In February, 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) [1] concluded:

- Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, as is now evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice, and rising global average sea level.

- Most of the observed increase in globally averaged temperatures since the mid-twentieth century is very likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations.

- The combined radiative forcing due to increases in carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous very likely to have been unprecedented in more than 10,000 years.

- The total temperature increase from 1850-1899 to 2001-2005 is 0.76°C.

- Depending on the assumed greenhouse gas emission, warming in 2095, relative to pre-industrial levels, is projected to be 1.6-6.4°C.

Given these findings, this chapter will examine the critical global energy sector with the aim of evaluating the ability of technologies to moderate projected warming. Factors that lead to increasing emissions of CO2 the critical greenhouse gas will be analyzed, and the anticipated importance of key countries will be discussed. Then, CO2 emissions will be projected into the future for key sectors and warming will be projected with consideration of model uncertainties. The chapter will summarize the state of the art of key technologies and R&D priorities for each of four key sectors that can contribute to mitigating such emissions (Note that in this chapter, all CO2 concentrations will be in ppmv, abbreviated as ppm, and all warming will be realized or transient warming, unless specifically identified, as opposed to equilibrium warming. (Equilibrium warming is the ultimate global warming after an infinite time interval, resulting from an elevated concentration of greenhouse gases.)

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