Bi y5 yf51

10 100 1

• Linear Trend Fit Curve yFIT: The trend fit curve for each 11-years timeframe is calculated using the above difference bi as the slope:

where i is the center year of the current 11-years timeframe and j runs from i - 5 to i + 5.

• Detrended Standard Deviation s: The fitted trend curve is removed from the original data y to obtain the detrended standard deviation for the current timeframe:

• Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR): Finally, the signal-to-noise ratio is defined as the ratio of the trend to the standard deviation:

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