Discussion

We have described how monitoring the emitted infrared spectrum and microwave refractivity using GNSS RO can be used to test the forecasting capability of climate models. The infrared spectrum is rich in information relevant to the longwave feedbacks of the climate system and microwave refractivity contains information relevant to the response of the upper air and surface air temperature. Leroy et al. (2008a) showed that a twenty year timeseries of longwave spectral data is expected to provide a 50% uncertain estimate of the water vapor-longwave feedback of the climate system and a 20% uncertain estimate of the longwave forcing by carbon dioxide in 5 years. Anomaly correlation is expected to work well in the tropics on an annual timescale because temperature and humidity are strongly coupled in the tropical troposphere by moist convection. Whether it can be expected to work in the mid- and high latitudes remains an open question, however.

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