Because of the necessity for innovative approaches in the recycling arena, partnerships involving waste processors have begun to emerge. For example, Toxco, Inc., a major recycler of lithium batteries world wide, has formed an alliance with Kinsbursky Brothers, Inc., the largest non-lithium battery management firm in the U.S. By joining forces, battery and vehicle manufacturers can be offered a comprehensive and efficient battery management program through a single source.
Automobile and recycling companies have also formed alliances. Because of its use of the Li-ion battery in its Altra EV, Nissan reviewed future recycling capacity for spent Li-ion batteries. The company formed a partnership with Toxco after finding that a significant lithium battery recycling capacity shortfall could be anticipated. Toxco would share a percentage of its long-range processing capacity with Nissan, and also provide additional capacity in California as larger quantities of Nissan EVs appear on the California highways.
An additional benefit derived from the Nissan-Toxco agreement is that it has provided renewed enthusiasm for a lithium recycling facility in California. In 1992, it was difficult to obtain a permit for a lithium recycling facility in California because of strict solid and hazardous waste disposal regulations. However, the current regional director of the California Department of Toxic Substances Control has visited the Toxco facility in British Columbia (BC) and met with the BC Ministry of Environment regulators . As a result of that review, a lithium battery recycling facility in California is now considered feasible.
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