In almost every corner of the world, for every type of road vehicle and fuel, there is a clear trend toward more and more stringent emissions requirements. Over the next decade, this pattern is moving toward similar controls on off road vehicles and fuels. Driving these trends are several factors:
• Continued growth in the number of vehicles (especially in China and other parts of Asia) and their concentration in urban areas where pollution levels remain unacceptably high,
• The growing accumulation of health studies that show adverse impacts at lower and lower levels and in the case of PM at virtually any level, and
• Advances in vehicle technology and clean fuels that are making it possible to achieve lower and lower emissions levels at reasonable costs.
One of the critically important lessons learned to date is that clean vehicles and high quality fuels go hand in hand; they must be treated as a system. The next section
3 Even though many sources emit black carbon, including gasoline fueled vehicles, wildfires, biomass burning, etc. diesel vehicles have been identified by EPA as having the strongest warming impact in the US due to their large BC emissions but small organic carbon (cooling) emissions. While the relative contribution will differ from country to country, diesels are considered an important source in virtually every country.
4 Personal Communication.
will review the impact of fuel on emissions and the progress to date in improving fuel quality and vehicle technologies.
Over approximately the last 20 years, extensive studies have been carried out to better establish the linkages between fuels, vehicles, and vehicle emissions. One major study, the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program (AQIRP) was established in 1989 in the US and involved 14 oil companies, three domestic automakers, and four associate members . In 1992, the European Commission also initiated a vehicle emissions and air quality program. The motor industry (represented by Association des Constructeurs Européens d'Automobiles (European Automobile Manufacturers Association [ACEA]) and the oil industry (European Petroleum Industry Association [EUROPIA]) were invited to cooperate within a framework program, later known as "the tripartite activity" or European Auto/Oil Program. In June 1993, a contract was signed by the two industries to undertake a common test program, called the European Program on Emissions, Fuels, and Engine Technologies (EPEFE).
The Japan Clean Air Program (JCAP) was conducted by Petroleum Energy Center as a joint research program of the automobile industry (as fuel users) and the petroleum industry (as fuel producers), supported by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. The program consisted of two stages: the first stage called JCAP I commenced in FY 1997 and terminated in FY 2001; the second called JCAP II commenced in FY 2002 and continued until 2007 to provide a further development of the research activities of JCAP I. In JCAP II, studies focused on future automobile and fuel technologies aimed at realizing Zero Emissions while at the same time improving fuel consumption.
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