References

Energy Information Administration (2008) Nuclear utility generation by state, 2007. http www.eia,doe.gov 2. EIA (2009) Annual Energy Outlook 2009 D0E EIA-0383 (2009), Energy Information Agency, US DOE (March 2009) 3. For a detailed description of these and other reactor types, see Lamarsh JR, Baratta AJ (2001) Introduction to nuclear engineering. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, pp 136-180. Also, 2008-2009 Information Digest. NUREG 1350 Vol. 20, US NRC, Washington, DC 20555-0001, pp 34-35...

Prospects for Electricity Generation from Renewable Energy

First-generation renewable technologies are mostly confined to locations where a particular resource is available. Hydropower, high-temperature geothermal resources, and onshore wind power are site specific, but are competitive in places where the basic resource is plentiful and of good quality. Their future use depends on exploiting the remaining resource potential, which is significant in many countries, and on overcoming challenges related to the environment and public acceptance. The...

Limited Supplier Base

There are also a very limited number of suppliers for many of the major components that are needed to construct a nuclear power plant. Components such as the pressure vessel that houses the nuclear reactor, the pumps, and valves used in the cooling system, and the steam generators must all be built to extremely high standards. Since very few nuclear power plants were constructed worldwide in the 1980s and 1990s, the number of suppliers of these components has dwindled significantly,...

Way Forward

First, geologic sequestration of CO2 (carbon capture and storage (CCS)) is an essential technology for coal and coal biomass to liquid fuels, as it is for coal and coal biomass to power generation (Chap. 2). The discussion of this subject in Chap. 2 applies here as well. Most of the technologies discussed in this chapter have been demonstrated to be technically ready for commercial deployment. However, for implementation with coal at the required scale, these technologies are not yet fully...

Conclusions

The number of motor vehicles and their miles driven has literally exploded over the past 60 years and the likelihood is that this growth will continue for the foreseeable future. While vehicle populations are roughly stabilizing in the highly industrialized OECD countries, they are accelerating in rapidly industrializing highly populous countries. In response to strong and aggressive regulatory programs, especially in the United States, new vehicles being sold in many countries today are much...

Biomass and Coal Plus Biomass to Power

Burning fossil fuels for power generation and for transportation releases carbon that has been stored for millions of years as CO2 into the atmosphere, resulting in the build-up of atmospheric CO2. Using biomass as a fuel releases carbon removed as CO2 from the atmosphere in a recent plant growth cycle and does not contribute to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration if done sustainably. Thus, using biomass in power generation reduces the life-cycle emissions of CO2 per unit of power...

Concentrating Solar Power 581 Technology Description and Status

There are three types of concentrating solar power (CSP) technology trough, parabolic-dish and power tower.9 Trough and power tower technologies apply primarily to large, central power generation systems, although trough technology can also be used in smaller systems for heating and cooling and for power generation. The systems use either thermal storage or back-up fuels to offset solar intermittency and thus to increase the commercial value of the energy produced. The conversion path of...

Geothermal Power

There are a number of environmental impacts that are associated with geothermal power production 65 . Some of these, such as impacts during site preparation, well drilling, and construction are limited to initial development of the power plant. Others, such as potential emissions to the air and water and generation of solid wastes, will continue throughout the life of the plant. During operation, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), and trace quantities of Hg are the compounds of greatest...

Costs and Potential for Cost Reductions

From a pre-market level of about USD 0.80 per kWh in 1980, wind power costs have declined steadily. Wind power crossed the USD 0.10 per kWh threshold in about 1991, and dropped to about USD 0.05 per kWh in 1998. Since then, costs at the very best sites have dropped to about USD 0.03-USD 0.04 per kWh.7 7 These costs are not directly comparable with fossil-fuel-based power generation due to the variable nature of wind electricity and the grid integration costs. Costs of wind power installations...

Biofuels and Other Non Petroleum Fuels

The environmental impacts of switching from petroleum-based fuels to those from other feedstocks must include the impacts across the complete life cycle of primary energy production, feedstock logistics, conversion to useful fuel, distribution, and storage of the fuel, and fuel end use. For biofuels, the feedstock production and logistics impacts are the same as those discussed for biomass above impacts on land use (and the potential for GHG emissions due to such changes), water quality and...

Increased End Use Efficiency

Improvements in energy end-use efficiency are expected to be achieved through increased use of electronics in a myriad of applications, such as in buildings, vehicles, and improved delivery routing 104-106 . This trend will accelerate as GHG mitigation strategies put additional emphasis on energy efficiency, but will also accelerate the already-growing problem of waste electronics disposal. Although use of electronics can have significant positive impacts on life-cycle efficiency and GHG...

Future RD Efforts

R& D priorities include increasing the accuracy of forecasting power performance, reducing uncertainties related to engineering integrity, improvement, and validation of standards, reducing the cost of new storage options, expanding the cost effective use of existing storage such as hydropower dams, enabling large-scale use and minimizing environmental effects (see Box 5.2). R& D is also focused on new design features, such as tall towers made of lightweight materials and advanced Box 5.2...

Geoengineering with Chemical Weathering

One of the natural mechanisms responsible for stabilizing Earth's atmospheric CO2 concentrations, on geologic time scales, involves the weathering of soil-based silicate minerals. As CO2 concentrations increase in the atmosphere, climate warming affects weather patterns that, in turn, enhance the weathering of these minerals. Alkaline metal ions (calcium, magnesium) are freed from the soil and are washed into surface water bodies and the ocean, where they can participate in the sequestration of...

Factors Affecting Feasibility of Increased Nuclear Generation

Can the number of power reactors be increased in the foreseeable future so as to significantly decrease greenhouse gas emissions To answer this question successfully, one needs to look at the world situation. Currently, the U.S. and other countries are considering major new nuclear building programs. There are currently 59 countries with nuclear power. An additional 21 others have indicated an interest in the construction of nuclear power plants. These programs feature a new generation of power...

Proliferation Concerns

The same enrichment technologies used to increase the amount of uranium 235 from 0.7 to 3-5 may also be used to increase the enrichment of uranium 235 to that needed for a nuclear weapon. Because of this, there is great concern an increase in the use of nuclear energy will lead to the spread of nuclear weapons. A classic example currently in the news is that of Iran. Iran is currently completing the construction of a Russian designed commercial light water reactor. Although fuel for this...

Mobile Source Mitigation Opportunities

Abstract The objective of this chapter is to review this history, focusing initially on the historical growth patterns and the resulting environmental consequences then on the current control efforts around the world and finally on the emerging efforts to transform vehicles and fuels to accommodate increased vehicle use while minimizing impacts on the environment. Progress in mitigating emissions of criteria air pollutants has been impressive, especially in the developed world. The situation...

Other Biomass Options 351 Ethanol

The chapter to this point has focused on converting coal, coal plus biomass, and biomass by thermochemical approaches to liquid fuels that fit directly into the existing fuel infrastructure. Biochemical approaches, such as converting corn grain or sugar cane (starch and sugar) to ethanol by fermentation, or by conversion of lignocelluloses to ethanol by depolymerization to sugars and then fermentation to ethanol are not evaluated in as much detail in this chapter. However, these latter...

Other Process Configurations

For clarity above, we have considered the main thermochemical routes and simplest cases to evaluate and illustrate the key issues in high-yield liquid fuel production. Design and cost numbers were developed for only one set of conditions to facilitate comparisons among processes (comparative economics). These numbers do not represent business-case economics. There are many other process configurations that could be considered using different biomass types, different coals, and different...

Renewable Energy Status and Prospects Status of Electricity Generation from Renewable Energy

Abstract By 2050, the increased use of renewables such as hydropower, wind, solar, and biomass in power generation is projected to contribute between 9 and 16 of the CO2 emission reductions. The share of renewables in the generation mix increases from 18 today, to as high as 34 by 2050. Hydropower is already widely deployed and is, in many areas, the cheapest source of power. There is considerable potential for expansion, particularly for small hydro plants. The costs of onshore and offshore...

Power Focused Costs and Emissions

To this point, the chapter has focused on the production of liquid transportation fuels, and the net power was sold to the grid at a fixed price this is a fuel producer view. Another approach is to look at the OT configurations as power producers would, and sell the fuel at the market price. The U.S. has about 314 GW of PC capacity which is mostly mid-size subcritical units that are paid off and reaching the end of their life. They have an average efficiency of 33 and a generating cost of about...

Trends in World Motor Vehicle Production

Overall growth in the production of motor vehicles, especially since the end of World War II, has been quite dramatic, rising from about 5 million motor vehicles per year to over 60 million. As shown in Fig. 6.1, between 1970 and 2005, approximately 1 million more vehicles have been produced each year compared to the year before with almost 66 million vehicles produced in 2005 1 . Data regarding motorcycle production is less precise but one major producer 2 estimates that global production...

Power Generation Sector

Afib With Rvr Algorithm

According to the Center for Global Development 18 , global power generation emissions have been growing at 3.7 annually, for the 2000-2008 period. It is important to note, that there are massive coal-fired power generation capacity expansions underway in China, India, and other countries. Since such plants have no CO2 mitigation technology planned and can have lifetimes up to 50 years, the sooner such technology is ready for implementation and mandated, the sooner new plants can incorporate...

Why Building are Important to Climate Change

Buildings have a direct impact on estimated global climate change due to their large carbon footprint. From an energy use perspective, buildings in the United States are responsible for about 40 of the national total carbon dioxide emissions 13 and approximately 9.8 of the global carbon dioxide emissions, which is greater than the carbon emissions of the complete economies of Japan, France, and the United Kingdom combined 3 . This direct production of greenhouse gasses (GHGs) becomes even more...

Use of Nuclear with Renewables

An additional reduction might be achievable by combining a nuclear generating station with wind and solar. Nuclear power plants are considered base load generators. This means that they are designed and run to provide the minimum amount of electrical power that a utility must provide to its customers throughout the day. Other electrical generation technologies are used to address the peaks in electrical power usage that occur throughout the day as the electrical demand varies. This does not...

Wind Power

Wind-powered generation systems do not directly emit pollutants into the environment during operation. Some air pollutant emissions, mostly from internal combustion engines, may occur during maintenance operations, but such emissions would be minimal. Much of the environmental impact associated with a wind turbine is likely to occur during construction, major maintenance, and decommissioning phases, all of which would be due to increased vehicular traffic and operation of on-site machinery....

Technologies for New Fossil Fuel Plants

In the three countries discussed in this chapter, domestic fossil fuel will continue to remain a key element of power sector. Many developing countries with ready access to such cheap domestic fuel will use them for future development, and therefore it is important to consider potential GHG mitigation options for these new fossil fuel-based plants. A key first option, especially for China and India, is to focus on advanced combustion technologies, such as supercritical (SC) and...

Background

The Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) released by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 2007 was unequivocal in its message that warming of the global climate system is now occurring, and found, with very high confidence that it was very likely 1 that the observed warming was due to anthropogenic emissions of GHGs 1 .2 To address the problem of climate change, the IPCC also reported an outline of approaches to reduce GHG emissions to desired levels 2 . These approaches focused on...

Transportation Sector

Emissions from the transportation sector are growing at a fast rate, and are projected to grow at 2 per year globally 7 , driven by developing countries such as China and India, with a combined population of 2.5 billion. It is second only to the power generation sector in importance for the foreseeable future. There are two major technology categories vehicles and fuels. Technology is currently commercially available capable of major reductions in CO2 emissions per mile traveled, especially for...

Liquid Fuels Synthesis

Two, commercially proven technologies for converting the synthesis gas to liquid transportation fuels are considered. One of the technologies, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, was developed in Germany in the 1920s, and several commercial plants were constructed to produce transportation fuels during World War II. The technology was commercialized by Sasol in South Africa in the 1950s and expanded in the early 1980s to produce about 150,000 bpd of transportation fuels from coal. Early versions of the...

Plugin Hybrid Vehicles

The environmental issues associated with plug-in hybrid vehicles are the same as those associated with all-electric vehicles, plus the issues associated with internal combustion engines. It is likely, however, that the issues surrounding metals used in batteries would likely be somewhat reduced, given that the batteries for hybrids would be smaller. In addition, the air pollutant emissions would likely be reduced as well compared to a conventional internal combustion engine, given that the...

Transportation 1241 Electric Vehicles

Large-scale production and use of all-electric vehicles have environmental implications in two key areas. The first is the increased consumption of electricity, leading to environmental issues noted above for electric power generation. Although a recent study indicated that the existing power generation system can accommodate significant penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), the study also pointed out that Higher system loading could impact the overall system reliability when...

Vehicle Integration

The status and prospects of vehicle integration of zero emission vehicles (ZEVs), as well as their advanced technology vehicles (ATVs) that could have synergistic benefits supportive to the introduction of ZEVs, are summarized below. In addition to vehicle technical considerations, vehicle business considerations (e.g., manufacturing cost, capital investment, marketability, etc.) also are addressed, in order to forecast the future prospects, introduction timing, and volume milestones of the ZEV...

Advanced Vehicle Technologies

Advanced vehicle technologies including battery electric cars, hybrids, plug in hybrids and fuel cells are mandated in California and strongly encouraged in Japan with the result that significant advances are occurring 20 over 300,000 hybrid vehicles were sold around the world in 2006. There are three main ZEV enabling technologies - energy storage, hydrogen storage, and fuel cells - that are critical to the successful development and deployment of advanced vehicle technologies. The current...

Potential Adverse Environmental Impacts of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies

Gage Abstract The Fourth Assessment Report released by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 2007 was unequivocal in its message that warming of the global climate system is now occurring, and found, with very high confidence that it was very likely that the observed warming was due to anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). To address the problem, the IPCC developed an outline of approaches to reduce GHG emissions to desired...

Coal and Biomass Availability

A number of countries that typically have limited petroleum reserves have abundant coal reserves. The U.S. has abundant coal reserves. Recently EIA estimated proven U.S. coal reserves to be approximately 270 billion to 275 billion tonnes 43 . A recent NRC study estimates recoverable coal reserves at 227 billion tonnes 44 . These reserve numbers would suggest a 200-year supply of coal at current consumption rates. However, to meet increased demand will require increased mining and opening new...

Info

Reduction starts 2025. 40 of ecosystems affected ----> ity to decrease in ions tr * of global coas pl wetlands lost each year- - Fig. 1.9 Projected impacts as a function of 2100 warming (0-5 C,) from 1990 3 early emission growth rate (Note 3.0 growth rate to 2030. Entries are placed so the left hand side of text indicates approximate onset of impact, black lines link impacts, and dotted arrow indicate impacts increase with increasing warming) Models ccsm--30...

Retrofitting Existing Plants

Addressing the future of coal-based power generation raises many key issues and challenges. A number of these are analyzed next. To achieve really significant reductions, CO2 emissions from the existing coal fleet will have to be reduced. This will require retrofitting CO2 capture on existing units, or repowering them with high-efficiency technology with CO2 capture such as IGCC-CCS or replacing them with other technology. Retrofitting existing units involves several factors that significantly...

Cost Overview

Table 5.6 provides an overview of cost estimates for renewable electricity generation technologies. There is a wide range of costs for each renewable technology due mainly to varying resource quality and to the large number of technologies within each category. Investment includes all installation costs, including those of some demonstration plants in certain categories. Discount rates vary across regions. Because of the wide range in costs, there is no specific year or CO2 price level for...

Post Combustion Emission Controls

Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) technology provides an example of both the scale and challenge of solving an environmental control comparable to carbon capture. Virtually all of the technologies for carbon capture will require conditioning the gas stream to eliminate the presence of sulfur (to prevent degradation of the solvents). FGDs were first installed in England to combat the environmental impacts associated with SO2 from coal burning. Using a process developed by ICI (Imperial Chemicals...

Igcc

Igcc Power Generation

IGCC power generation from coal is illustrated in Fig. 2.9, showing the main process components and stream flows. Oxygen from an air separation unit is used to combust sufficient carbon in the gasifier typically at 500-1,000 psig to increase the temperature to around 1,500 C (2,730 F). For typical coals, the ash melting point is between 1,200 C and 1,450 C. At 1,500 C, the coal ash melts and leaves the bottom of the gasifier as slag. At this temperature, water (steam), which is added with the...

The Impact of Emissions from Building Materials on Energy

Minimum ventilation rates for buildings are specified in building codes that typically reference ANSI ASHRAE Standard 62.1 17 . A portion, estimated to be around 40 , of the minimum ventilation rate is based upon the emissions from building materials and products into the indoor air. When emissions are reduced, indoor concentrations of contaminants are reduced, and human health, productivity, and performance are improved. Therefore, when emissions are reduced, outdoor air ventilation rates may...

Reactor Safety

In a reactor accident, an event occurs which causes a mismatch between the cooling of the fuel and the energy generated in the fuel. Even if the fission process is stopped by the insertion of neutron absorbing control rods into the reactor, energy is still released by the radioactive decay of the fission products. These fission products continue to generate large amounts of energy days and even weeks after shutdown of the reactor. If the fuel is not adequately cooled and this energy is not...

An Integrated Risk Assessment Risk Management Decision Framework

Prudent practice in the engineering of large, public projects calls for rigorous, systematic evaluation of the risks associated with the project design and, in the case of large civil engineering projects, environmental impact statements. The potentially far-reaching consequences of any project meant to alter the global climate system imply the need for a multi-stage assessment, enumerating the immediate and down-stream implications associated with changes in the major climate system...

Emissions from the US Cement Industry and Applicable Regulations

Criteria pollutants, hazardous air pollutants, and CO2 are released during cement manufacturing. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from cement kilns result primarily from the combustion process involving oxidation of fuel nitrogen (fuel NOx) and oxidation of nitrogen in the combustion air (thermal NOx). EPA's 2005 National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) Inventory reports that cement kilns released 181,000 metric tons (200,000 short tons) of NOX emissions from the combustion of fuels 19 . Sulfur...

Technology Size Vintage and Efficiency of Coal Fired Power Plants in India

Nearly all of the currently installed coal-fired capacity is based on sub-critical conventional steam cycle. Size distribution of the coal-fired installed capacity in 2005 indicates that 77 of the installed capacity is smaller than 250 MW in size. Only 23 capacity is equal to or larger than 500 MW units 20 . Further, of the total 386 units, in 2005, about 10 (representing only 3 of the installed coal capacity) were more than 40 year old, and about 20 coal-fired capacity is 25 year or older....

Institutional Structure of Indian Power Generation Sector

The Indian power sector remains dominated by government ministries and public sector corporations. The Ministry of Power is primarily responsible for the development of all aspects of electricity generation, transmission, and distribution in India. It is involved in planning, policy formulation, processing of project and investment decisions, project monitoring, human resource development, and implementation of electricity legislation 19 . In the generation sector, although currently about 60...

Non Fossil Fuel Power Plants

Last, but not least, zero-CO2 emission technologies such as nuclear and renew-ables, need to account for a larger fraction of new capacity in order to reduce GHG emissions. The emphasis on these technologies needs to be paramount, and wherever possible substitute for fossil fuel based plants. Nuclear power can play a key role in meeting the electricity demand without CO2 emissions. While operating and safety performance of nuclear plants have improved, and new designs offer safer and...

The Planetary Energy Balance Levers Available for Climate Manipulation

The earth's climate system is a dynamic and very complex system, but it obeys the basic principles of physical and chemical thermodynamics and kinetics. The climate system at equilibrium is a balance between the incoming solar radiative energy and outgoing long-wave terrestrial radiative energy. The levers that have the capacity to substantially shift the earth's energy balance are (1) altering the flux (quantity) of solar radiation entering the earth's atmosphere (2) altering the fraction of...

Challenges to Future Deployment

The current challenges to increased penetration of wind power are grid integration, forecasting of wind availability, public attitudes and visual impact. For offshore wind energy, a major challenge is cutting costs. The variable nature of wind electricity makes it difficult for wind to fully displace other electricity sources. When wind turbines constitute only a small fraction of generation capacity, their inter-mittency is hardly noticed by system operators, who are used to adjusting output...

Oxygen Blown Power Generation

Camunda Prozess

The main problem with CO2 capture from air-blown units is the low CO2 concentration in the flue gas due to nitrogen dilution. This can be solved by substituting oxygen for air. For PC combustion, this is Oxy-Fuel PC combustion. Another approach is to gasify the coal with oxygen and steam, and remove the CO2 at high pressure prior to combustion of the syngas in a gas turbine. This approach is Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power generation. Oxy-fuel combustion, shown schematically...

CO2 Reductions

It is instructive to examine the implications of an aggressive energy technology mitigation program. The Blue scenario is a useful option to examine, since it involves early and deep carbon reductions across all energy sectors, and since the Industrial C capture & storage, 4.3 Adv. Renewable pwr solar, wind, 5.8 Power generation C capture& storage, 4.8 Reduce building fuel and power use, 5.3 industrial C capture & storage Existing and new industrial upgrades Adv.Renewable pwr solar,...

Rotary Kiln Types and Their Use in the US

Rotary kilns are broadly categorized as dry- and wet-process kilns, depending on how the raw materials are prepared. Wet-process kilns are fed raw material slurry with moisture content ranging between 30 and 40 . A wet-process kiln needs additional length to evaporate the water contained in the raw material feed. Nearly 33 additional kiln energy is consumed in evaporating the water in the slurry. Dry-process kilns are fed dry powdered raw materials. Three designs of dry-process kiln systems are...

Nuclear Power

Nuclear power's obvious attraction is its lack of CO2 emissions, at least during the operational phase, but it is also expensive and problems of fuel utilization and wastes have not been adequately resolved. Costs for a new nuclear plant range from 6,000 kWe 33 to as high as 10,000 kWe 34 . Despite very complex issues, the world is currently experiencing a nuclear renaissance. However, in open markets generation options nominally compete based on the metric of Levelized Cost of Electricity...

Phytoplankton Fertilization

Marine phytoplankton play a very large role in the global carbon cycle, accounting for about 50 of the global biological (photosynthetic) uptake of CO2 47 . However, the efficiency of this process is sensitive to the availability of several essential macronutrients required by the various species comprising phytoplankton. Phosphorus, nitrogen, silicon, iron, and zinc are critical for the growth and reproduction of these organisms. In areas limited in one or more of these nutrients,...

Coalto Liquid Fuels

Pfd For Fischer Troph Process

Figures 3.5, 3.6, and 3.7 show the process configurations for coal-to-liquid fuels using FT and MTG technologies in the recycle configuration with CO2 vented and with CCS. The only difference in the process configuration for the CCS case vs. the CO2-venting case is the addition of CO2 compression. For a facility producing 50,000 bbl day of liquid transportation fuels, with the CO2 being vented, the total plant cost (TPC) is estimated at 4.9 billion or 97,600 per stream-day-barrel, which equals...

Achievable Mitigation Levels

Figure 1.8 presents the recent IPCC 10 analysis relating projected warming from 1990 to 2100 to the following global impacts fresh water availability, ecosystem damage, food supplies, seawater rise, extreme weather events, and human health impacts. The author has added projected warming ranges for a credible business-as-usual case and an aggressive global mitigation case. Note that for both ranges, it was projected that global annual emissions would grow at a 1.6 rate until 2030 or until...

Land Based Geoengineering Reforestation Afforestation

Reforestation afforestation has already been incorporated into current international efforts to create carbon offsets, along with renewable energy and energy efficiency programs, and projects that qualify under the Kyoto Protocol Clean Development Mechanism. However, current implementation of forest-based carbon sequestration is limited to private enterprise engaged in selling carbon-offsets, and to some nations with commitments under the Kyoto protocol. As a geoengineering strategy,...

Coal and Biomass to Liquid Fuels

Abstract Demand for liquid transportation fuels has been increasing by over 2 year over the last two decades and is accelerating in the emerging economies which are moving to automobile ownership. Almost all liquid transportation fuels are derived from petroleum, which at the same time is coming under increasing demand pressure and price instability. A high degree of dependence on petroleum brings concerns about diversity and security as well as issues of decreasing CO2 emissions associated...

Increase Surface Reflectivity

The conversion of a natural landscape to an urban environment often induces a local warming trend due to the introduction of impervious and light-absorbing surfaces, such as dark-colored rooftops and pavements. This is known as the urban heat island effect. Warmer temperatures in urban environments have a number of negative impacts, such as higher energy demand for air conditioning and related emissions (pollutants and greenhouse gases), thermal stress to local ecosystems, and an increased risk...

The Mitigation Challenge Which Sectors and Gases Are Most Important

In order to identify the most productive mitigation strategies, it is necessary to understand the current and projected sources of CO2 and the other greenhouse gases. The author has derived the information in Fig. 1.20 from IEA 6 . This graphic projects world CO2 emissions by sector. The emission growth rates are consistent with the business as usual base case, discussed previously 1.6 from 2000 to 2030, and 2.2 from 2030 to 2050. It suggests that power generation and transportation sources are...

Vehicle Energy Storage Systems

This section will focus on advanced battery technologies with potential to be fully developed and available for use in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs), Full Performance Battery Electric Vehicles (FPBEVs) and Plug in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) within the next 5-10 years. Two of the more important characteristics of batteries are Energy Density (Wh kg) and Power Density (W kg). Energy Density is a measure of how much energy a battery can hold. The higher the energy density, the longer the...

Chapter

The Role of Technology in Mitigating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Power Sector in Developing Countries The Case of China, India, and Mexico* Abstract China, India, and Mexico are among the top developing country emitters of CO2. The electric power sectors in China and India is dominated by coal-fired power plants, whereas fuel oil and natural gas are the key fossil fuels in Mexico. Spurred by economic development and population growth, demand for electricity in these countries is expected to...

Low Carbon Fuels

Brazil was the first country to make a significant shift to renewable, lower carbon fuels based on producing ethanol from sugar cane, but many countries around the world are now pursuing similar approaches with mixed success. California recently 12 Similar agreements were also reached with the Japanese and Korean manufacturers. PASSENGER VEHICLE GHG EMISSIONS FLEET AVERAGE PERFORMANCE AND STANDARDS BY REGION Hollow dots and dashed lines nearest targets enacted Smaller hollow dots and dotted...

Hydrogen Storage Systems

Storing sufficient hydrogen on a vehicle to power it for adequate distance, safely, and at reasonable cost, without an excessive weight penalty has been and remains a serious challenge for the automobile industry and its suppliers. Hydrogen storage is among the two or three areas of greatest concern, including all of the other cost and technology challenges associated with developing fuel cell systems for consumer vehicles. Unlike other major technologies being pursued in support of ZEVs,...

ISISCement and Related Data

ISIS is currently populated with data and information on the U.S. cement industry. This cement industry component of ISIS is hereafter referred to as ISIS-cement. The data used in ISIS-cement are described below. 8.5.2.1 Existing and Projected Units and Costs Currently, the ISIS-cement model contains information on 189 cement kilns that were in existence in 2009 and PCA's projected capacity expansions from 2009 to 2012, as shown in Table 8.7 below 11 . Each kiln in ISIS-cement is characterized...

What Levels of Warming Are Projected What Are the Uncertainties

Courbe Granulom Trique Sable

A credible base case, or business as usual (BAU), scenario must be established if we are to estimate warming with any confidence between now and the year 2100. IPCC 1 , IEA 6, 7 , and Hawksworth 8 have all postulated such scenarios that Factors Influencing CO2 Growth Rate 2000 to 2004 Factors Influencing CO2 Growth Rate 2000 to 2004 Population Energy Use GDP GDP Population v CO2 annual growth CO2 emissions Energy Use Population Energy Use GDP GDP Population v CO2 annual growth CO2 emissions...

Power Generating Technologies 221 Air Blown Pulverized Coal PC 2211 Without CO2 Capture

A PC unit with a complete set of advanced criteria-emissions controls is shown in Fig. 2.3. It can be viewed as consisting of three blocks the boiler block, the steam-cycle steam-turbine block, and the flue gas clean-up block as shown in Fig. 2.4. The design and operating conditions of the steam-cycle block largely determines the generating efficiency of the unit. For most existing PC units, the design and operating conditions of the steam cycle is below the critical point of water, which is...

Onshore and Offshore Wind 561 Technology Description and Status

The commercial and technological development of wind energy has been closely related to turbine size. From 10 m in the mid-1970s, wind turbines have grown to diameters of 126 m, with multi-MW installed power (Fig. 5.1). Increasing the rotor diameter is an important prerequisite in developing turbines for offshore applications. All new offshore wind farms are expected to have turbines exceeding 1.5 MW. Modern wind turbines are designed to have a lifetime of 20 years. Other technological...

Ocean Based Geoengineering Proposals pH Modification and Feeding Phytoplankton

Among the natural carbon sinks in earth's biogeochemical system, the world's oceans play the dominant role in buffering changes in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Covering 70 of the earth's surface, the oceans contain approximately 50 times the carbon present in the atmosphere. The annual carbon flux between the atmosphere and the oceans is approximately 100 Pg (100 billion metric tons) 42 . The net uptake of CO2 by the global oceans, under non-El Nino conditions, has been estimated to be...

Increasing Energy Efficiency and CO2 Mitigation in Buildings

For each of the two categories, the technologies are listed in the order of their potential impact in 2,050 according to IEA 4 for two global emission reduction scenarios the ACT and Blue scenarios (Table7.1). The Blue scenario is the most aggressive in that it calls for 2,050 global CO2 emissions to be reduced to 50 of actual 2005 emissions. The ACT scenario would constrain 2,050 emissions at 2005 levels. The technologies are either aimed at enhancing end use efficiency or are new alternative...

Tropospheric Cloud Albedo Enhancement

Atmospheric particulate pollution, which consists of airborne solid or liquid particles generated from a variety of sources, is most often associated with a visible haze and adverse impacts on human health. Particles, also referred to as aerosols, in the lower atmosphere have natural sources such as volcanic emissions, wild fires, and sea spray, as well as anthropogenic sources such as fossil fuel combustion, prescribed forest fires, and road dust. Once generated, tropospheric particles usually...

Building Materials Their Embodied Energy and Greenhouse Gas Impact

Embodied energy is defined in the U.S. DOE's Buildings Energy Data Book as the energy used during the entire life cycle of a product including the energy used for manufacturing, transporting, and disposing of the product. For example, the embodied energy in dimensional lumber includes the energy used to grow, harvest and process the trees into boards, transport the lumber to its final destination, and ultimately dispose of the wood at the end of its useful life. Embodied energy, also called...

Architecture of the Power Generation System

The backbone of the power generation system (as well as nearly all transport systems) is rooted in one of two basic thermodynamic cycles The Rankine, or vapor power cycle, and the Brayton, or gas power cycle (combined cycle, combustion turbine, steam turbine boiler, and nuclear components depicted in Fig. 10.3). Improving the efficiency of these cycles is one of the key steps to achieving CO2 reductions in the near term. Together, these two cycles are responsible for about 80 of the electricity...

Fossil Steam Plants Rankine Cycle Subcritical Steam

The Rankine cycle (or vapor steam cycle) represents the basic energy conversion cycle providing 70 of the electricity in the US economy. Fundamentally, it is the conversion of water into steam, followed by the extraction of work, which today is usually accomplished by conversion into electricity (or in the case of cogeneration, steam for industrial processes). The first design was developed in the late 1712, yielding a cycle efficiency that was less than 2 . It has taken almost 300 years to...

Carbon Capture and Control Systems

Unlike the SO2 acid rain program, there is no established process in place to mitigate CO2 at the scale being proposed. The technology that is well understood now and could be deployed is expensive (nearly doubling the price of a gas fired facility) 3 and is accompanied by substantial energy penalties 4 (the primary application is treatment of pressurized gases to pipeline specifications in the Oil & Gas industry). The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has outlined objectives to...

Other Bioconversion Options

Over the last 25 years, significant research efforts have focused on algae for biofuel production and particularly biodiesel production. Algae can be grown in both salt and fresh water environments, in shallow ponds, tubes, or raceways utilizing waste mineral micronutrients. One area of research is the development of algae that have high lipid productivity 33, 34 . The algal oil would be extracted from the collected algae and converted to transportation fuels. Alternately if algae could be...

Stringent Vehicle Emissions Standards

Euro Emissions Standards

The three dominant regulatory programs in the world are the U.S. (including California), the European Union (EU), and Japan. The European and US standards and test procedures or some mixture of them have been adopted by many other countries. For example, China and India have adopted the EU standards for most vehicle categories, although lagging several years behind the EU for implementation. With regard to passenger cars, about 60 of the world's fleet is following the EU regulatory road map and...

Stratospheric Aerosol Injection

The most frequently discussed geoengineering option for mitigating climate change is the injection of aerosols (solid or liquid particles) into the stratosphere, to mimic the cooling effects of volcanic eruptions. The majority of effort by those interested in geoengineering, to date, has been applied to understanding whether purposeful injection of sulfate aerosol would be a viable strategy to control Earth's surface temperature. This idea was originally introduced by Budyko 32 and was recently...

Direct Coal Liquefaction

Air Liquide Drawing

The direct liquefaction of coal involves partially deconstructing the coal structure thermally under conditions of high temperature and pressure and adding hydrogen either directly or indirectly via a donor-solvent to stabilize the fragments formed. Otherwise these fragments would recombine (repolymerize) to form heavy tar. The technology goes back to Germany in the mid-1920s and was put into large-scale production there in 1939 to produce motor fuels. From the 1970s to the 1990s, U. S. DOE...

The Demand and Supply in India

While installed capacity and electricity generation has steadily increased over the years, the peak demand shortage of electricity has been rising. Demand-supply gap was reported to be about 9 , the peak demand shortage was reported to be over 15 in the year 2007-2008 23 . A significant portion of the population living in rural area still do not have access to electricity. An ambitious plan to increase rural electrification and eliminate the shortage Power for All by 2012 envisions installed...

The Industrial Sectors Integrated Solutions ISIS Model 851 Overview

Fluor Integrated Solutions Model

ISIS, a dynamic linear programming model, facilitates analyses of emission reduction strategies for multiple pollutants, while taking in to account plant-level economic and technical factors such as the type of kiln, associated capacity, location, cost of production, applicable controls, and their costs. ISIS' design allows for incorporating representations of multiple industries within a multi-market, multi-product, multi-pollutant, and multi-region modeling framework. For the...

Impact of Breeder Reactor on Fuel Supply

As discussed earlier, breeder reactors produce more fuel than they consume, since in these reactors some of the uranium 238 is converted to plutonium 239, which like uranium 235 can be easily fissioned. Such breeder reactors if employed on a wide scale could considerably extend the fuel supply. Several countries including the US, France, and Japan have constructed and operated breeder reactors. Unfortunately to date, these systems have proven to be challenging engineering efforts. Breeder...

Climate Change and Other Global Environmental Impacts The Sustainability Challenge

In addition to the emission of greenhouse gases, there are a number of other anthropogenic activities that can yield unacceptable long term global impacts. They include deforestation, ecosystem deterioration, resource depletion, and ocean contamination. Individually and certainly collectively, such impacts may be inconsistent with the long-term viability of humanity. In other words, they may be incompatible with long-term sustainability. Long-term environmental sustainability can be defined as...

Geoengineering Strategy Increasing the Emissivity of the Atmosphere by Direct GHG Capture

Co2 Flux Ocean Atmosphere

A geoengineering strategy that involves changes to the thermal emissivity of the atmosphere would be constrained by the practical aspects of extracting GHGs at trace-level concentrations. Carbon dioxide is not the only GHG and, on a molecule-by-molecule basis, it is not the gas with the highest global warming potential (GWP). However, its atmospheric concentration makes it the most important of the anthropogenic GHGs. The anthropogenic greenhouse gases with higher GWPs, such as methane, nitrous...

Gasoline Vehicles and Fuels

The use of catalyst exhaust gas treatment required the elimination of lead from gasoline. Other gasoline properties that can be adjusted to reduce emissions include, roughly in order of effectiveness, sulfur level, vapor pressure, distillation characteristics, light olefin content, and aromatic content. Of these, sulfur is the most important in terms of the impact on advanced pollution control technology. Gasoline is a complex mixture of volatile hydrocarbons used as a fuel in internal...

Integration and Interpretation 361 Fuel Focused Costs and Emissions

Figure 3.9 shows the range of fuel costs given in per gallon of gasoline equivalent (gge) for the thermochemical technologies and process configurations evaluated. The scale economics of CTL and the low cost of coal contribute to the relatively low liquid fuel cost for FT synthesis even thought the process requires a large capital investment. These cost estimates are internally consistent but as a group, they depend on the capital and operating cost assumptions and the operating performance....

Trends in World Motor Vehicle Fleets

Historically, the three primary drivers leading to growth in the world's vehicle fleet have been population growth, urbanization, and economic improvement and all three continue to increase, especially in developing countries. According to the United Nations, the global population increased from approximately 2.5 billion people in 1950 to slightly more than six billion today and it is projected to increase by an additional 50 to approximately nine billion by 2050. Most of this growth will be in...