Institutional Structure of Indian Power Generation Sector

The Indian power sector remains dominated by government ministries and public sector corporations. The Ministry of Power is primarily responsible for the development of all aspects of electricity generation, transmission, and distribution in India. It is involved in planning, policy formulation, processing of project and investment decisions, project monitoring, human resource development, and implementation of electricity legislation 19 . In the generation sector, although currently about 60...

Non Fossil Fuel Power Plants

Last, but not least, zero-CO2 emission technologies such as nuclear and renew-ables, need to account for a larger fraction of new capacity in order to reduce GHG emissions. The emphasis on these technologies needs to be paramount, and wherever possible substitute for fossil fuel based plants. Nuclear power can play a key role in meeting the electricity demand without CO2 emissions. While operating and safety performance of nuclear plants have improved, and new designs offer safer and...

The Planetary Energy Balance Levers Available for Climate Manipulation

The earth's climate system is a dynamic and very complex system, but it obeys the basic principles of physical and chemical thermodynamics and kinetics. The climate system at equilibrium is a balance between the incoming solar radiative energy and outgoing long-wave terrestrial radiative energy. The levers that have the capacity to substantially shift the earth's energy balance are (1) altering the flux (quantity) of solar radiation entering the earth's atmosphere (2) altering the fraction of...

Challenges to Future Deployment

The current challenges to increased penetration of wind power are grid integration, forecasting of wind availability, public attitudes and visual impact. For offshore wind energy, a major challenge is cutting costs. The variable nature of wind electricity makes it difficult for wind to fully displace other electricity sources. When wind turbines constitute only a small fraction of generation capacity, their inter-mittency is hardly noticed by system operators, who are used to adjusting output...

Oxygen Blown Power Generation

The main problem with CO2 capture from air-blown units is the low CO2 concentration in the flue gas due to nitrogen dilution. This can be solved by substituting oxygen for air. For PC combustion, this is Oxy-Fuel PC combustion. Another approach is to gasify the coal with oxygen and steam, and remove the CO2 at high pressure prior to combustion of the syngas in a gas turbine. This approach is Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power generation. Oxy-fuel combustion, shown schematically...

CO2 Reductions

It is instructive to examine the implications of an aggressive energy technology mitigation program. The Blue scenario is a useful option to examine, since it involves early and deep carbon reductions across all energy sectors, and since the Industrial C capture & storage, 4.3 Adv. Renewable pwr solar, wind, 5.8 Power generation C capture& storage, 4.8 Reduce building fuel and power use, 5.3 industrial C capture & storage Existing and new industrial upgrades Adv.Renewable pwr solar,...

Rotary Kiln Types and Their Use in the US

Rotary kilns are broadly categorized as dry- and wet-process kilns, depending on how the raw materials are prepared. Wet-process kilns are fed raw material slurry with moisture content ranging between 30 and 40 . A wet-process kiln needs additional length to evaporate the water contained in the raw material feed. Nearly 33 additional kiln energy is consumed in evaporating the water in the slurry. Dry-process kilns are fed dry powdered raw materials. Three designs of dry-process kiln systems are...

Future RD Efforts

Short-term priorities for bioenergy focus on two primary areas - widening the availability of large quantities of relatively cheap feedstocks and further increasing conversion efficiency of basic processes while reducing their costs 3 . Standards and norms on fuel quality are needed so that a dedicated market emerges to support trade - locally, nationally, and internationally. R& D will also be focused on innovative materials design to reduce cost. Gasification technologies still need to...

Nuclear Power

Nuclear power's obvious attraction is its lack of CO2 emissions, at least during the operational phase, but it is also expensive and problems of fuel utilization and wastes have not been adequately resolved. Costs for a new nuclear plant range from 6,000 kWe 33 to as high as 10,000 kWe 34 . Despite very complex issues, the world is currently experiencing a nuclear renaissance. However, in open markets generation options nominally compete based on the metric of Levelized Cost of Electricity...

Phytoplankton Fertilization

Marine phytoplankton play a very large role in the global carbon cycle, accounting for about 50 of the global biological (photosynthetic) uptake of CO2 47 . However, the efficiency of this process is sensitive to the availability of several essential macronutrients required by the various species comprising phytoplankton. Phosphorus, nitrogen, silicon, iron, and zinc are critical for the growth and reproduction of these organisms. In areas limited in one or more of these nutrients,...

Coalto Liquid Fuels

Figures 3.5, 3.6, and 3.7 show the process configurations for coal-to-liquid fuels using FT and MTG technologies in the recycle configuration with CO2 vented and with CCS. The only difference in the process configuration for the CCS case vs. the CO2-venting case is the addition of CO2 compression. For a facility producing 50,000 bbl day of liquid transportation fuels, with the CO2 being vented, the total plant cost (TPC) is estimated at 4.9 billion or 97,600 per stream-day-barrel, which equals...

Achievable Mitigation Levels

Figure 1.8 presents the recent IPCC 10 analysis relating projected warming from 1990 to 2100 to the following global impacts fresh water availability, ecosystem damage, food supplies, seawater rise, extreme weather events, and human health impacts. The author has added projected warming ranges for a credible business-as-usual case and an aggressive global mitigation case. Note that for both ranges, it was projected that global annual emissions would grow at a 1.6 rate until 2030 or until...

Land Based Geoengineering Reforestation Afforestation

Reforestation afforestation has already been incorporated into current international efforts to create carbon offsets, along with renewable energy and energy efficiency programs, and projects that qualify under the Kyoto Protocol Clean Development Mechanism. However, current implementation of forest-based carbon sequestration is limited to private enterprise engaged in selling carbon-offsets, and to some nations with commitments under the Kyoto protocol. As a geoengineering strategy,...

Coal and Biomass to Liquid Fuels

Abstract Demand for liquid transportation fuels has been increasing by over 2 year over the last two decades and is accelerating in the emerging economies which are moving to automobile ownership. Almost all liquid transportation fuels are derived from petroleum, which at the same time is coming under increasing demand pressure and price instability. A high degree of dependence on petroleum brings concerns about diversity and security as well as issues of decreasing CO2 emissions associated...

Increase Surface Reflectivity

The conversion of a natural landscape to an urban environment often induces a local warming trend due to the introduction of impervious and light-absorbing surfaces, such as dark-colored rooftops and pavements. This is known as the urban heat island effect. Warmer temperatures in urban environments have a number of negative impacts, such as higher energy demand for air conditioning and related emissions (pollutants and greenhouse gases), thermal stress to local ecosystems, and an increased risk...

The Mitigation Challenge Which Sectors and Gases Are Most Important

In order to identify the most productive mitigation strategies, it is necessary to understand the current and projected sources of CO2 and the other greenhouse gases. The author has derived the information in Fig. 1.20 from IEA 6 . This graphic projects world CO2 emissions by sector. The emission growth rates are consistent with the business as usual base case, discussed previously 1.6 from 2000 to 2030, and 2.2 from 2030 to 2050. It suggests that power generation and transportation sources are...

Vehicle Energy Storage Systems

This section will focus on advanced battery technologies with potential to be fully developed and available for use in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs), Full Performance Battery Electric Vehicles (FPBEVs) and Plug in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) within the next 5-10 years. Two of the more important characteristics of batteries are Energy Density (Wh kg) and Power Density (W kg). Energy Density is a measure of how much energy a battery can hold. The higher the energy density, the longer the...

Chapter

The Role of Technology in Mitigating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Power Sector in Developing Countries The Case of China, India, and Mexico* Abstract China, India, and Mexico are among the top developing country emitters of CO2. The electric power sectors in China and India is dominated by coal-fired power plants, whereas fuel oil and natural gas are the key fossil fuels in Mexico. Spurred by economic development and population growth, demand for electricity in these countries is expected to...

Low Carbon Fuels

Brazil was the first country to make a significant shift to renewable, lower carbon fuels based on producing ethanol from sugar cane, but many countries around the world are now pursuing similar approaches with mixed success. California recently 12 Similar agreements were also reached with the Japanese and Korean manufacturers. PASSENGER VEHICLE GHG EMISSIONS FLEET AVERAGE PERFORMANCE AND STANDARDS BY REGION Hollow dots and dashed lines nearest targets enacted Smaller hollow dots and dotted...

Hydrogen Storage Systems

Storing sufficient hydrogen on a vehicle to power it for adequate distance, safely, and at reasonable cost, without an excessive weight penalty has been and remains a serious challenge for the automobile industry and its suppliers. Hydrogen storage is among the two or three areas of greatest concern, including all of the other cost and technology challenges associated with developing fuel cell systems for consumer vehicles. Unlike other major technologies being pursued in support of ZEVs,...

ISISCement and Related Data

ISIS is currently populated with data and information on the U.S. cement industry. This cement industry component of ISIS is hereafter referred to as ISIS-cement. The data used in ISIS-cement are described below. 8.5.2.1 Existing and Projected Units and Costs Currently, the ISIS-cement model contains information on 189 cement kilns that were in existence in 2009 and PCA's projected capacity expansions from 2009 to 2012, as shown in Table 8.7 below 11 . Each kiln in ISIS-cement is characterized...

What Levels of Warming Are Projected What Are the Uncertainties

A credible base case, or business as usual (BAU), scenario must be established if we are to estimate warming with any confidence between now and the year 2100. IPCC 1 , IEA 6, 7 , and Hawksworth 8 have all postulated such scenarios that Factors Influencing CO2 Growth Rate 2000 to 2004 Factors Influencing CO2 Growth Rate 2000 to 2004 Population Energy Use GDP GDP Population v CO2 annual growth CO2 emissions Energy Use Population Energy Use GDP GDP Population v CO2 annual growth CO2 emissions...

Power Generating Technologies 221 Air Blown Pulverized Coal PC 2211 Without CO2 Capture

A PC unit with a complete set of advanced criteria-emissions controls is shown in Fig. 2.3. It can be viewed as consisting of three blocks the boiler block, the steam-cycle steam-turbine block, and the flue gas clean-up block as shown in Fig. 2.4. The design and operating conditions of the steam-cycle block largely determines the generating efficiency of the unit. For most existing PC units, the design and operating conditions of the steam cycle is below the critical point of water, which is...

Onshore and Offshore Wind 561 Technology Description and Status

The commercial and technological development of wind energy has been closely related to turbine size. From 10 m in the mid-1970s, wind turbines have grown to diameters of 126 m, with multi-MW installed power (Fig. 5.1). Increasing the rotor diameter is an important prerequisite in developing turbines for offshore applications. All new offshore wind farms are expected to have turbines exceeding 1.5 MW. Modern wind turbines are designed to have a lifetime of 20 years. Other technological...

Ocean Based Geoengineering Proposals pH Modification and Feeding Phytoplankton

Among the natural carbon sinks in earth's biogeochemical system, the world's oceans play the dominant role in buffering changes in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Covering 70 of the earth's surface, the oceans contain approximately 50 times the carbon present in the atmosphere. The annual carbon flux between the atmosphere and the oceans is approximately 100 Pg (100 billion metric tons) 42 . The net uptake of CO2 by the global oceans, under non-El Nino conditions, has been estimated to be...

Increasing Energy Efficiency and CO2 Mitigation in Buildings

For each of the two categories, the technologies are listed in the order of their potential impact in 2,050 according to IEA 4 for two global emission reduction scenarios the ACT and Blue scenarios (Table7.1). The Blue scenario is the most aggressive in that it calls for 2,050 global CO2 emissions to be reduced to 50 of actual 2005 emissions. The ACT scenario would constrain 2,050 emissions at 2005 levels. The technologies are either aimed at enhancing end use efficiency or are new alternative...

Tropospheric Cloud Albedo Enhancement

Atmospheric particulate pollution, which consists of airborne solid or liquid particles generated from a variety of sources, is most often associated with a visible haze and adverse impacts on human health. Particles, also referred to as aerosols, in the lower atmosphere have natural sources such as volcanic emissions, wild fires, and sea spray, as well as anthropogenic sources such as fossil fuel combustion, prescribed forest fires, and road dust. Once generated, tropospheric particles usually...

Building Materials Their Embodied Energy and Greenhouse Gas Impact

Embodied energy is defined in the U.S. DOE's Buildings Energy Data Book as the energy used during the entire life cycle of a product including the energy used for manufacturing, transporting, and disposing of the product. For example, the embodied energy in dimensional lumber includes the energy used to grow, harvest and process the trees into boards, transport the lumber to its final destination, and ultimately dispose of the wood at the end of its useful life. Embodied energy, also called...

Architecture of the Power Generation System

The backbone of the power generation system (as well as nearly all transport systems) is rooted in one of two basic thermodynamic cycles The Rankine, or vapor power cycle, and the Brayton, or gas power cycle (combined cycle, combustion turbine, steam turbine boiler, and nuclear components depicted in Fig. 10.3). Improving the efficiency of these cycles is one of the key steps to achieving CO2 reductions in the near term. Together, these two cycles are responsible for about 80 of the electricity...

Fossil Steam Plants Rankine Cycle Subcritical Steam

The Rankine cycle (or vapor steam cycle) represents the basic energy conversion cycle providing 70 of the electricity in the US economy. Fundamentally, it is the conversion of water into steam, followed by the extraction of work, which today is usually accomplished by conversion into electricity (or in the case of cogeneration, steam for industrial processes). The first design was developed in the late 1712, yielding a cycle efficiency that was less than 2 . It has taken almost 300 years to...

Carbon Capture and Control Systems

Unlike the SO2 acid rain program, there is no established process in place to mitigate CO2 at the scale being proposed. The technology that is well understood now and could be deployed is expensive (nearly doubling the price of a gas fired facility) 3 and is accompanied by substantial energy penalties 4 (the primary application is treatment of pressurized gases to pipeline specifications in the Oil & Gas industry). The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has outlined objectives to...

Other Bioconversion Options

Over the last 25 years, significant research efforts have focused on algae for biofuel production and particularly biodiesel production. Algae can be grown in both salt and fresh water environments, in shallow ponds, tubes, or raceways utilizing waste mineral micronutrients. One area of research is the development of algae that have high lipid productivity 33, 34 . The algal oil would be extracted from the collected algae and converted to transportation fuels. Alternately if algae could be...

Stringent Vehicle Emissions Standards

The three dominant regulatory programs in the world are the U.S. (including California), the European Union (EU), and Japan. The European and US standards and test procedures or some mixture of them have been adopted by many other countries. For example, China and India have adopted the EU standards for most vehicle categories, although lagging several years behind the EU for implementation. With regard to passenger cars, about 60 of the world's fleet is following the EU regulatory road map and...

Stratospheric Aerosol Injection

The most frequently discussed geoengineering option for mitigating climate change is the injection of aerosols (solid or liquid particles) into the stratosphere, to mimic the cooling effects of volcanic eruptions. The majority of effort by those interested in geoengineering, to date, has been applied to understanding whether purposeful injection of sulfate aerosol would be a viable strategy to control Earth's surface temperature. This idea was originally introduced by Budyko 32 and was recently...

Direct Coal Liquefaction

Air Liquide Drawing

The direct liquefaction of coal involves partially deconstructing the coal structure thermally under conditions of high temperature and pressure and adding hydrogen either directly or indirectly via a donor-solvent to stabilize the fragments formed. Otherwise these fragments would recombine (repolymerize) to form heavy tar. The technology goes back to Germany in the mid-1920s and was put into large-scale production there in 1939 to produce motor fuels. From the 1970s to the 1990s, U. S. DOE...

The Demand and Supply in India

While installed capacity and electricity generation has steadily increased over the years, the peak demand shortage of electricity has been rising. Demand-supply gap was reported to be about 9 , the peak demand shortage was reported to be over 15 in the year 2007-2008 23 . A significant portion of the population living in rural area still do not have access to electricity. An ambitious plan to increase rural electrification and eliminate the shortage Power for All by 2012 envisions installed...

The Industrial Sectors Integrated Solutions ISIS Model 851 Overview

Fluor Integrated Solutions Model

ISIS, a dynamic linear programming model, facilitates analyses of emission reduction strategies for multiple pollutants, while taking in to account plant-level economic and technical factors such as the type of kiln, associated capacity, location, cost of production, applicable controls, and their costs. ISIS' design allows for incorporating representations of multiple industries within a multi-market, multi-product, multi-pollutant, and multi-region modeling framework. For the...

Impact of Breeder Reactor on Fuel Supply

As discussed earlier, breeder reactors produce more fuel than they consume, since in these reactors some of the uranium 238 is converted to plutonium 239, which like uranium 235 can be easily fissioned. Such breeder reactors if employed on a wide scale could considerably extend the fuel supply. Several countries including the US, France, and Japan have constructed and operated breeder reactors. Unfortunately to date, these systems have proven to be challenging engineering efforts. Breeder...

Climate Change and Other Global Environmental Impacts The Sustainability Challenge

In addition to the emission of greenhouse gases, there are a number of other anthropogenic activities that can yield unacceptable long term global impacts. They include deforestation, ecosystem deterioration, resource depletion, and ocean contamination. Individually and certainly collectively, such impacts may be inconsistent with the long-term viability of humanity. In other words, they may be incompatible with long-term sustainability. Long-term environmental sustainability can be defined as...

Geoengineering Strategy Increasing the Emissivity of the Atmosphere by Direct GHG Capture

A geoengineering strategy that involves changes to the thermal emissivity of the atmosphere would be constrained by the practical aspects of extracting GHGs at trace-level concentrations. Carbon dioxide is not the only GHG and, on a molecule-by-molecule basis, it is not the gas with the highest global warming potential (GWP). However, its atmospheric concentration makes it the most important of the anthropogenic GHGs. The anthropogenic greenhouse gases with higher GWPs, such as methane, nitrous...

Gasoline Vehicles and Fuels

The use of catalyst exhaust gas treatment required the elimination of lead from gasoline. Other gasoline properties that can be adjusted to reduce emissions include, roughly in order of effectiveness, sulfur level, vapor pressure, distillation characteristics, light olefin content, and aromatic content. Of these, sulfur is the most important in terms of the impact on advanced pollution control technology. Gasoline is a complex mixture of volatile hydrocarbons used as a fuel in internal...

Integration and Interpretation 361 Fuel Focused Costs and Emissions

Figure 3.9 shows the range of fuel costs given in per gallon of gasoline equivalent (gge) for the thermochemical technologies and process configurations evaluated. The scale economics of CTL and the low cost of coal contribute to the relatively low liquid fuel cost for FT synthesis even thought the process requires a large capital investment. These cost estimates are internally consistent but as a group, they depend on the capital and operating cost assumptions and the operating performance....

References

IPCC (2007) Summary for policymakers of the synthesis report of the IPCC fourth assessment report. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Geneva 2. Marland G, Boden TA et al (2007) Global, regional, and national CO2 emissions. In Trends a compendium of data on global change. Accessed Sept 2007 3. Ehrlich PR, Holdren JP (1971) Impact of population growth. Science 171 1212-1217 4. IEA (2008) Key world energy statistics 2008. International Energy Agency, Paris 5. Gregg JS, Andres RJ et al...

Trends in World Motor Vehicle Fleets

Historically, the three primary drivers leading to growth in the world's vehicle fleet have been population growth, urbanization, and economic improvement and all three continue to increase, especially in developing countries. According to the United Nations, the global population increased from approximately 2.5 billion people in 1950 to slightly more than six billion today and it is projected to increase by an additional 50 to approximately nine billion by 2050. Most of this growth will be in...