George Isaac would like to thank his Environment Canada colleagues Monika Bailey, Faisal Boudala, Stewart Cober, Dave Hudak, Ismail Gultepe, Alexei Korolev, Peter Liu, Peter Rodriguez, and Walter Strapp, who contributed a great deal to this paper, either through unpublished conference papers or private communications. Peter Pilewskie from the University of Colorado at Boulder provided significant input to the remote sensing section.

Cloud Properties from In-situ and Remote-sensing Measurements 103 References

Ansmann, A., M. Riebesell, and C. Weitkamp. 1990. Measurement of atmospheric aerosol extinction profiles with a Raman lidar. Opt. Lett. 15:746-748.

Baumgardner, D. 1983. An analysis and comparison of five water droplet measuring instruments. J. Climate Appl. Meteor. 22:891-910.

Baumgardner, D., J.-F. Gayet, H. Gerber, A. Korolev, and C. Twohy. 2002. Clouds: In-situ measurement techniques. In: Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Scienes, ed. J. R. Holton, J. A. Curry, and J. Pyle, pp. 489-498. London: Academic Press.

Baumgardner, D., and A. Korolev. 1997. Airspeed corrections for optical array probe sample volumes. J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 14:1224-1229.

Biter, C. J., J. E. Dye, D. Huffman, and W. D. King. 1987. The drop-size response of the CSIRO liquid water probe. J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 4:359-367.

Brenguier, J.-L., D. Baumgardner, and B. Baker. 1994. A review and discussion of processing algorithms for FSSP concentrations. J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 11:1409-1414.

Brenguier, J.-L., A. R. Rodi, G. Gordon, and P. Wechsler. 1993. Real-time detection of performance degradation of the forward-scattering spectrometer probe. J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 10:27-33

Chahine, M., T. Pagano, H. Aumann et al. 2006. AIRS: Improving weather forecasting and providing new data on greenhouse gases. Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 87(7):911-926.

Chylek, P., S. Robinson, M. K. Dubey et al. 2006. Comparison of near-infrared and thermal infrared cloud phase detections. J. Geophys. Res. 111:D20203. Di Michele, S., and P. Bauer. 2006. Passive microwave radiometer channel selection based on cloud and precipitation information content. Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 132:1299-1323.

Cober, S. G., G. A. Isaac, and A. V. Korolev. 2001a. Assessing the Rosemount icing detector with in-situ measurements. J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 18:515-528.

Cober, S. G., G. A. Isaac, A. V. Korolev, and J. W. Strapp. 2001b. Assessing cloud-phase conditions. J. Appl. Meteor. 40:1967-1983.

Cober, S. G., G. A. Isaac, and J. W. Strapp. 2001c. Characterizations of aircraft icing environments that include supercooled large drops. J. Appl. Meteor. 40:1984-2002.

Dye, J. E., and D. Baumgardner. 1984. Evaluation of the forward scattering spectrometer probe. I: Electronic and optical studies. J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 4:329-344.

Field, P. R., A. J. Heymsfield, and A. Bansemer. 2006. Shattering and particle interarrival times measured by optical array probes in ice clouds. J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23:1357-1371.

Field, P. R., R. J. Hogan, P. R. A. Brown et al. 2005. Parameterization of ice-particle size distributions for mid-latitude stratiform cloud. Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 131:1997-2017.

Gayet, J.-F., P. A. Brown, and F. Albers. 1993. A comparison of in-cloud measurements obtained with six PMS 2D-C probes. J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 10:180-194.

Gayet, J.-F., V. Shcherbakov, H. Mannstein et al. 2006. Microphysical and optical properties of mid-latitude cirrus clouds observed in the southern hemisphere during INCA. Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 132:2721-2750.

Gerber, H. 1991. Supersaturation and droplet spectral evolution in fog. J. Atmos. Sci. 48:2569-2588.

Gultepe, I., and G. A. Isaac. 1999. Scale effects on the relationship between cloud droplet and aerosol number concentrations: Observations and models. J. Climate 12:1268-1279.

Gultepe, I., and G. A. Isaac. 2004. Aircraft observations of cloud droplet number concentration: Implications for climate studies. Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 130:2377-2390.

Gultepe, I., and G. A. Isaac. 2007. Cloud fraction parameterization as a function of mean cloud water content and its variance using in-situ observations. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34:L07801.

Gultepe, I., G. A. Isaac, and S. G. Cober. 2001. Ice crystal number concentration versus temperature. J. Climate 21:1281-1302.

Hallett, J. 2003. Measurement in the atmosphere. In: Handbook of Weather, Climate, and Water: Dynamics, Climate, Physical Meteorology, Weather Systems, and Measurements, ed. T. D. Potter and B. R. Colman, pp. 711-720. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Haman, K. E., S. P. Malinowski, B. D. Strus, R. Busen, and A. Stefko. 2001. Two new types of ultrafast aircraft thermometers. J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 18:117-134.

Herman, M., J.-L- Deuze, C. Devaux et al. 1997. Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces including polarization measurements and application to POLDER measurements. J.Geophys. Res. 102:17,039-17,049.

Heymsfield, A. J. 2007. On measurement of small ice particles in clouds. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34:L23812.

Heymsfield, A. J., and J. L. Parrish. 1978. A computational technique for increasing the effective sampling volume of the PMS two-dimensional particle size spectrometer. J. Appl. Meteor. 17:1566-1572.

Isaac, G. A., C. M. Banic, W.R. Leaitch et al. 1998. Vertical profiles and horizontal transport of atmospheric aerosols and trace gases over central Ontario. J. Geophys. Res. 103:22,015-22,037.

Isaac, G. A., S. G. Cober, I. Gultepe et al. 2002. Particle spectra in stratiform winter clouds. In: Proc. 11th AMS Conference on Cloud Physics. Ogden, Utah: American Meteorological Society.

Isaac, G. A., S. G. Cober, J. W. Strapp et al. 2001. Recent Canadian research on aircraft in-flight icing. Canadian Aeronautics & Space J. 47(3):213-221.

Isaac, G. A., S. G. Cober, and J.W. Strapp. 2005. Measuring cloud parameters for inflight icing certification tests. AIAA 43rd Aerospace Sci. Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nevada. AIAA 2005-0857.

Isaac, G. A., I. Gultepe, and S. G. Cober. 2004. Use of mass versus volume units for cloud microphysical parameters. Proc. 14th Intl. Conf. on Clouds and Precipitation, pp. 800-803. Bologna: International Commission on Clouds and Precipitation (IAMAS).

Jensen, J. B., and G. B. Raga. 1993. Calibration of a Lyman-a sensor to measure in-cloud temperature and clear-air temperature. J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 10:15-26.

Kahn, R., B. J. Gaitley, J. V. Martonchik et al. 2005. Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) global aerosol optical depth validation based on 2 years of coincident Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations. J. Geophys. Res. 110(D10):D10S04

Kaufman, Y. J., J. V. Martins, L. A. Remer, M. R. Schoeberl, and M. A. Yamasoe. 2002. Satellite retrieval of aerosol absorption over the oceans using sunglint. Geophys. Res. Lett. 29:1928.

King, W. D. 1984. Air flow and particle trajectories around aircraft fuselages. I: Theory. J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 1:5-13.

King, W. D. 1985. Air flow and particle trajectories around aircraft fuselages. III: Extensions to particles of arbitrary shape. J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 4:539-547.

King, W. D. 1986. Air flow and particle trajectories around aircraft fuselages. IV: Orientation of ice crystals. J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 3:433-439.

Kingsmill, D. E., S. E. Yuter, A. J. Heymsfield et al. 2004. TRMM common microphysics products: A tool for evaluating spaceborne precipitation retrieval algorithms. J. Appl. Meteor. 43:1598-1618.

Knollenberg, R. G. 1981. Techniques for probing cloud microstructure. In: Clouds, their formation, Optical properties, and Effects, ed. P. V Hobbs and A. Deepak, pp. 15-91. New York: Academic Press.

Korolev, A., and G. A. Isaac. 2005. Shattering during sampling by OAPs and HVPS. I: Snow particles. J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 22(5):528-542.

Korolev, A. V., and G. A. Isaac. 2006. Relative humidity in liquid, mixed phase, and ice clouds. J. Atmos. Sci. 63:2865-2880.

Korolev, A. V., G. A. Isaac, S. G. Cober, J. W. Strapp, and J. Hallett. 2003. Observations of the microstructure of mixed phase clouds. Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 129:39-65.

Korolev, A., G. A. Isaac, and J. Hallett. 2000. Ice particle habits in stratiform clouds. Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 126:2873-2902.

Korolev, A. V., G. A. Isaac, I. P. Mazin, and H. Barker. 2001. Microphysical properties of continental clouds from in-situ measurements. Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 127:2117-2151.

Korolev, A. V., J. W. Strapp, and G. A. Isaac. 1998a. Evaluation of the accuracy of PMS optical array probes. J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15:708-720.

Korolev, A. V., J. W. Strapp, G. A. Isaac, and E. Emery. 2008. Improved airborne hotwire measurements of ice water content in clouds. Proc. 15th Intl. Conf. on Clouds and Precipitation, Cancun, Mexico. Intl. Commission on Clouds and Precipitation.

Korolev, A. V., J. W. Strapp, G. A. Isaac, and A. Nevzorov. 1998b. The Nevzorov airborne hot wire LWC/TWC probe: Principles of operation and performance characteristics. J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15:1495-1510

Lance, S., J. Medina, J. N. Smith, and A. Nenes. 2006. Mapping the operation of the DMT continuous flow CCN counter. Aerosol Sci. and Technol. 40:1-13.

Lawson, R. P., B. A. Baker, C. G. Schmitt, and T. L. Jensen. 2001. An overview of microphysical properties of Arctic clouds observed in May and July 1998 during FIRE.ACE. J. Geophys. Res. 106:14,989-15,014.

Lawson, P., A. J. Heymsfield, S. M. Aulenbach, and T. L. Jensen. 1998. Shapes, sizes and light scattering properties of ice crystals in cirrus and a persistent contrail during SUCCESS. Geophys. Res. Lett. 25:1331-1334.

Lawson, R. P., D. O'Connor, P. Zmarzky et al. 2006. The 2D-S (stereo) probe: Design and preliminary tests of a new airborne, high speed, high-resolution particle imaging probe. J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 23:1462-1477.

Liljegren, J. C., E. E. Clothiaux, G. G. Mace, S. Kato, and X. Q. Dong. 2001. A new retrieval for cloud liquid water path using a ground-based microwave radiometer and measurements of cloud temperature. J. Geophys. Res. 106(D13):14,485-14,500.

MacPherson, J. I., and G. A. Isaac. 1977. Turbulent characteristics of some Canadian cumulus clouds. J. Appl. Meteor. 16:81-90.

Mazin, I. P., A. V. Korolev, A. Heymsfield, G. A. Isaac, and S. G. Cober. 2001. Thermodynamics of icing cylinder for measurements of liquid water content in supercooled clouds. J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 18:543-558.

McFarlane, S. A., R. T. Marchand, and T. P. Ackerman. 2005. Retrieval of cloud phase and crystal habit from multiangle imaging spectroradiometer (MISR) and moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. J. Geophys. Res. 110:D14201.

Mo, T. 1996 1996. Prelaunch calibration of the advanced microwave sounding unit-A for NOAA-K. IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 44:1460-1469.

Norment, H. G. 1988. Three-dimensional trajectory analysis of two drop sizing instruments: PMS OAP and PMS FSSP. J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 5:743-756.

Riedi, J., P. Goloub, and R. T. Marchand. 2001. Comparison of POLDER cloud phase retrievals to active remote sensors measurements at the ARM SGP site. Geophys. Res. Lett. 28(11):2185-2188.

Roberts, G., G. Mauger, O. Hadley, and V. Ramanathan. 2006. North American and Asian aerosols over the eastern Pacific Ocean and their role in regulating cloud condensation nuclei. J. Geophys. Res. 111:D13205.

Rogers, D. C., P. J. DeMott, S. M. Kreidenweis, and Y. Chen. 2001. A continuous-flow diffusion chamber for airborne measurements of ice nuclei. J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 18:725-741.

Rose, D., G. P. Frank, U. Dusek et al. 2008. Calibration and measurement uncertainties of a continuous-flow cloud condensation nuclei counter (DMT-CCNC): CCN activation of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol particles in theory and experiment. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8:1153-1179.

Rotstayn, L. D. 1999. Indirect forcing by anthropogenic aerosols: A global climate model calculation of the effeice-radius and cloud-lifetime effects. J. Geophy. Res. 104:9369-9380.

Shipley, S. T., D. H. Tracy, E. W. Eloranta et al. 1983. A high spectral resolution lidar to measure optical scattering properties of atmospheric aerosols. I: Intrumentation and theory. Appl. Opt. 23:3716-3724.

Siebert, H., H. Franke, K. Lehmann, R. Maser et al. 2006. Probing fine-scale dynamics and microphysics of clouds with helicopter-borne measurements. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 87:1727-1739.

Slingo, A. 1990. Sensitivity of the Earth's radiation budget to changes in low clouds. Nature 343:49-51.

Squires, P. 1958. The microstructure and colloidal stability of warm clouds. II. The causes of variations in microstructure. Tellus 10:262.

Stephens, G. L. et al. 2002. The CloudSat mission and the A-train. Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 83:1771-1790.

Strapp, J. W., F. Albers, A. Reuter et al. 2001. Laboratory measurements of the response of a PMS OAP-2DC. J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 7:1150-1170.

Strapp, J. W., J. Oldenburg, R. Ide et al. 2003. Wind tunnel measurements of the response of hot-wire liquid water content instruments to large droplets. J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 6:791-806.

Strapp, J. W., and R. S. Schemenauer. 1982. Calibrations of Johnson-Williams liquid water content meters in a high-speed icing tunnel. J. Appl. Meteor. 1:98-108.

Sun, W., N. G. Loeb, and P. Yang. 2006. On the retrieval of ice cloud particle shapes from POLDER measurements. J. Quant. Spect. Radiative Transfer 101:435-447.

Twohy, C. H., and D. Rogers. 1993. Airflow and water-drop trajectories at instrument sampling points around the Beechcraft King Air and Lockheed Electra. J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 4:566-578.

Winker, D. M., W. H. Hunt, and M. J. McGill. 2007. Initial performance assessment of CALIOP. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34:L19803.

0 0

Post a comment