Economic development and the fulfillment of basic human needs such as education, sanitation, health, and communication are dependent on the availability of modern energy services. Indeed, improved standards of living in developing countries are closely associated with an increase in energy demand, particularly electricity. However, the urgent need for a continued and rapid enhancement of the availability, reliability, and affordability of modern energy services, especially electricity, needs to be consistent with sustainable development goals. As such, there are several technology and policy issues associated with reducing GHG emissions from the power sectors in the key developing economies. These issues can be categorized into following four groups: demand management, improving efficiency of existing generation portfolio, new fossil-fired power plants, and non-GHG emitting generation options such as nuclear and renewable. We explore these options and their penetration potential in short (<5 year), medium (5-15 year) and long-term (>15 year).
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