Battery Distribution

This section of this paper examines the key elements necessary in establishing a successful rechargeable Ni-Cd battery recycling program. As background, it is important that the reader understand certain basic terminology and relationships. Consumer use of the term battery in fact often extends to several different items. The basic building block of a battery is a cell - the combination of materials that produces electrical current in a predictable fashion. Some batteries consist of a single...

Batteries In Municipal Solid Waste

In order to evaluate the impact of batteries that are neither in home storage nor collected, it is necessary to evaluate the quantities of batteries present in the municipal waste streams. The mass balance of portable Ni-Cd batteries introduced into the market is presented in Figure 19. The major flows of batteries are indicated in this figure the quantities in hoarding, the quantities introduced in the municipal solid waste, the quantities introduced in the industrial solid waste, the...

Fig 8 Normalized Health Hazard Scores for Various Battery Types and Recycling Processes

The hazard posed by the remainder of the Li-ion battery is mainly in the toxicity area and depends on the specific battery design. The Li-ion chemistry is not as mature as Ni MH and several variations of the cathode and electrolyte could be found. Metal oxide cathode materials could contain cobalt, nickel, manganese or, more rarely vanadium. Mixed metal cathodes are becoming more common. Electrolytes are composed of fairly innocuous organic carbonates and a...

Conclusion

There is nothing new about recycling batteries and waste products from nickel-cadmium batteries but several developments have occurred in the last twenty years. National and international regulations are prohibiting to an ever-increasing extent the disposal of nickel-cadmium batteries on rubbish tips as well as their incineration along with household waste. A number of countries have already introduced collection systems either all batteries and accumulators undifferentiated (Switzerland,...

Vented Industrial NiCd

Industrial Ni-Cd batteries are rugged, long-life, cheap batteries capable of operating at high rates. The so-called pocket-plate battery can stand overcharge, polarity reversal and short-circuits. To better utilize the electrode materials, two other structures have been developed the fiber plate and the plastic-bonded plate. The latter has afforded improved performance characteristics (e.g. an energy density of 110 Wh 1). The negative electrode is Cd, the positive NiOOH, and the electrolyte is...

Lead Accumulator Structure

The electrodes, commonly named grid, are made by a lead alloy frame to improve both strenght and hardness of the grid supporting the so called active mass. This active mass is made by mixing very fine Pb powder with lead oxide (PbO or Pb304) and diluted H2S04. After drying, the mass composition turns basically into lead sulphate and unreacted lead oxides. The final electrodes are formed by spreading the mass over the grids and charging them through electrolysis in H2SO4. This gives rise to the...

Lithiumion Liion

Recycling capabilities for lithium batteries have advanced significantly since the early 1990s. Initial methods focused mainly on deactivation and safe disposal rather than material recovery because of the prevalence and well known reactivity of lithium metal in the primary batteries that made up the bulk of the commercial product at that time 26,27 . The tremendous growth in the rechargeable lithium battery market has stimulated efforts to reclaim the most valuable components of Li-ion cells...

Background

Ever since the nickel-cadmium battery came into existence, experts have been studying ways to recycle it. The first really widely-used batteries were of the open type. Their recovery at the end of their life was due to the ease with which they could be opened and the positive electrodes isolated so as to re-use the nickel. Until the 50's, companies showed little interest in recovering the cadmium, which was not considered hazardous and the negative electrodes available weighed very little....

Comparison With Other Countries Of The European Union

The comparison is made among E.U. countries on the following basis consortia-based, i.e. country in which there is a participation by all subjects involved throughout the battery life (Italy, Sweden, Norway, Austria, Denmark and the Netherlands) non consortia-based, i.e. country in which battery recovery takes place in a freemarket regime (France, Germany, United Kingdom and the other european countries). - Countries Not Using Consortia-Based Systems Regulations for Spent Battery Collection...

References

Black& Decker (2001) Communication to the EU Commission. Available from CollectNiCad Secretariat. Avenue Marcel Thiry, 204. B-1200 Brussels, Belgium (June 2001). Chambaz D. et al. (1998) Clean Municipal Waste Incinerators A Dream or A Reality Published by the Federal Office for Landscape and Environmental Protection. CH-3000 Bern. Chandler C.(1996) Characterizing Cadmium in Municipal Solid waste. In Proceedings of the OECD Workshop on the Sources of Cadmium in the Environment, Saltsj baden,...

So2 h20 h2so3

82.06 x x 32.03 g H2SO3 per battery will be present Acetonitrile (CH3CN) is highly soluble in water. Lithium bromide is extremely soluble in water. The other materials will be unreactive with, and insoluble in, the alkaline aqueous solution. The above discussion assumes a normal discharge mode for the BA5590 batteries. It also assumes that the internal resistor has been engaged by the manual switch to completely discharge all the units. There may be instances, however, of defective cells within...

Appendix A Most Common Types Of Commercial Batteries

* The information contained in this appendix has mainly been taken from Handbook of Batteries, D. Linden Ed., McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, 1994. Handbook of Battery Materials, J.O. Besenhard, Ed., Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 1999. Batteries can be divided into two broad categories Major Applications of the Batteries Listed Above. Zn-carbon portable radios, instruments, toys, watches, flashlights. Alkaline Zn-Mn 2 calculators, radios, tape and cassette recorders in general, replacement of Zn-carbon...

Recycling Prospects For Future Advanced Battery Systems Sodium Sulfur NaS

Much of the effort to develop the Na S battery was aimed at its use in electric vehicles. Current applications of this advanced battery system are now mainly in the stationary battery area, but feasibility studies were done on the recycling of this system before the EV development efforts were suspended. Sodium sulfur batteries contain reactive and corrosive materials, but not toxic ones. By treatment of the battery waste, the reactivity problems can be removed. The major difficulty in...

Info

Directive EC 157 91 has been put into effect with the decree of August 1994. The program for lead acid batteries is based on the following minimum collection rate 75 information to the consumers with support of the Environment Ministry obligation for producers, importers, dealers to take back all spent batteries up to their production or sales level registration in the company books of any data related to production, sale and collection of lead acid batteries. In 1993, Directive 157 91 was...

Environment Safety and Health

Another important consideration for recycling is the toxicity and reactivity of materials. Because EV batteries are large, heavy, operate at high voltages, and frequently contain toxic, corrosive, or reactive materials, health and safety issues must be considered when handling them and may present limits on how to recycle them as well. These issues are all manageable as long as careful planning is done in advance. Most battery maintenance will be performed by trained personnel while the system...

Spent Portable Nickel Cadmium Batteries Quantities processed for recycling in 2000

Collection of Portable Rechargeable Ni-Cd Batteries in European Countries (Normalised data on the basis of grams per inhabitant per year source CollectNiCad) Figure 27. Collection of Portable Rechargeable Ni-Cd Batteries in European Countries (Normalised data on the basis of grams per inhabitant per year source CollectNiCad) The originality of SCRELEC's program is to integrate all actors of the recycling operations and to drive the system economically in all the steps. As presented...

Environmental Concerns Of Recycling Lithium Batteries

Lithium batteries are no exception. Even when discharged, the batteries contain some form of lithium, organic solvents, and other chemicals most of which are toxic. When not fully discharged, the batteries have the potential to start fires. Aside from the known environmental concerns of today, it is not unlikely that in the future new environmental requirements or concerns may evolve from the disposal of batteries. In one eastern block country there is a huge...

Saft Ab

The SAFT AB recycling plant at Oskarshamn Sweden is fully integrated in the manufacturing plant for industrial nickel-cadmium batteries. It demonstrates the commitment of the major european NiCd battery producer to control the life-cycle of the products introduced on the market. Process development started in 1978 and the operation reached industrial scale in 1986 (Figure 6). The plant permit from the Court of Environment, dated 1996, includes treatment of 2,000 tonnes of used batteries while...

Desu Lphated Paste

The amount of charge introduced in the kiln, especially in terms of reactants and slagging agents, is a function of whether the lead paste carbonatation was made before smelting. In the absence of carbonatation, the feed mix is made up of metallic lead, lead sulphate, coal, soda, scrap-iron, silica (sand) and or glass. These materials are charged without pre-mixing but sequentially, according to their function soda, lead and its salts, carbon, scrap-iron. The charge is fed from the burner side...

Alkaline ZnMn02

This battery has several advantages over the Zn-carbon battery higher energy density, better performance at low and high rates, longer shelf life, and better dimensional stability. The anode is powdered Zn metal, the cathode is electrolytic Mn02 and the electrolyte is a concentrated solution of KOH (35-45 ). The total reaction on continuous discharge and to le mole Mn02 is Zn + 2 Mn02 + H20 -> Zn(OH)2 + 2 MnOOH At low rates or intermittent discharges, the reaction is Zn + 3 Mn02 > 2 ZnO +...

Lithium Battery Recycling Technologies

In the recent past most lithium batteries were either put into a landfill or incinerated. Many of the larger lithium primary systems had no known method of disposal, much less recycling. The older large primary lithium batteries were, many times, so reactive that open detonation was used as an effective disposal method. The recycling technologies are only now being fully developed. The marketability of the components and the labor dollars invested to process the batteries are the driving...

Sealed Lead Acid

These are small, maintenance-free batteries which are sealed as the electrolyte is not depleted during operation. The electrolyte is absorbed in a porous separator or in a gel, so that the battery can be operated in different orientations without spilling. This allows the batteries to be used in portable devices. The chemistry of these batteries is that of conventional lead-acid batteries. However, they have a unique characteristics. The oxygen generated on overcharge is recombined in the cell...

Q

The paper used in this publication meets the requirements of ANSI NISO Z39.48-1992 (Permanence of Paper). About 40 billion batteries were produced in the year 2000 and this number is increasing at approximately 5 annually. A large number of these batteries contain hazardous materials. Batteries also contain significant quantities of important materials. Consequently the uncontrolled disposal of batteries presents both a major risk to health and the environment and a significant waste of...

Environmental And Human Health Impact Assessments Of Battery Systems

International Cadmium Association 9222 Jeffery Road Post Office Box 924 Great Falls, VA 22066-0924 USA Total life cycle analyses may be utilized to establish the relative environmental and human health impacts of battery systems over their entire lifetime, from the production of the raw materials to the ultimate disposal of the spent battery. The three most important factors determining the total life cycle impact appear to be battery composition, battery performance, and the degree to which...

General Recycling Issues And Drivers Economics and Planning

Economics is an important consideration when designing a recycling process. Some generic constraints that determine whether recycling is economically viable have been discussed 5 , These include the ability of the market to absorb the large quantity of recycled material that could result in the long term assuming that it is not recycled directly into new batteries. Market size is likely to differ for each of the specific materials that can be recovered. Price collapse or possibly an inability...

And Recycling Programs In The Usa And Canada

Weinbergb, Kenneth L. Moneyc and Hugh Morrow*1 a The Portable Rechargeable Battery Association, 1000 Parwood Circle, Atlanta, Ga 30339, U.S.A. b Howrey Simon Arnold & White, 1299 Pennsylvania Ave., Washington, D.C. 20004, U.S.A. 0 International Metals Reclamation Co., Inc., P.O. Box 720, 245 Portersville Road, Ellwood City, PA 16117, U.S.A. d International Cadmium Association, 9222 Jeffery Road, P.O. Box 924, Great Falls, VA 22066-0924, U.S.A.

Optimized Recycling Processes For Advanced Batteries Nickel Metal Hydride NiMH

Preliminary studies have been conducted on alternatives to the pyrometallurgical processing of Ni MH batteries. Hydrometallurgical treatment provides metal salts as products, which may offer market stability benefits in certain circumstances compared to the primary metals produced by smelting. Another advantage is that the separation and recovery of other valuable constituents such as titanium, vanadium, zirconium, and rare earths may become possible. The U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) conducted...

NiMH Batteries Recycling Scheme

Figure 10 Schematic Presentation of a Ni-MH Battery Recycling INMETCO is primarly a stainless steel recycler. They process about 50,000 tons of materials containing iron, nickel, and chromium per year, and return an Fe-Ni-Cr alloy back to the stainless steel industry for production of new alloys. As part of their recycling operation INMETCO has accepted both NiCd and NiFe batteries as well as EAF dust, electroplating sludges, and process wastes, all of which may contain some cadmium. The...

Introduction

Electric vehicles (EVs) first appeared in the late 19th century at about the same time that internal combustion (IC) engine-powered vehicles were introduced. Electric motor and steam technologies were actually more advanced and more reliable than the early gasoline engine 1 . William Morrison of Des Moines, Iowa, built the first successful electric car produced in America in 1890 2 , and by 1900, 38 percent of U.S. automobiles were electric. Almost 34,000 electric cars were registered in the...