Key features in electricity and CO2: Asia (excluding China and India)
F There has been steady growth in total electricity generation (TWh), although the rate of growth has slowed slightly from 7.7% per annum in 1990-98 to 5.3% in the decade to 2008.
F This growth has largely been met with new gas (12.6% annual increase since 1990) and coal (8.4% annual increase since 1 990) generation. Together, these moved from 33.9% of supply in 1990 to 67.1% in 2008, triggering a decline in the share of generation from non-fossil fuels, from 35.4% in 1990 to 20.3% in 2008.
F Total CO2 emissions have risen alongside the increase in coal and gas generation, more than tripling since 1 990. The emissions intensity of the overall supply has only changed slightly, moving from 0.52 tCO2/MWh in 1990 to 0.57 tCO/MWh in 2008, with more efficient gas-based generation offsetting the high CO2 intensity of coal.
F Demand growth is evenly spread between the industrial, commercial and residential sectors. Since the Asian financial crisis of 1998-99, demand in each of these sectors has grown very steadily, averaging around 6% per annum between 1998 and 2008.
F Non-fossil generation is predominantly from hydro (13.4% of supply in 2008) and nuclear (4.2% in 2008). Geothermal plants in Indonesia and the Philippines contribute 1.9% to total generation. Geothermal generation is expected to increase rapidly, with Indonesia planning construction of a further 43 plants by 2014, and new plants also planned in the Philippines.
F Fossil-based capacity accounted for 84% of capacity additions from 1990-2010. Although hydro is expected to account for a growing share of supply in the next two decades, coal presently leads new capacity projects.
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