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course, is also present in major amounts, and, technically, should also be considered, but, as will be shown later, its environmental impact is quite low and therefore does not contribute significantly to the environmental impact of the NiCd battery system.

Another set of data has been provided by a study on aqueous emission factors for cadmium in the Rhine River basin from 1970 to 1990 (Elgersma et al. 1992). This study was performed by the Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) in Austria and was presented at the 1992 Seventh International Cadmium Conference. This data, which is shown graphically in Figure 3, clearly shows that aqueous cadmium emissions for industrial NiCd battery manufacture have decreased from approximately 8 grams per kilogram of cadmium processed to less than 1 gram of cadmium per kilogram of cadmium processed in 1988. Similarly, aqueous cadmium emissions for consumer NiCd battery manufacture have decreased from 15 grams of cadmium per kilogram of cadmium processed in 1970 to about 1 gram of cadmium per kilogram of cadmium

Aqueous Emission Factors |g Cd per kg Cd processed)

Figure 3. Aqueous Emission Factors for Rhine River Basin, 1970 -1990

In each group, from left to right: Cadmium Plating Consumer NiCds Pigments & Stabilizers Industrial NiCds

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