Vehicle Integration

The status and prospects of vehicle integration of zero emission vehicles (ZEVs), as well as their advanced technology vehicles (ATVs) that could have synergistic benefits supportive to the introduction of ZEVs, are summarized below. In addition to vehicle technical considerations, vehicle business considerations (e.g., manufacturing cost, capital investment, marketability, etc.) also are addressed, in order to forecast the future prospects, introduction timing, and volume milestones of the ZEV and ATV technologies. Full Performance Battery Electric Vehicle (FPBEV)

Full Performance Battery Electric Vehicles are defined in this report as BEVs fully capable of high speed U.S. urban/suburban freeway driving.

Despite substantial technology progress, prior efforts to introduce FPBEVs were unsuccessful. Specifically, the large batteries required to provide the necessary driving range, as well as an acceptable "cushion," remain very expensive.

Higher fuel prices and less demanding driving conditions in Japan and Europe provide lower barriers to success and as a result a few OEMs are developing small FPBEVs with Li Ion batteries for these markets, and they may bring them to the U.S. as niche vehicles.

FPBEVs are not likely to become mass market ZEVs in the near future due to the high cost for the battery not being recoverable with fuel cost savings and limited customer acceptance due to range and recharge time issues. City Electric Vehicle (CEV)

City Electric Vehicles are defined in this report as BEVs with limited acceleration and top speed (e.g. 50/60 mph) and thus not suitable for high speed U.S. urban/ suburban freeway driving, although at present they must meet all Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) requirements. These performance limitations allow a smaller size battery and lower power electric drive system, so that the vehicle can have a lower manufacturing cost and thus be made more affordable to the customer.

Prior efforts to produce CEVs were unsuccessful due to high cost and limited mass-market customer acceptance. A special CEV FMVSS similar in concept to FMVSS 500 (e.g., restrict CEVs from freeway driving, etc.) may help stimulate development in the U.S.

CEVs are more likely to become future mass market ZEVs in Japan and Europe than in the U.S. due to performance limitations. Neighborhood Electric Vehicle (NEV)

Neighborhood Electric Vehicles are defined in this report as BEVs capable of top speeds between 20 and 25 mph that meet FMVSS 500 and are limited to roads with posted speeds of 35 mph or less.

NEV technology appears to be commercially successful but has low volume potential due to limited applicability. Also, because they use very simple technology, NEVs have very little synergy with larger BEVs.

NEVs provide no significant technical benefits to future mass market ZEVs due to their simple technology and performance limitations. Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV)

HEVs have no customer compromises and therefore appeal to mass-market customers willing to pay a premium. While producers are driving down the costs of electric drive components and systems, high manufacturing cost is still an issue. However, OEMs are introducing many new entries, despite the cost issue, mostly for competitive reasons. Overall, HEV sales volume rises and falls with the price of gasoline - making future growth forecasts uncertain.

HEVs, due to their success, are providing major support to future mass market ZEVs by continuing to stimulate advances in electric drive systems, electric accessories, and battery technologies. In addition, they are increasing customer awareness of electric drive technology and the associated benefits. Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV)

PHEVs have no expected customer compromises while promising several benefits to customers and society. The relatively small battery capacity can be fully used daily for maximum customer fuel savings payback of the initial vehicle premium.

Recently, some OEMs have become interested in PHEVs, and GM and Ford have shown concept PHEVs at recent auto shows and other events - which is attracting major media attention and establishing high consumer expectations.

All Electric Range (AER) is the distance the vehicle can travel without utilizing the internal combustion engine. The longer the AER, the higher the impact on manufacturing costs, as well as capital investment requirements if unique and more powerful electric drive systems are necessary. Therefore AER could have a significant impact on the early success of the technology.

PHEVs are likely to become available in the near future. They may foster future mass market BEVs by stimulating energy battery development and conditioning mass market customers to accept plugging in. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV)

FCEVs are considered the ultimate solution by several OEMs with massive R&D efforts underway. However, simultaneously achieving performance, durability, and cost objectives with FCEVs continues to be very difficult.

The cost, weight, and volume of adequate vehicle hydrogen storage and availability of a hydrogen infrastructure are major issues.

Plug-in series hybrid FCEVs operating "steady state" have potential to simultaneously achieve performance, durability and cost objectives.

With the past rate of success and the massive intellectual and financial resources being devoted to this technology, FCEVs continue to be a promising candidate for a future mass market true ZEV.

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