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Laactiat* Irtatrrwol » WOHIi ilodga ■> Controlled Landfill (in. Ph. Cd, Hg...)

2000 sites in EU

Laactiat* Irtatrrwol » WOHIi ilodga ■> Controlled Landfill (in. Ph. Cd, Hg...)

{" ) Heji resent s <2.3 % nf total atmospheric Cadmium tmi^Mdns in EU - will decrease H Ith impie m en la linn of Directive 2000/76/EC to less than 0.1 T/y. {* ' i Represents 0.8 */• of total Cadmium I missions to Surface Water in EU,

Figure 22. The Contribution of Ni-Cd Batteries to Total Cadmium Emissions

The current emission level of cadmium from MSW incinerators represent less than 2.0% of total atmospheric emissions of cadmium in the EU countries. The enforcement of the new EU Directive on emissions of cadmium gives a maximum permissible concentration of 0.05 mg/Nm3. In these conditions, emissions associated to the production of 5,500 m3 of flue gas per ton of MSW incinerated would lead to a total atmospheric emission below 100 kilograms for 22% MSW incineration capacity.

Official reports from France and Switzerland (Chambaz D. and al. (1998), French Society of Public Health (1999)) confirm that municipal waste incinerators do not present any risk for the population as regards cadmium emissions.

4.3. Emissions from Landfills

The second fraction of spent Ni-Cd batteries is introduced in landfills (as illustrated in Figure 22). The EC Directive on waste imposes a strict control of leachate emissions. More than 2,000 sites have been reviewed and 95% of them show cadmium concentrations in leachates below 5 micrograms per litre (Eggenberger 2000). This represents the recommended concentration of cadmium for drinking water by the World Health Organization (WHO). This low emission level from MSW landfills has been confirmed by Swedish researchers (Flyhammer 1996).

Several sites may have higher concentration of cadmium emissions. These are industrial waste landfills and the origin of their cadmium emissions is not proven to be from spent batteries.

Cadmium releases from landfills have been evaluated by the Draft Risk Assessment Report on Cadmium (DRAR 2000). They can be evaluated at less than 0.3 tonnes/y, this representing less than 0.8% of total emissions of cadmium in water in the EU countries. The major contributors to total cadmium emissions into surface waters are zinc and lead producers, fuel combustion for electricity generation, fuel combustion for road transportation, phosphate industries and non-ferrous metallurgy (DRAR 2000).

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