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Key features in electricity and CO2 world F Total electricity (and heat1) output grew by 56 between 1990 and 2008, with a marked reduction in growth in the year 2008 (1.5 against 3.3 over the previous decade). F OECD North America, Europe and China account for 60.5 of global power output in 2008. These three regions also account for 61.6 of electricity-related CO2 emissions in that year, with China as the first emitter. F China recorded the fastest growth, at 11.3 per annum between 1998 and...

Electricity market design for decarbonisation

The energy and climate-policy communities are becoming more concerned about the suitability of current wholesale electricity market designs for decarbonisation of the power sector. This discussion is most advanced in the United Kingdom, where the government has announced proposals for significant market reform. Two key issues are under debate i) whether current market structures are lower risk for fossil fuel plants due to the way electricity market prices track fuel costs and ii) whether the...

Profit Infra Marginal Electricity Producer Curve Integration Of Cost

Other possible forms of lock-in deserve greater consideration, in particular with respect to energy efficiency improvements. Some energy efficiency measures need to be undertaken at a given time - for example, when new plants or buildings are designed and built - or risk costing much more at a later stage. Accepting too large an investment in renewable technologies while neglecting timely energy-efficiency programmes clearly runs the risk of locking in societies' too-high energy consumption...

Funding energy efficiency earmarked environmental taxes versus system public benefit charges

Energy efficiency can improve energy security, reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, promote economic growth and create jobs. However, market failures and other barriers have caused a pattern of underinvestment in energy efficiency, forcing governments to undertake policy interventions. Funding for these policy interventions may come from several sources, including government budgets, earmarked environmental taxes, and charges on network-delivered energy (gas and electricity). Classical...

Etp 2010

* Scenario with 60 renewables in the power mix. Sources Eurelectric, 2010 ECF, 2010 IEA, 2010a. * Scenario with 60 renewables in the power mix. Sources Eurelectric, 2010 ECF, 2010 IEA, 2010a. 3. 211 GW of gas in Energy Technology Perspectives 2010 (IEA, 2010a) and 200 GW of gas and oil capacity in Power Choices (Eurelectric, 2010). Among the numerous policy assumptions underlying these scenarios for a low-carbon electricity system in Europe, the price put on CO2 emissions plays an important...

Carbon leakage in the European Unions power sector

The EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) is an essential tool for the European Union to achieve its goal of reducing CO2 emissions from power generation. The EU ETS encourages fuel-switching away from fossil-based generation, with a cap on CO2 emissions, eventually resulting in higher electricity prices. The electricity sectors of countries that border on the European Union and do not apply such a policy may gain a competitive advantage and, transmission capacity allowing, gain shares in the...

Integrating EVs and PHEVs into the electric grid longterm projections of electricity demand and CO2 emissions

r Lew Fulton and Tali Trigg, Energy Technology Policy Division Worldwide CO2-emissions constraints could stimulate the rapid development of electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) as a much cleaner means of transportation than standard vehicles. This paper provides new findings on this topic based on IEA projections for the year 2050. Questions covered include how much grid-electricity demand the use of PHEVs would create globally and by region, and how PHEV...