Introduction

Power Efficiency Guide

Ultimate Guide to Power Efficiency

Get Instant Access

Globally, carbon dioxide (CO2) accounts for more than 90% of CO2-eq greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from industrial sectors [1]. Also, industrial sector CO2 emissions from energy consumption and industrial processes account for about one-fourth of global CO2 emissions [2]. Among the industries, steel manufacturing (~30%), non-metallic minerals (~27%), and chemical and petrochemical (~16%) were the three largest CO2 emitters in 2005 (see Table 8.1).

The non-metallic minerals sector includes cement manufacturing, brick kilns, glass and ceramic manufacturing, and building materials. Although this sector accounts for only about 10% of industrial energy consumption, its share of CO2 emissions is significantly larger due to large process related emissions from cement manufacturing. Of the total CO2 emissions from non-metallic minerals sector, cement manufacturing accounted for 83% of the total energy use and 94% of CO2 emissions. In 2005, cement manufacturing was responsible for about 6% of the global CO2 emissions [2].

Cement is a key building and construction material. Global production of cement has been growing steadily, with the main growth being in Asia. China, in particular, now accounts for almost half of the global cement production [3]. Notably, cement industry appears to have large CO2 abatement potential [1].

Table 8.1 Global industrial sector energy consumption and CO2 emissions (2005) Source: IEA

Table 8.1 Global industrial sector energy consumption and CO2 emissions (2005) Source: IEA

Sector

(%)

(%)

Chemical and

809

29.3

1,086

16.3

petro-chemicals

Iron and steel

560

20.3

1,992

29.9

Non-metallic minerals

263

9.5

1,770

26.6

Pulb and paper

154

5.6

189

2.8

Other

977

35.4

1,623

24.4

Total

2,763

100

6,660

100

aMillion metric tons oil equivalent bMillion metric tons aMillion metric tons oil equivalent bMillion metric tons

Water

Fuel(S)

Fuel Substitution/ Reduction (reduce NOx, SO2, PM, CO2, ... )

Electricity

Decrease consumption (reduce power plant emissions)

Raw Materials

Raw Material Substitution (reduce related emissions)

Pollution Controls (reduce NOx, SO2,PM,CO2, VOC, ...)

Raw Materials

Raw Material Substitution (reduce related emissions)

Water

Fuel(S)

Fuel Substitution/ Reduction (reduce NOx, SO2, PM, CO2, ... )

^ Air emissions

Waste

Product(S)

Product Substitution (reduce related emissions)

Product(S)

Product Substitution (reduce related emissions)

Imports

Reduce quantity (reduce related emissions in exporting countries)

Fig. 8.1 An integrated view of pollution generation pathways, emissions abatement approaches, and multimedia impacts for an industrial sector

^ Air emissions

Waste

Imports

Reduce quantity (reduce related emissions in exporting countries)

Fig. 8.1 An integrated view of pollution generation pathways, emissions abatement approaches, and multimedia impacts for an industrial sector

Within an industrial sector, generally CO2 and other emissions arise from four pathways: (1) on-site emissions due to combustion of fossil fuels for energy at plants, (2) on-site emissions due to processing of certain raw materials (e.g., limestone calcination in cement plants, non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting), (3) off-site emissions due to combustion of fossil fuels at power plants to generate the electricity needed by the industrial sector, and (4) emissions associated with imports. These pathways are depicted in Fig. 8.1.

Also, shown in Fig. 8.1 are the potential options for mitigating CO2 and other emissions from industrial sectors. Those in green are pollution prevention measures and the ones in red are mitigation measures. Clearly, the integrated picture presented in the figure makes a compelling case for considering commodity production/supply activities along with emissions, while developing holistic emission reduction strategies.

Mckinsey & Company [4] estimate that use of energy efficiency and other measures, including carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), can provide almost 25% reduction in global CO2 emissions from worldwide cement industry, relative to the business-as-usual case, by 2030. The study also indicates that 80% of this abatement potential may be achieved using measures other than CCS. However broad deployment of cost-effective abatement options (e.g., energy efficiency measures) will only be possible if appropriate policy drivers are in effect and barriers such as lack of availability of substitute materials (e.g., blast furnace slag, fly ash, biomass) are addressed.

In another study, the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) used an economic model to analyze the global cement and carbon flows under a number of CO2 abatement options [5]. The study indicates that there is relatively little potential for reducing CO2 emissions via energy efficiency gains at cement plants because older plants are being retired and new plants are already quite efficient. The study also reflects that a sector based policy option could be quite effective in abating CO2 emissions.

The development of policy options for managing emissions and air quality can be made more effective and efficient through sophisticated analyses of relevant technical and economic factors. Such analyses are greatly enhanced by the use of an appropriate modeling framework. Accordingly, the Industrial Sector Integrated Solutions (ISIS) model for industrial sectors is under development at U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). Currently, the ISIS model is populated with data on the U.S. cement-manufacturing sector, and efforts are underway to build representations of the U.S. pulp and paper and iron and steel sectors.

The ensuing sections describe the U.S. cement industry, CO2 abatement approaches for this industry, the ISIS model framework, and the U.S. cement industry-related data included in ISIS. Subsequently, an example analysis of the U.S. cement industry, investigating the potential for near-term reductions in CO2 and other pollutants, associated costs, and industry operation, is presented. Two broad questions were investigated in our example analysis: (1) what range of CO2 reductions may be practicable in the near-term (i.e., by the decade ending 2020 for this study), and (2) for that range, what may be the market characteristics for the U.S. cement industry. Finally, this chapter concludes with a summary and thoughts on future directions.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Guide to Alternative Fuels

Guide to Alternative Fuels

Your Alternative Fuel Solution for Saving Money, Reducing Oil Dependency, and Helping the Planet. Ethanol is an alternative to gasoline. The use of ethanol has been demonstrated to reduce greenhouse emissions slightly as compared to gasoline. Through this ebook, you are going to learn what you will need to know why choosing an alternative fuel may benefit you and your future.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment