Project Management Templates
ALEXANDRA ISERN, Study Director (until July 2001) JOHN DANDELSKI, Project Manager (as of August 2001) CHRIS ELFRING, Director, Polar Research Board MORGAN GOPNIK, Director, Ocean Studies Board MEGAN KELLY, Senior Project Assistant (until April 2001) JODI BACHIM, Senior Project Assistant ANN CARLISLE, Senior Project Assistant
Even using these labor saving construction methods, however, the cost of these new designs is expected be about 6 billion per reactor. At one time, it was thought that the cost of new nuclear power plants would be around 1,200 per kWe for an overall cost of between 1.5 billion and 2 billion. Unfortunately commodity price increases have forced these estimates up considerably to close to 5,000- 6,000 per kWe or 6 billion for a 1,000 MWe unit 24 . If the cost of project management, financing, and detailed design is included, some have suggested that the total cost of a new nuclear power plant would be upwards of 12 billion 25 . Such large costs have led to considerable concern over the ability of a utility to obtain the financing needed for such an expensive project, one which in many cases is equal to 50 of the equity of the company. One possible way to reduce the risk and decrease the financing costs is through government loan guarantees.
The project team members first begin to consider monitoring at the start of the third year because they realise that they need to report on their results to their financial donors. The project managers convene a meeting in which they consider the indicators that they will assess. One biologist on the team, who studied deer for her graduate dissertation, recommends doing an intensive and expensive long-term study of the forest deer population. Another researcher discusses the need to start setting up forest plots and belt transects in various types of the forest to assess plant species' abundance. A third team member goes on the Internet and pulls down a long list of indicators collected by other forest projects including identifying animal and plant species, surveying bird populations, tagging trees, counting hunting parties, sampling water quality, and tracking resource extraction permit applications, and recommends that the project team members consider which of these they should...
Scaling down global climate predictions to the regional level is a key aspect of current research. Efforts have begun to investigate regional differences in sea level rise (Church et al., 2004). At the regional and local level, relative rates of sea level rise are influenced not only by regional ocean basin differences but also by local vertical land movements. Key processes affecting vertical land movements are glacial isostatic adjustment (Miller and Douglas, 2006) and crustal deformation (Adger 2000 Verdonck, 2006). In addition to regional differences, the likelihood of future events may not be accurately predicted by probabilities derived from the past. The current techniques developed for dealing with uncertainty and natural variability will not necessarily be effective when faced with future changes. For example, the Anzali Lagoon Project Management Experts (ALPME) use historic analysis to create floodplain maps in the study region and determine base flood elevations...
There was also an important social component in the virgin land program. In his 1954 speech, Khrushchev acknowledged that for years kolkhozes had been required to deliver far more than just the marketable part of their grain harvest to the state. Often the grain procurement plan was higher than a kolkhoz could deliver even in an average year. This resulted in colossal debts in the kolkhozes, by 1 January 1954 reaching about 24 million tons of grain, roughly equaling the size of the annual plan for grain procurement. Khrushchev stated that the practice of excessive grain procurement would be revised if the state received at least an additional 8 to 10 million tons of grain from the new grain sovkhozes on the virgin lands. This would allow the total grain burden on the kolkhozes to be lowered by 3 to 5 million tons (Khrushchev, 1962).
For most capital investments, the direct cost factors are the only ones considered when project costs are being estimated. For pollution prevention projects, direct cost factors may only be a net cost, even though a number of the components of the calculation will represent savings. Therefore, confining the cost analysis to direct costs may lead to the incorrect conclusion that pollution prevention is not a sound business investment. In performing the economic analysis, various costs must be considered. As with any project, the direct costs should be broken down as
To ensure that actual emissions reductions are achieved, in the jargon of the offset world, it is necessary to prove a project's emissions reductions are 'additional' that is, that the project would not have occurred irrespective of greenhouse gas considerations, or under a 'business-as-usual' scenario. If the project underlying the offsets would have occurred anyway, then atmospheric greenhouse gas levels will not actually be reduced from what they would have been, and the emissions go unmitigated. For this reason, project-based emissions reductions should come from projects that are clearly beyond the business-as-usual scenario. Additionality, as the primary determinant of the beyond business-as-usual case, can only be assured through the application of stringent project review processes, procedures, standards and criteria.
Contaminated surface and subsurface waters, and leachate, the following technologies can be used adsorption, membrane separation, air sparging, bioslurping, chemical oxidation, directional wells, dual phase extraction, thermal treatment, hydrofracturing enhancements, in-well air stripping, and passive reactive treatment walls. For contaminated soil, sediment, bedrock, and sludge, the available technologies include chemical oxidation, electrokinetic separation, fracturing, soil flushing, soil vapor extraction, solidification stabilization, and thermal treatment 3,8-13 . Physical and physicochemical treatment technologies are normally costly even though removal of contaminants can be completed in short time periods in comparison with biological treatment. Residuals after treatment will require further disposal, which will add to the total project costs.
Ex situ physical and physicochemical remediation can be completed in shorter time periods than biological treatment. Treatment residuals from separation techniques will require treatment or disposal, which will add to the total project costs and may require permits. For example, adsorption can remove TNT species from aqueous solutions. The water after treatment becomes less contaminated however, further disposal of TNT adsorbed chemically onto activated carbons is problematic.
When companies are serious about improving staff performance or changing practices in a given area of the business, they will normally make a big investment in staff training and development to do this. It is normal nowadays for companies to send all staff on health and safety training, management training, project management training, and so on. Similarly, companies that are serious about sustainability need to build capacity across the whole staff body on the issue. A company will not have 'embedded' sustainability if all the expertise is located within one small department or team.
Sumana Bhattacharya NATCOM Project Management Cell India Ministry of Agriculture and Food Finnish Forest Research Institute NATCOM Project Management Cell Ministry of Environment & Forests U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Environment Canada U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service University College Cork Environmental Council of Zambia AgResearch Limited Toulouse University NATCOM Project Management Cell India Ministry of Environment & Forests India, Government of India
Project costs, specifying the institutional structure for the project, and selecting carbon pools and frequency for monitoring. 5.3 Project Review, Appraisal and Approval Phase Procedures for project review and appraisal vary with different agencies, and the project review phase is critical in getting a project approved and financially supported. The procedures are usually complex for land-based projects due to environmental and socio-economic linkages and trade-offs. Appraisal of the project could include consideration of long-term impacts on carbon stocks, biodiversity, soil quality and water supply. The review and appraisal process could potentially focus on the following aspects Periodic monitoring of project performance and impacts is crucial to achieving the goals of a project. Monitoring would include periodic assessment of environmental, economic and social indicators selected for the project along with project costs and benefits. The key aspects of monitoring relevant to...
Table 24.5 summarizes the cost information reported for 127 MTBE remediation technology applications. Only costs reported as total project costs are summarized in this table. Note that these include both completed and ongoing projects. Because of the wide variation in the components that were included in the reported total project costs, these data should only be used as a general reference about costs and should not be used as a sole basis to estimate costs for future MTBE remediation projects or to compare the cost of technologies. In addition, U.S. EPA prepared a more detailed Total Project Costs Reported in 2002 USD The cost data are based on the data provided by project managers and others in the source materials used to prepare the treatment profiles website. There was variation among the profiles in the level of detail for cost data by project, with many of the treatment profiles containing only limited information about treatment cost. Treatment cost is site-specific and...
Successful energy and CO 2 reduction projects require a systematic approach. In this chapter we will give an overview over the procedure we recommend for energy saving and CO2 reduction projects. This procedure was developed and proven in many different projects. Some key aspects for a successful project execution are
ERM enables an organization to deal effectively with uncertainty and associated risk. ERM is a systematic approach for identifying and managing the business risks of an organization. ERM offers a proven method to align risk appetite with strategic goals, deploys resources more effectively, reduces operational surprises and losses, and improves risk response (PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2007).
In this example we can concentrate on eight sites (of 27) and cover 85 of the total energy consumption of the company. The reduction of the number of sites lowers the project costs and helps to concentrate on the biggest energy consumers. In our experience it is recommended that at least 80 of the total energy consumption of a company should be covered in order to derive the maximum advantage from the energy saving project. Smaller sites (in the sense of energy consumption) can be neglected, nevertheless some customers decided to include smaller sites into the program for 'political' reasons. Some customers also use the findings in the energy-consuming sites and transfer these measures to the smaller sites.
This paper reviews models that are currently being used in smoke management in the United States. These modes run the gamut from simple, straight-line Gaussian dispersion models to sophisticated regional meteorological forecasting tools (e.g., MM5 and CSU RAMS) coupled with sophisticated puff dispersion models (e.g., Calpuff). Based upon an assessment of appropriate applications for this spectrum of tools including their operational data requirements, we present a strategy for implementing a proposed operational smoke management system. This system will be designed for field personnel of the Forest Service and other land management agencies, for both planning and burn project management.
A substantial number of agencies are responsible for water management in the basin. It is estimated that about 40 agencies deal with water at different levels, ranging from national to local. There are sectoral agencies dealing with domestic water supply, health and sanitation, agricultural and irrigation services, hydropower generation, groundwater development and ecosystem management. In addition, Provincial Councils are devolved with water-related functions. The Chief Secretary of the Province, District Secretary and Divisional Secretary are the key Government officials who make decisions regarding water resources management at their respective levels. At the district level, decisions on water are made by institutions such as the District Coordinating Committee, District Agricultural Committee and Project Management Committee.
Construction are considerably behind their original construction schedules. The causes of the delays are not unlike those experienced during the construction of the current generation of nuclear power plants and include poor workmanship requiring costly rework, poor project management, and a lack of understanding of the regulatory requirements. Although these are the first of the new design pressurized water reactors to be built, the types of construction delays are not expected to be design dependent and, thus, could occur on any of the other reactor designs. Only the ABWR's built in Japan experienced minimal construction delays. The ABWR's were built in a carefully defined manner in close cooperation with the regulators and were finished very close to their original schedule. This success points to the need for good project management, attention to detail, and an understanding of the regulatory environment, all of which can be attained with proper planning and personnel.
The CDM is specifically designed to advance the sustainable development goals of developing countries. It could be seen as a powerful potential tool for transferring new technologies to developing countries, and a requirement is that a proportion of project costs supports other projects that mitigate emissions in non-Annex B countries.
Little additional information was identified in the literature about the costs of using MPE for the treatment of MTBE and other oxygenates, or for other contaminants. The cost per volume of subsurface treated was reported in one literature source as ranging from USD47 to USD222 m3 (USD36-USD170 yd3) for sites contaminated with chlorinated solvents.46 The cost of MPE is generally considered to be the average of the costs for remediation technologies for treatment of contaminated groundwater.34 However, project costs will likely be driven primarily by the aboveground treatment required. The costs of aboveground water and vapor treatment technologies are discussed in other sections.
Project cost data were reported for 24 of the 138 SVE projects in the dataset. In most cases, the components that make up the project costs were not reported. However, it is likely that these incorporate different components, such as treatment, monitoring, design, oversight, and health and safety. The median reported total cost for all SVE projects was approximately USD206,000, with most projects having a total cost between USD100,000 and USD400,000.
Indicators you need to track in order to determine how the targets are doing and whether your restoration actions are having their intended results. A complete monitoring plan clearly outlines your information needs, specifies the least number of indicators needed to meet these needs, details methods for collecting the indicator data, and describes who has this responsibility and when these data are collected. In addition, the monitoring plan identifies what analysis is undertaken by whom, and to whom information is circulated and when.189 The amount of project resources that you invest in monitoring should generally vary depending on the situation you are facing.190 If you are in the rare situation where you are highly confident that forest conditions will restore themselves passively, then you would likely spend only a limited amount of resources on monitoring the situation and making sure that no new threats emerge. If the restoration effort warrants the use of straightforward...
Programmes and projects for roundwood production and for land conservation and development are aimed neither at reducing CO2 emissions nor at increasing carbon stocks but seek to enhance or conserve forest biodiversity, improve soil fertility and increase roundwood production. However, all such projects impact carbon pools, and monitoring or evaluation of these projects actually requires estimation of changes in some - though not all - of the carbon pools. The focus is largely on enhancing production of above-ground biomass or improvement of soil fertility. Roundwood production programmes or projects The main goal of programmes or projects that seek to produce roundwood is to produce fuelwood, industrial roundwood or sawn timber. Above-ground tree biomass is harvested periodically according to a rotation cycle, although soil is unlikely to be disturbed if coppicing plants such as eucalyptus and teak are planted. Therefore, above-ground biomass is the key pool of interest to the...
(ii) Project goals and activities The importance of different carbon pools will vary with the project goals of interest to project managers. Carbon mitigation projects directly aim at enhancing carbon stocks or reducing the emission of CO2 from a unit area, and it is important to consider all the potential pools likely to be impacted by project activities that contribute to the aim. In a land reclamation project, the main goal may be to enhance soil organic matter or carbon density of the area to improve soil fertility, making it the only carbon pool of significance. In a community fuelwood plantation or commercial timber project, the main objective is to enhance roundwood production, making above-ground biomass the key pool. Tree planting, promotion of natural regeneration, A project manager has to balance various factors such as the cost and the accuracy required with respect to main goals of the project, activities involved and their likely impacts on different carbon pools....
The United States Congress recently established a Joint Fire Science Program to address a growing concern about the ability of forest managers to control wild fires, especially at the growing interface between urban and rural land, and the use of fire for managing vegetation in these regions. Congress acknowledged the potential for conflict in this urban interface between the use of fire to accomplish ecologically beneficial land management goals and negative impacts of smoke on clean air, human health and welfare goals. It recognized that fire managers must strive to accomplish both of these goals. To do so, they need a set of smoke management tools that are both readily accessible and scientifically appropriate. The Joint Fire Science Project management, in its request for proposals, in June 1998 stated that the capabilities of current models to predict emissions and transport of smoke from fires are inadequate in coverage and are incomplete in scope. As a result, it is necessary to...
At the time of writing, the few CO2 storage sites that exist are part of petroleum production operations and are regulated as such. For example, acid gas storage operations in western Canada need to conform to requirements that deal with applications to operate conventional oil and gas reservoirs (Bachu and Gunter, 2005). Regulatory development for CCS is in its early stages. There are no national or international standards for performance of geological CO2 storage sites and many countries are currently developing relevant regulations to address the risks of leakage. Demonstration of monitoring technologies is a necessary part of this development (see Annex 1). As these standards and regulatory approaches are developed and implemented, they may be able to provide emissions information with relative certainty. Therefore, as part of the annual inventory process, if one or more appropriate governing bodies that regulate carbon dioxide capture and storage exist, then the inventory...
The State of Georgia offers tax relief to companies that institute emission-reducing programs such as the Advanced Travel Center Electrification (ATE) program, which was established to provide long-haul truckers with an alternative to the practice of idling trucks while drivers rest, releasing tons of CO2 and pounds of NOx and CO2 into the air each year and wasting valuable fuel. ATE offers an external system, which can be mounted on the truck to provide heat, air, power, internet access, television, and phone services while the truck is turned off. Revenues from the program are shared between ATE designer, IdleAire Technologies Corporation, and parking space property owners. The Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Program offers some funding for the ATE system, and the state matches 20 percent of project costs.
Although the project was permitted to operate from 6 00 a.m. to 6 00 p.m. five days a week, the South Coast Air Quality District imposed the added restriction that all operations including operating rolling stock cease by 5 00 p.m. Consequently, the effective daily treatment window was approximately 10 hr or less, depending upon downtime. A period of at least 1 hr was required for cleanup, maintenance, moving piles, etc. at the end of each shift. Thus, in order to meet the project schedule, a nominal 1000 tons of material per day had to be processed within these time constraints.
6 An ESCO is a special-purpose company which gets a share from the company energy savings. ESCOs provide auditing, project management, implementation and finance expertise, so that the main company does not bear the risks and does not have to arrange the financing. ESCOs serve industrial companies, owners of commercial or multi-family buildings, public institutions and utilities.
Any successful program needs a leader, a coordinator that who can take responsibility and be granted authority to develop, implement, and maintain the energy efficiency program. It is recommended that this person should be an expert skilled both in engineering and financial principles. Knowledge about company culture and good networking, internally and externally, are desirable. Effective communication at all corporation levels to learn different perspectives and ideas and negotiate. Also valuable are good administrative and project management abilities. He must show pertinacious enthusiasm, willingness to advocate for the cause, tireless commitment and trustworthiness to gain staff respect. This position is usually known as 'energy champion,' a reference figure to the energy efficiency program, empowered to give direction, monitor results and advise management about the program.
Conceived in 1976 by Petro-Canada as a way to stimulate frontier exploration and to increase Canadian energy supplies. The project was proposed formally in 1979 by a consortium comprising Petro-Canada Exploration Inc., as project manager and principal shareholder, Dome Petroleum Ltd., Nova, an Alberta corporation (formerly Alberta Gas Trunk Line Co. Ltd.), and Melville Shipping Ltd. The gas production facilities associated with the Arctic Pilot Project were to be owned and operated by Pan-Arctic Oils Ltd., while TransCanada Pipelines Ltd. was to be responsible for the southern regasification terminal. For economic reasons, the project did not proceed.
Glaciated terrain was then mapped according to the dominant landsystems (Eyles and Dearman, 1981 Eyles et al., 1983a), providing a predictive tool for rapid assessments of subsurface materials by those involved in resource and engineering project management.
The project boundary is the geographically delineated area dedicated to the project activity. Projects can vary in size from hundreds of hectares to hundreds of thousands of hectares either as a contiguous unit or distributed as multiple parcels under a single project management. The spatial boundaries of the land need to be clearly defined and properly documented for measurements and monitoring. Defining project boundary is necessary to estimate the leakage of carbon benefits due to implementation of the project. A project area can have a primary boundary and a secondary boundary
Site evaluation criteria for wetlands and other natural systems are given in Chapter 2 of this manual. The ideal site for a wetland would be within a reasonable distance from the wastewater sources and at an elevation permitting gravity flow to the wetland, between the wetland cells, and to the final discharge point. The site would be available at a reasonable cost, would not require extensive clearing or earthwork for construction, would have a deep nonsensitive groundwater table, and would contain subsoils that, when compacted, would provide a suitable liner. Any divergence from these ideal characteristics will result in increased project costs. The possible future expansion of the system should also be given consideration during the planning and site evaluation effort. The 56-ac (23-ha) FWS wetland system in West Jackson County, Mississippi, was constructed in 1990 1991 with a design capacity of 1.6 mgd. Because of rapid community growth it was necessary to expand the system...
Nitrogen can be removed in pond systems by plant or algal uptake, nitrification and denitrification, adsorption, sludge deposition, and loss of ammonia gas to the atmosphere (volatilization). In facultative wastewater treatment ponds, the dominant mechanism is believed to be volatilization, and under favorable conditions up to 80 of the total nitrogen present can be lost. The rate of removal depends on pH, temperature, and detention time. The amount of gaseous ammonia present at near-neutral pH levels is relatively low, but when some of this gas is lost to the atmosphere additional ammonium ions shift to the ammonia form to maintain equilibrium. Although the unit rate of conversion and loss may be very low, the long detention time in these ponds compensates, resulting in very effective removal over the long term. Chapter 4 presents equations describing this nitrogen removal in ponds that can be used for design. Because nitrogen is often the controlling design parameter for land...
In addition to a higher rate of treatment than FWS wetlands, the SSF wetland concept offers several other advantages. Because the water surface is below the top of the gravel, mosquitoes are not a problem as the larvae cannot develop. In cold climates, the subsurface position of the water and the litter layer on top of the gravel offer greater thermal protection for the SSF wetland. The greatest advantage is the minimal risk of public exposure or contact with the wastewater because the water surface is not directly, or easily, accessible however, the major disadvantage for the SSF concept is the cost of the gravel media. The unit costs for the other system components (e.g., excavation, liner, inlets, outlets) are about the same for either SSF or FWS wetlands, but the cost of gravel in the SSF system adds significantly to project costs. For design flow rates larger than about 50,000 gpd (190 m3 d), the smaller size of the SSF wetland does not usually compensate for the extra cost of...
Two activities are key to a successful prescribed fire planning process. The first is seasonal scheduling. Seasonal scheduling is the activity of identifying a window of time when a burn will occur during a given burn season. Scheduling will allow for better resource utilization, thus maximising the number of burns that can be completed during a year. Seasonal scheduling is mostly resource dependent. Schedulers need project management tools to effectively allocate resources. The project management tools need to be flexible enough to account for unplanned events such as wildfires. Seasonal range weather forecasts may also help determine when to schedule burns. Forecasts at the seasonal time scale are reported in terms of excess probability of exceeding normal values for precipitation and temperature. Knowledge of local normal values is therefore important.
Different conservation groups have developed more or less similar project management systems for helping practitioners to design, manage, and monitor their conservation work. An overview of some of these systems can be found in the Rosetta Stone of Conservation Practice that has been developed by the Conservation Measures Partnership (CMP).193 Likewise, the Partnership's Open Standards for the Practice of Conservation provides a generic listing of the steps in this process.194 One specific system that can be useful to practitioners is the Nature Conservancy's (TNC) Enhanced 5-S Project Management Process, 195 which can help identify the integrity of biodiversity targets (critical in forest restoration work), as well as help evaluate and prioritise critical threats and other factors from the
Ment, project management, and development can be brought to bear in conflict management. Examples include participatory appraisal,110 a variety of approaches for measuring and analysing sustainability,111 and more general tools that help to frame and guide further analysis, such as STEEP, SWOT, problem trees, and forcefield analyses 12 The key is to use those that are relevant for different stakeholders and that help to bring understanding and wider perspectives on the issues. Key analytical tools, though, include the following
Either annually or once in 2-3 years. Intensively managed bioenergy plantations or commercial plantations also require annual monitoring of above-ground biomass pool due to the likely high growth rates and short rotation of the species planted. Further, frequency depends on the stock in above-ground biomass pool at the pre-project implementation phase. If the stock is zero or insignificant, as with most afforestation and reforestation or bioenergy plantations, its annual accumulation is likely to be significant and should be measured annually whereas in the case of forest management projects, above-ground biomass is likely to be present in substantial quantities at project initiation (baseline scenario), and additions will amount to only a small fraction of the initial quantities - annual monitoring, therefore, is not required. Thus, the frequency with which above-ground biomass stock needs to be monitored depends on the stock at the beginning of the project, the likely rate of growth...
Project Management Made Easy
What you need to know about… Project Management Made Easy! Project management consists of more than just a large building project and can encompass small projects as well. No matter what the size of your project, you need to have some sort of project management. How you manage your project has everything to do with its outcome.