CO2 emissions from the industrial sector are projected to grow at an annual rate of 1% per year over the next several decades (IEA, 7). Table 1.4 summarizes major technologies applicable to this sector. Although CO2 emission control can be specific to a particular industry, there are a number of technologies that can be applied to a large fraction of the industrial sector. Technologies, which are generally applicable, include more efficient motors and steam generators and enhanced use of cogenera-tion technology; all are commercially available and offer the potential for major reductions. For the larger, more energy intensive industries such as cement kilns, ammonia production, and blast furnaces, CCS also offers the potential for mitigating large quantities of CO2. However, as discussed earlier, CCS is in the early developmental stage with a host of questions that can only be resolved through a major program with a particular focus on demonstrations for key geological formations.
Developing and deploying new or modified industrial production processes can also yield important CO2 emission mitigation potential. Processes can be modified to utilize more environmentally friendly feedstocks, or fundamentally new basic material processes can be introduced with inherently lower energy intensity.
Another approach that has potential is to encourage utilization of products which have lower CO2 "content" (i.e., require less carbon intensive energy during the production, use, and disposal). These could be considered "climate-friendly" products. There is currently no incentive to use such products. Also, comprehensive life cycle analyses would be necessary to quantify product CO2 "content."
More detail on the industrial mitigation challenges, with a focus on the cement industry, is available in Chap. 8, Reduction of Multi-pollutant Emissions from Industrial Sectors.
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