Present Moment Products Catalog
This means that much world fuel use (coal, gas, oil, renewables, nuclear power) in the next 20 years and sometimes longer is already determined by investment decisions made over the last decade and more. The implication is that the world is not only locked in at the present moment to a high carbon system, it also means that much of the lock-in effect will persist for decades to come - even if it were possible from tomorrow to start down a radically new path. Equally, from a contemporary policy perspective, investment decisions made in the next decade will have a locking effect over decades to come, and it is therefore important to ensure they are consistent with a low carbon future.
Eastern religions aim at the emancipation of the human spirit from bodily existence. To achieve this, the Jains developed a veritable science of ahimsa, a multitude of precepts for not injuring life in any form, down to minerals and metals, to liberate the spirit-soul from its burden of karma-matter. The Buddha discovered the chain of the conditions of co-origination that ties human consciousness to the world of nature, and taught his followers how to break it. The Upanishads emphasize the unreality of all things visible and tangible and urge to realize brahman, the transcendent all-embracing spirit that alone can be called real. Yogis become famous by defying the laws of nature surviving for days buried underground, walking on water or sticking swords through their bodies without bleeding. If any of the teachings of the mainstream major religions had the added benefit of protecting nature, it was a side effect, not their main intention.
Being mindful of the concern of Glantz (2007) that critical terms including adaptation can be misleading, for the present purposes adaptation is regarded no more than adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli . Adopting this simplified definition also avoids the use of the term autonomous altogether, in favor of treating the set of human homeother-mic adaptations as an Integrated Adaptive System.
Emphasis on conservation helped feed understanding about interconnections between human activities and the environmental impact of pollution, raising human consciousness about wasteful practices. While pollution was easily visible at the local level, understanding its broader impact depended on the development of more sophisticated measurement tools, with computers capable of analyzing massive amounts of data taken from complex and dynamic ecosystems. The planning required for widespread conservation efforts demands a systems approach to human-environmental relationships, especially those associated with burning nonrenewable fossil fuels.
In the US we now emit 11 more CO2 than in 1990 and at Kyoto we promised to reduce CO2 emissions to 8 below 1990 levels in ten years for a decrease of 19 below today's levels. If all the electricity now generated by nuclear power were to be generated by coal, CO2 emissions would increase by another 8 , making it more difficult to meet our commitment if we abandon nuclear power. About 30 years ago Dr. Glenn Seaborg, then Chairman of the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), testified to the Joint Committee of Atomic Energy of the US Congress (JCAE) that nuclear power would be comparatively benign environmentally (in particular, not producing appreciable CO2) and also would produce electricity at a modest cost (Seaborg, 1968). This optimism was nationwide and worldwide. Since that time opposition to nuclear power has arisen, and nuclear power at the present moment is not being considered by most governments in the world as an option to meet energy and environmental aims and desires. Our...
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