The Role of Technology in Mitigating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Power Sector in Developing Countries: The Case of China, India, and Mexico*

Samudra Vijay and Ananth Chikkatur

Abstract China, India, and Mexico are among the top developing country emitters of CO2. The electric power sectors in China and India is dominated by coal-fired power plants, whereas fuel oil and natural gas are the key fossil fuels in Mexico. Spurred by economic development and population growth, demand for electricity in these countries is expected to continue to rise. Meeting this increased demand will have a significant impact on emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). While available portfolio of generation and mitigation technologies may not suffice to arrest the growth of emissions, it can help reduce the rate of emissions growth. To achieve significant reductions, multiple approaches are required, such as reducing demand by adopting end-use efficiency improvement measures, accelerating the deployment of renewable and nuclear power, and adopting cleaner more efficient generation technologies. Retrofitting the existing fleet to meet strengthened environmental standards, and accelerated fleet-turnover, coupled with adoption of state-of-the-art high efficiency generation technologies, such as supercritical and ultra-supercritical boilers and advanced combined-cycle gas turbines, should play

* The findings included in this chapter do not necessarily reflect the view or policies of the Environmental Protection Agency. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute Agency endorsement or recommendation for use. Views expressed in this paper do not necessarily represent those of ICF International.

ORISE Research Fellow, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office or Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA and

Sam Analytic Solutions, LLC, 614 Willingham Rd, Morrisville, NC 27560, USA e-mail: [email protected]

A. Chikkatur

Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, John F. Kennedy School of Government,

Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA

ICF International, Fairfax, VA 22031, USA e-mail: [email protected]

F.T. Princiotta (ed.), Global Climate Change - The Technology Challenge, 345

Advances in Global Change Research 38, DOI 10.1007/978-90-481-3153-2_11, © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

an important role in meeting the increasing demand with the least amount of GHG emissions. In parallel, significant R&D efforts will have to be undertaken to adapt off-the-shelf generation technologies to suit local needs. In the medium to long term, developed countries will need to provide financial and technical support for these countries and partner with them to develop, design, demonstrate, and deploy technologies for capturing and sequestering carbon dioxide.

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