Since the end of the Second World War there has been a strong and steady growth in the world's motor vehicle population. Initially, this growth was focused primarily in North America but over the past six decades it has gradually spread,

*The findings included in this chapter do not necessarily reflect the view or policies of the Environmental Protection Agency. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute Agency endorsement or recommendation for use.

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, DC, USA e-mail: [email protected]

F.T. Princiotta (ed.), Global Climate Change - The Technology Challenge, Advances in Global Change Research 38, DOI 10.1007/978-90-481-3153-2_6, © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

first to Europe and now Asia and to a lesser extent, Latin America. Vehicles have brought many perceived improvements to the quality of lives - increased mobility, jobs, recreational opportunities - to name but a few. But they have also changed many cities into sprawling conurbations, developed a so far unquenchable thirst for precious and limited oil, become a major if not dominant source of urban air pollution and most recently the most rapidly growing contributor to climate change.

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