Background

The never-ending search for the most efficient battery (lightest weight, highest energy) has gone on since the batteries were initially developed. The LeClanche cell, lead acid and carbon zinc batteries sustained the portable electric world until the latter part of the 20th century. During this period the technology base of electronics began drastically expanding due to breakthroughs in microelectronics, software, digital systems, communications technology, and electric transportation. It seems...

Conventional Batteries Leadacid Pbacid

The lead-acid battery has been the rechargeable energy storage technology of choice since the earliest development of EVs because of its widespread availability, relatively low cost, and generally user friendly characteristics. Consequently, an infrastructure for collection and recycling of these batteries already exists. In fact, recycled lead forms a significant percentage of the lead used in fabricating new batteries. Because the market for lead-acid batteries is already extremely large,...

Conclusions

The development of any program aimed at reducing the impact on the environment by a product, a chemical or a substance in general should follow some basic rules that have been issued by OECD under the generic term of Environmental Indicators (OECD Publications-1998). These indicators can be global, sectorial and or economic, nevertheless they are aimed at the realistic follow-up of a given situation. Prior to any elaboration of a program and of the follow-up of this program by environmental...

Commission Directive 9386EEC of 4 October 1993 adapting to technical progress Council Directive 91157EEC on batteries

THE COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES, Having regard to the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community, Having regard to Council Directive 75 442 EEC of 15 July 1975 on waste (1), as last amended by Directive 91 692 EEC (2), and in particular Article 18 thereof, Having regard to Council Directive 91 157 EEC of 18 March 1991 on batteries and accumulators containing certain dangerous substances (e), and in particular Article 10 Whereas detailed arrangements should be established for...

Existing Methods For Ev Battery Recycling

As part of a broad assessment of the general recyclability of automotive batteries done in the mid-1990s, a report on recycling technology was prepared for the California Environmental Protection Agency Air Resources Board 16 . Ten different EV battery technologies were ranked based on their performance and recyclability. The battery chemistries that were included in this study are presented in Table 3. Because the recycling capacity available for some of these batteries was minimal in 1995 and...

Collection Of Spent Rechargeable Batteries

Collection of Spent Portable Rechargeable Batteries Today, spent portable Ni-Cd batteries are mainly collected via four routes (Figure 23). The large majority comes through the sorting of batteries from general collection programs as those established in the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, Austria and other EU countries. Municipalities in Sweden and professionals organisations in Denmark are also contributing to their collection. Finally, in France a dedicated collection program for...

Collected sealed cells power Packs

Collected Sealed Cells and Power Packs Figure lb. Collected Sealed Cells and Power Packs process may contain an abnormally high quantity of cadmium impurities, which makes the zinc-based end-product more difficult to sell and contributes to reduce its value. As regards the nickel, it has to be isolated by precipitation or the preparation of a selective solution so as to separate it from the manganese. With the majority of these processes, a sorting operation is necessary. The basic...

Info

Nickel, for example, is produced by electrolytic processes and has a higher melting temperature, and thus requires higher energy to produce per metric tonne. However, in general, the levels of both metal emissions and greenhouse gas emissions which are produced in the production of battery metals are a small fraction of the total weight of the metals used in the battery. Thus, what is far more important in a total environmental impact analysis is whether or not a spent battery is recycled or...

Elsevier

Amsterdam - London - New York - Oxford - Paris - Shannon - Tokyo ELSEVIER SCIENCE B.V. Sara Burgerhartstraat 25 P.O. Box 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, The Netherlands 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. This work is protected under copyright by Elsevier Science, and the following terms and conditions apply to its use Single photocopies of single chapters may be made for personal use as allowed by national copyright laws. Permission of the Publisher and payment of a fee is required for all...

Introduction

Nickel-cadmium batteries are divided into two major classes - the small consumer cells that make up approximately 80 of the market and the large industrial batteries, which constitute the remaining 20 . The distinction between the two types of batteries, their applications and markets, and, most importantly, the total number of users of these two types is very important in establishing collection and recycling systems for NiCd batteries. Small consumer cells are typically used for portable...

Penetration Rate

The discarding in the MSW stream (available for collection). Hoarding of Equipment and Replacement Batteries Figure 11. Hoarding Rates for Equipment and Replacement Batteries Figure 11. Hoarding Rates for Equipment and Replacement Batteries Elimination modes Transfer to third party + Collection + Discarding in MSW The consumers have declared that 14 of the total number of acquisitions have been eliminated on the average. Considered separately, 11 of the equipment and 38 of the replacement...

Sealed NiCd

These batteries, as the sealed lead-acid ones, allow oxygen recombination on overcharge, so that they can be sealed and need no maintenance. The electrodes reactions are those mentioned for conventional batteries. However, in this case, the negative electrode has a higher capacity than the positive. During charge, the latter is fully oxidized first and starts to evolve 02, which migrates to the negative electrode and reacts As for the sealed lead-acid, a thin electrolyte layer is used to help...

Rechargeable Batteries

In the field of portable rechargeable batteries for such electronic devices, as cellular phones, personal computers and video cameras, many changes occurred in their respective markets. For over 30 years, NiCd batteries have mainly been used as the power source, but NiMH and lithium ion batteries were developed in the early 1990's and, since then, their demand has rapidly increased. For the collection and recycling of portable rechargeable batteries in Japan, both NiCd batteries and the...

Symbols And Technical Aspects For The Marking Of Batteries And Accumulators Battery Packs And Appliances With A View To

The symbol indicating separate collection for all batteries and accumulators shall consist of the crossed out wheeled bin, as shown below 2. As regards batteries and accumulators as well as button batteries and accumulators containing cadmium or mercury above the levels indicated in Article 4.1 and 4.3 or lead above 0,1 of the weight of the battery, the chemical symbol for the metal concerned, Cd, Hg, Pb, shall be indicated. The symbol indicating the heavy metal content shall be printed beneath...

Zincair

Mechanically rechargeable, zinc-air batteries have been tested in Europe in postal trucks 41 . In this system, spent zinc anodes are removed from the battery and electrochemically reprocessed. A replacement battery containing charged anodes is loaded into the vehicle to minimize refueling time. Although a recycling process has not been designed, the battery materials are non-toxic and should be easy to handle. The cells do contain KOH electrolyte that would have to be neutralized. Besides the...

Year Of Acquisition

Evolution of Acquisitions of Cordless Power Tools Units with 3.4. Home Storage Effect (Hoarding Rate) The hoarding rate has been defined as the ratio between the number of units still at home (in use or not in use) and the total number of acquisitions expressed in percent. Hoarding Rate Quantity at home (in use and not in use) Quantity of acquisitions The following results have been obtained from the data presented in Table 3. > Dust busters, shavers and toothbrushes 87 to 89 . >...

EPAs Document on the States Adopting Advanced Legislation for Battery Management

State Legislation Affecting Rechargeable Batteries The 1996 Battery Act eased the burden on battery recycling programs by mandating national, uniform labeling requirements for Ni-Cd and certain small sealed lead-acid batteries and by making the Universal Waste Rule effective in all 50 states. The Battery Act preempts state labeling requirements for these battery types and state legislative and regulatory authority for the collection, storage, and transportation of Ni-Cd and other covered...

Stibat

As it is presented in Figure 29, in Europe the quantity of spent Ni-Cd batteries processed for recycling has reached the volume of 2,040 tonnes in the year 2000. When compared to the quantity identified in MSW during the previous years (600 to 800 tonnes), it comes that the recycling rate of Ni-Cd batteries at the european level is higher than 70 . This calculation is presented in Table 6. It is obviously estimated that Ni-Cd batteries left in a hoarding position are not available for...

Lithiumion Liion and Lithiumpolymer Lipolymer

One of the future recycling needs for the Li-ion battery chemistry involves testing of improved methods for recovering alternative cathode materials. Because the economic incentive to reclaim these materials will likely be less than for cobalt, it will be important for the processes to be highly efficient and necessary to use inexpensive reagents. Other opportunities are in recovery of carbon anodes. It is preferable to process them back into new battery anodes because this would be the most...

Introduction And Principal Findings

Rechargeable nickel cadmium (Ni-Cd) batteries possess attributes that make them ideal for powering portable appliances such as cellular and cordless telephones, portable household appliances, and power tools. Since their mass-market introduction in the mid-1980s, they have achieved wide consumer acceptance in all member states of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The 29 states are listed in the Appendix. Nonetheless, concern exists that after the useful lives of...

Treatment Of Nickelcadmium Batteries

The technology used to treat nickel-cadmium batteries falls into two major categories The treatment of a mixture of batteries and accumulators Technology specific to the treatment of nickel-cadmium batteries Most of the processes used to treat a mixture of batteries are regarded as being able to accept a more or less high quantity of NiCd, NiMH or Li-Ion batteries. With large-scale collection services - such as those found in Germany, Switzerland, Belgium, Holland and so on - the current figure...

The Environmental Issues

The human health and environmental issues associated with nickel-cadmium batteries arise mainly from the ultimate disposal of the spent batteries. In general, occupational exposures to and manufacturing wastes and emissions from nickel, cadmium, cobalt and other materials in NiCd battery production are well regulated and controlled. There is virtually no danger of nickel or cadmium exposure during normal use of NiCd batteries. Even when NiCd batteries are disposed of in landfills, there is...

Nickel Metal Hydride NiMH

Nickel metal hydride batteries can be partially reclaimed today through pyrometallurgical processing, although the focus is primarily on the nickel, chromium and iron fractions. Rare earths and other metals typically contained in the hydride alloy are not separated and form part of a slag that is eventually sold as aggregate for road construction. The principal facility of this type in the U.S. that accepts Ni MH battery waste is operated by INMETCO. A variety of wastes from the stainless steel...

Cadmium Recovery Inmetco

Nickel-Cadmium Batteries Collected for Recycling in North America THE INMETCO NiCd BATTERY RECYCLING PROCESS The International Metals Reclamation Company, Inc. (INMETCO), located in Ellwood City, Pennsylvania, began operations in 1978 as a metals recycler. INMETCO is committed to the concept of sustainable development, which requires balancing the need for economic growth with good stewardship in the protection of human health and the natural environment. Since 1978, INMETCO has been...

NiMeH

In these batteries, the cadmium used in Ni-Cd batteries is replaced by the hydrogen absorbed in a metal alloy. In comparison with Ni-Cd, the Ni-MeH battery has a higher capacity and is environmentally friendly. On the other hand, its rate capability is lower and overcharge may cause problems. In many portable devices, such as cellular phones and laptop computers, Ni-MeH batteries have replaced Ni-Cd also in view of the similar costs. Large batteries are now being developed for EV traction. The...

Nickel Cadmium NiCd

Another conventional battery technology that has been considered for EVs is Ni Cd. Although capable of somewhat better performance than lead-acid in some respects, this battery is also more costly and does not equal the performance levels possible with advanced battery systems. It is unlikely to see widespread use in EV applications in the U.S. although there are reported to be more than 10,000 EVs using Ni Cd batteries presently on the road in Europe 23 . Because of the toxicity of cadmium,...

Collection Efficiency And Recycling Rate

Each country establishing a collection scheme is trying to bring its own definition of recycling and collection rates. It appears that a standardisation at the european level is needed. The various european directives on waste management do not present a clear definition of terms as collection rates and recycling rates. There is a general trend to forget that recycling is a generic term for a sequence of operations starting with collection, consolidation, sorting, processing and finally re-use...

The Hazards And Safety Aspects Of Recycling Lithium Batteries

As seen in the previous section there are numerous types of lithium batteries. In this section, we shall look at the generic hazards of primary (with liquid or solid cathode) and rechargeable batteries. There is much controversy over the reactivity of several individual chemistry types. It is the authors opinion that there are inherent hazards associated with any battery type or energy source and in most situations the hazards and size are directly related. In a similar scenario, lithium...

Sodium Nickel Chloride NaNiCl2

The Na NiCh or ZEBRA battery is another high temperature system that resembles Na S in some respects. However, the design of the system reduces operational hazards from certain failure modes such as cell shorting. This battery has been road tested in about 90 vehicles 38 including the Mercedes A-class EV, although it is not currently slated for commercialization. A recycling process for the battery has been outlined and appears to be feasible. Detailed cost analyses have not been done, but the...

The Mercury Containing and Rechargeable Battery Management

An Act To phase out the use of mercury in batteries and provide for the efficient and cost-effective collection and recycling or proper disposal of used nickel cadmium batteries, small sealed lead-acid batteries, and certain other batteries, and for other purposes. SECTION 1. SHOT TITLE. This Act may be cited as the Mercury-Containing and Rechargeable Battery Management Act. SEC. 2. FINDINGS. The Congress finds that- (1) it is in the public interest to- (A) phase out the use of mercury in...

Partnerships

Because of the necessity for innovative approaches in the recycling arena, partnerships involving waste processors have begun to emerge. For example, Toxco, Inc., a major recycler of lithium batteries world wide, has formed an alliance with Kinsbursky Brothers, Inc., the largest non-lithium battery management firm in the U.S. By joining forces, battery and vehicle manufacturers can be offered a comprehensive and efficient battery management program through a single source. Automobile and...

Inmetco Consumer NiCds

Sodium Sulphur Battery Schem

INMETCO Recycling Process for Consumer NiCd Batteries Used Battery Collection and Recycling G. Pistoia, J.-P. Wiaux and S.P. Wolsky (Editors) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND RECYCLING OF NICKEL CADMIUM BATTERIES N. England President and CEO, The Portable Rechargeable Battery Association, 1000 Parkwood Circle, Atlanta, GA 30339, U.S.A.

Elimination Modes For Equipment And Batteries

Xch.Trade, Gift ) Discarding in Waste Figure 12. Elimination Modes for Equipment and Replacement Batteries It is interesting to note that even in a country without tradition for the collection of spent batteries (all types) and of waste electrical and electronic equipment, the collection mode represents one of the three major ways for discarding used equipment. (N.B. In France the official SCRELEC campaign did only start one year before the hoarding study was performed). When this survey was...

Economical Aspects

The Macroeconomical Reference Framework The lead market has recently undergone significant structural changes, which are summarised as follows. The environmental issue has impacted the production system, accelerated the obsolescence of old technology of primary lead production from its ores and triggered the research of new products with lower lead content or absolutely lead-free.Therefore, pigments, paints and anti-detonating compounds are now lead-free, while the lead content of hunting...

Snam

S.N.A.M. was created in 1977, with a major activity in the extraction of the cadmium contained in waste originating from the production or recovery of nickel cadmium batteries. The first plant has been in operation at St Quentin Fallavier (Isere - France). The plant has received authorisation for the treatment of 1,500 tonnes of cadmium containing by-products. In 1988, S.N.A.M. has built a new factory in Viviez (Department of Aveyron - France) with a treatment authorisation of 4,000 tonnes of...

Conclusion

Lithium batteries have developed over the past 30 years to become one of the most promising new battery systems. Primary and secondary lithium batteries have gained widespread use in communications, portable tools, military devices, and industry. The next five to ten years will continue to show heavy lithium battery growth in standard uses as well as development into new applications such as electric and hybrid electric vehicles. Although lithium batteries have been shown to be safe in many...

Battery Distribution

This section of this paper examines the key elements necessary in establishing a successful rechargeable Ni-Cd battery recycling program. As background, it is important that the reader understand certain basic terminology and relationships. Consumer use of the term battery in fact often extends to several different items. The basic building block of a battery is a cell - the combination of materials that produces electrical current in a predictable fashion. Some batteries consist of a single...

Batteries In Municipal Solid Waste

In order to evaluate the impact of batteries that are neither in home storage nor collected, it is necessary to evaluate the quantities of batteries present in the municipal waste streams. The mass balance of portable Ni-Cd batteries introduced into the market is presented in Figure 19. The major flows of batteries are indicated in this figure the quantities in hoarding, the quantities introduced in the municipal solid waste, the quantities introduced in the industrial solid waste, the...

Fig 8 Normalized Health Hazard Scores for Various Battery Types and Recycling Processes

The hazard posed by the remainder of the Li-ion battery is mainly in the toxicity area and depends on the specific battery design. The Li-ion chemistry is not as mature as Ni MH and several variations of the cathode and electrolyte could be found. Metal oxide cathode materials could contain cobalt, nickel, manganese or, more rarely vanadium. Mixed metal cathodes are becoming more common. Electrolytes are composed of fairly innocuous organic carbonates and a...

Vented Industrial NiCd

Industrial Ni-Cd batteries are rugged, long-life, cheap batteries capable of operating at high rates. The so-called pocket-plate battery can stand overcharge, polarity reversal and short-circuits. To better utilize the electrode materials, two other structures have been developed the fiber plate and the plastic-bonded plate. The latter has afforded improved performance characteristics (e.g. an energy density of 110 Wh 1). The negative electrode is Cd, the positive NiOOH, and the electrolyte is...

Lead Accumulator Structure

The electrodes, commonly named grid, are made by a lead alloy frame to improve both strenght and hardness of the grid supporting the so called active mass. This active mass is made by mixing very fine Pb powder with lead oxide (PbO or Pb304) and diluted H2S04. After drying, the mass composition turns basically into lead sulphate and unreacted lead oxides. The final electrodes are formed by spreading the mass over the grids and charging them through electrolysis in H2SO4. This gives rise to the...

Lithiumion Liion

Recycling capabilities for lithium batteries have advanced significantly since the early 1990s. Initial methods focused mainly on deactivation and safe disposal rather than material recovery because of the prevalence and well known reactivity of lithium metal in the primary batteries that made up the bulk of the commercial product at that time 26,27 . The tremendous growth in the rechargeable lithium battery market has stimulated efforts to reclaim the most valuable components of Li-ion cells...

Comparison With Other Countries Of The European Union

The comparison is made among E.U. countries on the following basis consortia-based, i.e. country in which there is a participation by all subjects involved throughout the battery life (Italy, Sweden, Norway, Austria, Denmark and the Netherlands) non consortia-based, i.e. country in which battery recovery takes place in a freemarket regime (France, Germany, United Kingdom and the other european countries). - Countries Not Using Consortia-Based Systems Regulations for Spent Battery Collection...

References

Black& Decker (2001) Communication to the EU Commission. Available from CollectNiCad Secretariat. Avenue Marcel Thiry, 204. B-1200 Brussels, Belgium (June 2001). Chambaz D. et al. (1998) Clean Municipal Waste Incinerators A Dream or A Reality Published by the Federal Office for Landscape and Environmental Protection. CH-3000 Bern. Chandler C.(1996) Characterizing Cadmium in Municipal Solid waste. In Proceedings of the OECD Workshop on the Sources of Cadmium in the Environment, Saltsj baden,...

So2 h20 h2so3

82.06 x x 32.03 g H2SO3 per battery will be present Acetonitrile (CH3CN) is highly soluble in water. Lithium bromide is extremely soluble in water. The other materials will be unreactive with, and insoluble in, the alkaline aqueous solution. The above discussion assumes a normal discharge mode for the BA5590 batteries. It also assumes that the internal resistor has been engaged by the manual switch to completely discharge all the units. There may be instances, however, of defective cells within...

Appendix A Most Common Types Of Commercial Batteries

* The information contained in this appendix has mainly been taken from Handbook of Batteries, D. Linden Ed., McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, 1994. Handbook of Battery Materials, J.O. Besenhard, Ed., Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 1999. Batteries can be divided into two broad categories Major Applications of the Batteries Listed Above. Zn-carbon portable radios, instruments, toys, watches, flashlights. Alkaline Zn-Mn 2 calculators, radios, tape and cassette recorders in general, replacement of Zn-carbon...

Recycling Prospects For Future Advanced Battery Systems Sodium Sulfur NaS

Much of the effort to develop the Na S battery was aimed at its use in electric vehicles. Current applications of this advanced battery system are now mainly in the stationary battery area, but feasibility studies were done on the recycling of this system before the EV development efforts were suspended. Sodium sulfur batteries contain reactive and corrosive materials, but not toxic ones. By treatment of the battery waste, the reactivity problems can be removed. The major difficulty in...

Environment Safety and Health

Another important consideration for recycling is the toxicity and reactivity of materials. Because EV batteries are large, heavy, operate at high voltages, and frequently contain toxic, corrosive, or reactive materials, health and safety issues must be considered when handling them and may present limits on how to recycle them as well. These issues are all manageable as long as careful planning is done in advance. Most battery maintenance will be performed by trained personnel while the system...

Spent Portable Nickel Cadmium Batteries Quantities processed for recycling in 2000

Collection of Portable Rechargeable Ni-Cd Batteries in European Countries (Normalised data on the basis of grams per inhabitant per year source CollectNiCad) Figure 27. Collection of Portable Rechargeable Ni-Cd Batteries in European Countries (Normalised data on the basis of grams per inhabitant per year source CollectNiCad) The originality of SCRELEC's program is to integrate all actors of the recycling operations and to drive the system economically in all the steps. As presented...

Environmental Concerns Of Recycling Lithium Batteries

Lithium batteries are no exception. Even when discharged, the batteries contain some form of lithium, organic solvents, and other chemicals most of which are toxic. When not fully discharged, the batteries have the potential to start fires. Aside from the known environmental concerns of today, it is not unlikely that in the future new environmental requirements or concerns may evolve from the disposal of batteries. In one eastern block country there is a huge...

Saft Ab

Aircraft Nickel Cadmium Battery

The SAFT AB recycling plant at Oskarshamn Sweden is fully integrated in the manufacturing plant for industrial nickel-cadmium batteries. It demonstrates the commitment of the major european NiCd battery producer to control the life-cycle of the products introduced on the market. Process development started in 1978 and the operation reached industrial scale in 1986 (Figure 6). The plant permit from the Court of Environment, dated 1996, includes treatment of 2,000 tonnes of used batteries while...

Desu Lphated Paste

The amount of charge introduced in the kiln, especially in terms of reactants and slagging agents, is a function of whether the lead paste carbonatation was made before smelting. In the absence of carbonatation, the feed mix is made up of metallic lead, lead sulphate, coal, soda, scrap-iron, silica (sand) and or glass. These materials are charged without pre-mixing but sequentially, according to their function soda, lead and its salts, carbon, scrap-iron. The charge is fed from the burner side...

Alkaline ZnMn02

This battery has several advantages over the Zn-carbon battery higher energy density, better performance at low and high rates, longer shelf life, and better dimensional stability. The anode is powdered Zn metal, the cathode is electrolytic Mn02 and the electrolyte is a concentrated solution of KOH (35-45 ). The total reaction on continuous discharge and to le mole Mn02 is Zn + 2 Mn02 + H20 -> Zn(OH)2 + 2 MnOOH At low rates or intermittent discharges, the reaction is Zn + 3 Mn02 > 2 ZnO +...

Lithium Battery Recycling Technologies

In the recent past most lithium batteries were either put into a landfill or incinerated. Many of the larger lithium primary systems had no known method of disposal, much less recycling. The older large primary lithium batteries were, many times, so reactive that open detonation was used as an effective disposal method. The recycling technologies are only now being fully developed. The marketability of the components and the labor dollars invested to process the batteries are the driving...

Sealed Lead Acid

These are small, maintenance-free batteries which are sealed as the electrolyte is not depleted during operation. The electrolyte is absorbed in a porous separator or in a gel, so that the battery can be operated in different orientations without spilling. This allows the batteries to be used in portable devices. The chemistry of these batteries is that of conventional lead-acid batteries. However, they have a unique characteristics. The oxygen generated on overcharge is recombined in the cell...

Switzerland Organization For Portable Battery Recycling

The paper used in this publication meets the requirements of ANSI NISO Z39.48-1992 (Permanence of Paper). About 40 billion batteries were produced in the year 2000 and this number is increasing at approximately 5 annually. A large number of these batteries contain hazardous materials. Batteries also contain significant quantities of important materials. Consequently the uncontrolled disposal of batteries presents both a major risk to health and the environment and a significant waste of...

Environmental And Human Health Impact Assessments Of Battery Systems

International Cadmium Association 9222 Jeffery Road Post Office Box 924 Great Falls, VA 22066-0924 USA Total life cycle analyses may be utilized to establish the relative environmental and human health impacts of battery systems over their entire lifetime, from the production of the raw materials to the ultimate disposal of the spent battery. The three most important factors determining the total life cycle impact appear to be battery composition, battery performance, and the degree to which...

General Recycling Issues And Drivers Economics and Planning

Economics is an important consideration when designing a recycling process. Some generic constraints that determine whether recycling is economically viable have been discussed 5 , These include the ability of the market to absorb the large quantity of recycled material that could result in the long term assuming that it is not recycled directly into new batteries. Market size is likely to differ for each of the specific materials that can be recovered. Price collapse or possibly an inability...

And Recycling Programs In The Usa And Canada

Weinbergb, Kenneth L. Moneyc and Hugh Morrow*1 a The Portable Rechargeable Battery Association, 1000 Parwood Circle, Atlanta, Ga 30339, U.S.A. b Howrey Simon Arnold & White, 1299 Pennsylvania Ave., Washington, D.C. 20004, U.S.A. 0 International Metals Reclamation Co., Inc., P.O. Box 720, 245 Portersville Road, Ellwood City, PA 16117, U.S.A. d International Cadmium Association, 9222 Jeffery Road, P.O. Box 924, Great Falls, VA 22066-0924, U.S.A.

Optimized Recycling Processes For Advanced Batteries Nickel Metal Hydride NiMH

Preliminary studies have been conducted on alternatives to the pyrometallurgical processing of Ni MH batteries. Hydrometallurgical treatment provides metal salts as products, which may offer market stability benefits in certain circumstances compared to the primary metals produced by smelting. Another advantage is that the separation and recovery of other valuable constituents such as titanium, vanadium, zirconium, and rare earths may become possible. The U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) conducted...

NiMH Batteries Recycling Scheme

Figure 10 Schematic Presentation of a Ni-MH Battery Recycling INMETCO is primarly a stainless steel recycler. They process about 50,000 tons of materials containing iron, nickel, and chromium per year, and return an Fe-Ni-Cr alloy back to the stainless steel industry for production of new alloys. As part of their recycling operation INMETCO has accepted both NiCd and NiFe batteries as well as EAF dust, electroplating sludges, and process wastes, all of which may contain some cadmium. The...