Institutional Structure of Indian Power Generation Sector

The Indian power sector remains dominated by government ministries and public sector corporations. The Ministry of Power is primarily responsible for the development of all aspects of electricity generation, transmission, and distribution in India. It is involved in planning, policy formulation, processing of project and investment decisions, project monitoring, human resource development, and implementation of electricity legislation [19].

In the generation sector, although currently about 60% of installed capacity is vested in the State sector, National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC), a Central government-owned utility, is considered a de facto leader in the power sector at the national level. NTPC is the single largest thermal power utility in the country, accounting for about 20% of total capacity (27 GW) and about 28% of the total power generated in the country. NTPC is often the first utility in India to experiment with, and deploy, new technologies. For example, the first deployment of supercritical pulverized coal technology is taking place in NTPC-owned plants. It also is actively involved in developing gasification technologies for Indian coal.

Bharat Heavy Electrical Limited (BHEL), also a public sector corporation, is the key player in the electric power technology-manufacturing sector. BHEL manufactured more than 60% of the units installed in the 1970s and nearly all of the power plants constructed in the following decade. BHEL units now account for more than 60% of all units installed in India [20].

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