Contents

Ernst Strüngmann Forum ix

List of Contributors xiii

1 Introduction 1

Jost Heintzenberg and Robert J. Charlson

2 Trends in Observed Cloudiness and Earth's 17 Radiation Budget: What Do We Not Know and What Do We Need to Know?

Joel R. Norris and Anthony Slingo

3 Climatologies of Cloud-related Aerosols 37 Part 1: Particle Number and Size

Stefan Kinne

Part 2: Particle Hygroscopicity and Cloud 58

Condensation Nucleus Activity

Ulrich Pöschl, Diana Rose, and Meinrat O. Andreae

4 Cloud Properties from In-situ and Remote-sensing 73 Measurements: Capability and Limitations

George A. Isaac and K. Sebastian Schmidt

5 Clouds and Precipitation: Extreme Rainfall 107 and Rain from Shallow Clouds

Yukari N. Takayabu and Hirohiko Masunaga

6 Temporal and Spatial Variability of 127 Clouds and Related Aerosols

Theodore L. Anderson, Rapporteur

Andrew Ackerman, Dennis L. Hartmann, George A. Isaac, Stefan Kinne, Hirohiko Masunaga, Joel R. Norris, Ulrich Pöschl, K. Sebastian Schmidt, Anthony Slingo, and Yukari N. Takayabu

7 Laboratory Cloud Simulation: Capabilities 149 and Future Directions

Frank Stratmann, Ottmar Möhler, Raymond Shaw, and Heike Wex

8 Cloud-controlling Factors: Low Clouds 173

Bjorn Stevens and Jean-Louis Brenguier

9 Deep Convective Clouds 197

Wojciech W. Grabowski and Jon C. Petch

10 Large-scale Controls on Cloudiness 217

Christopher S. Bretherton and Dennis L. Hartmann

Cloud-controlling Factors of Cirrus 235

Bernd Kärcher and Peter Spich tinger

Cloud-controlling Factors 269

A. Pier Siebesma, Rapporteur Jean-Louis Brenguier, Christopher S. Bretherton, Wojciech W. Grabowski, Jost Heintzenberg, Bernd Kärcher, Katrin Lehmann, Jon C. Petch, Peter Spichtinger, Bjorn Stevens, and Frank Stratmann

Cloud Particle Precursors 291

Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Markus D. Petters, and Patrick Y. Chuang

Cloud-Aerosol Interactions from the Micro to the Cloud Scale 319

Graham Feingold and Holger Siebert

Weather and Climate Engineering 339

William R. Cotton

Air Pollution and Precipitation 369

Greg Ayers and Zev Levin

What Do We Know about Large-scale Changes of 401

Aerosols, Clouds, and the Radiation Budget?

Teruyuki Nakajima and Michael Schulz

The Extent and Nature of Anthropogenic 433

Perturbations of Clouds

Patrick Y. Chuang and Graham Feingold, Rapporteurs Greg Ayers, Robert J. Charlson, William R. Cotton, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Zev Levin, Teruyuki Nakajima, Daniel Rosenfeld, Michael Schulz, and Holger Siebert

Global Indirect Radiative Forcing Caused by 451

Aerosols: IPCC (2007) and Beyond

Jim Haywood, Leo Donner, Andy Jones, and Jean-Christophe Golaz

Simulating Global Clouds: Past, Present, and Future 469

William D. Collins and Masaki Satoh

Observational Strategies from the Micro- to Mesoscale 487

Jean-Louis Brenguier and Robert Wood

Observational Strategies at Meso- and Large Scales to 511

Reduce Critical Uncertainties in Future Cloud Changes

Anthony Illingworth and Sandrine Bony

Aerosols and Clouds in Chemical Transport 531

Models and Climate Models

Ulrike Lohmann and Stephen E. Schwartz

24 Current Understanding and Quantification of 557

Clouds in the Changing Climate System and Strategies for Reducing Critical Uncertainties

Johannes Quaas, Rapporteur Sandrine Bony, William D. Collins, Leo Donner, Anthony Illingworth, Andy Jones, Ulrike Lohmann, Masaki Satoh, Stephen E. Schwartz, Wei-Kuo Tao, and Robert Wood

Abbreviations 575

Name Index 581

Subject Index

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