ash and digested sludge contribute to minimising the demand for mineral fertiliser. Although the combustion and thermal gasification of biomass results in a major loss of nitrogen N (96 , , 100 ) and sulphur S (70 , , 92 ), the loss of P and K is lower and ranges between 30 and 100 (Hartmann and Strehler 1995 Heard et al. 2006). However, there are differences between the ash fractions (grate, fine and filter ash) concerning this matter. The grate ash used in practice is only 80-90 of the total ash content (percentage by weight) for cereals or grass and 60-90 for wood (Obernberger 1997), so that the actual nutrient recycling rate of solid biofuels is lower. Moreover, it must be considered that it is not the total percentages of these ash nutrients that are available to plants (Table 5.4).

Overview of selected case studies

The sugar industry is one of the major water users and wastewater producers. Gutteck (1989) assumed that processing of 1 t sugar beet would require around 20 m3 of fresh water, supposing that for each stage fresh water would be used. A large sugar plant processing 10 000 t day of beet therefore requires 2500-4000 m3 year of fresh water and discharges an even larger stream of waste water (including water contained in the processed beet). Water-saving measures such as water reuse, regeneration and recycling are well known and are widely applied in the sugar industry, see, for example, Grabowski et al. (2002) and Urbaniec and Wernik (2002). The present trend in modern sugar plants is to reduce water consumption towards 'zero', implying that all the needs for water in the process are covered by the water contained in the sugar beet (0.75 t of water per 1 t of sugar beet), except for the water required for the boiler house. Grabowski et al. (2002) suggested that the water and energy use...

Going Green For More Cash

Going Green For More Cash

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