1. Karl Kraus (1874-1936), the Austrian satirist, from a speech given on November 19, 1914, in Vienna (first published in Die Fackel, Dec. 1914; repr. in In These Great Times: A Karl Kraus Reader, ed. Harry Zohn, Montreal: Engendra Press, 1976).
Peter Marks, "A Vision of Environment: Is Life Worth Living Here?," in Is America Possible? Social Problems from Conservative, Liberal and Socialist Perspectives, ed. Henry Etzkowitz (New York: State University of New York at Purchase, 1974), p. 121. Rifkin, Biosphere Politics: A New Consciousness for a New Century, p. 9. These squatters had managed to eke out a living by pasturing a cow or perhaps a few geese on the village common pastures. An English poet wrote: " 'Tis very bad in man or women, To steal a goose from off the common, But surely 'tis the worse abuse, To steal a common from the goose." Cited in Ritchie, Food and Civilization: How History Has Been Affected by Human Taste, p. 132.
Rifkin, Biosphere Politics: A New Consciousness for a New Century, p. 71. Miley, "Against Nature: The Ideology of Ecocide," p. 39.
Meadows et al., Beyond the Limits: Confronting Global Collapse, Envisioning a Sustainable Future, pp. 218-21.
Donald Worster and Alfred Crosby, eds, The Ends of the Earth: Perspectives on Modern Environmental History (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989), pp. 11-12. Foster, The Vulnerable Planet: A Short History of the Environment, pp. 50-68. As we can see from his engravings, The Horrors of War, Goya (1746-1828) was no sellout; "he didn't look the other way." Thomas H. Falk, Elias Canetti, ed. David O'Connell; Georgia State University, Twaynes World Author Series; German Literature (New York: Twayne Publishers, 1993), p. 31. Manicas, War and Democracy.
Anthony Giddens, A Contemporary Critique of Historical Materialism, vol. 2: NationState and Violence (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987), Eric J. Hobsbawm The Age of Extremes: A History of the World, 1914-91 (New York: Pantheon Books, 1991).
By World War II, as Manicas notes, "class war" had been "diverted toward international war." The people, habituated in the class struggle to appeals calling them to fight for their rights and for better opportunities, to strike at privilege and oppression, now were told by the leaders of the hypernationalist and irrational modern mass movement known as fascism that they must continue to fight, not as traitorous members of a class but as "patriots in a national cause." The German propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels shrewdly mobilized on chauvinist-racial grounds by invocations of "national-socialism." Class-oriented industrial production techniques of labor organization, such as the "scientific management" associated with Taylorism, became the shared ideological co-ordinates and performance principles ofboth the Stalinist "East" and the West. See Manicas, War and Democracy, p. 3 79.
Walter Benjamin, Illuminations, ed. Hannah Arendt, Translated by Harry Zohn (New York: Schocken, 1969), p. 242. Manicas, War and Democracy, p. 253.
As the historian Eric J. Hobsbawm argues, "we have adapted to living in a society, that is by standards of our grandparents 'uncivilized.' We have gotten used to it [inhuman conditions]." He refers to the resurgence of torture, legitimated against the background of the lunacies of the Cold War, of the "accelerated descent into darkness" in the late modern period and a reversal of the progress of civility that took place from the eighteenth century until the early twentieth century, achieved overwhelmingly or entirely due to the influence of the Enlightenment. See Eric J. Hobsbawm, "Barbarism: A User's Guide," New Left Review 206 (July/August) (1994), pp. 44-54.
Hobsbawm, The Age of Extremes: A History of the World, 1914-91, Jonathan Schell, The Fate of the Earth (New York: Knopf Publishers, 1982), Edward Thompson et al., Exterminism and the Cold War (London and New York: Schocken Books, 1982).
18. The Bikini Atoll hydrogen bomb explosion, the largest ever, produced a mushroom cloud that rose 15 miles into the stratosphere. The fallout exposed some 229 Marshallese Islanders on Rongelap Atoll, including some US servicemen, and a crew of 23 workers on the nearby Japanese fishing boat Lucky Dragon, many of whom developed severe radiation sickness and died associated premature deaths. The Rongelapese were not evacuated from the islands until two days after the hydrogen bomb test. Using declassified government archival films and contemporary interviews, the Australia-based investigative journalist and cinematographer Dennis O'Rourke produced a film documentary titled Half Life (1986), presenting the restrained but chilling picture of a cynical radiation experiment on human populations sponsored by the military-industrial complex and condoned by Washington. Dennis O'Rourke, Half-Life: A Parable for the Nuclear Age, Video-recording/Film (Los Angeles, CA: Direct Cinema [86 mins], 1986), William M. Peck, A Tidy Universe oflslands (Honolulu: Mutual Publishing, 1997), p. 11.
19. It is really only in the twentieth century, and the late twentieth century at that, that the environmental consequences of industrial production, combined with capitalist or state socialist economic organization, have been widely and actively registered as "environmental degradation" and extended their spatial reach beyond the local or the national. The globalization of environmental degradation since the 1970s in particular, has accelerated on unparalleled and, I suggest, progressively ecocidal scale. See J.R. McNeill, Something New under the Sun: An Environmental History of the Twentieth-Century World, 1st edn (New York and London: W.W. Norton, 2000). And David Held et al., Global Transformations: Politics, Economics and Culture (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1999), pp. 390-1.
20. Donella H. Meadows et al., The Limits to Growth: A Reportfor the Club of Rome's Project on the Predicament of Mankind (New York: Universe Books, 1972).
21. William R. Catton, Overshoot: The Ecological Basis of Revolutionary Change (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1982), Meadows et al., Beyond the Limits: Confronting Global Collapse, Envisioning a Sustainable Future, Peter Morrison Vitousek et al., "Human Domination of Earth's Ecosystems," Science 277 (1997), Peter Morrison Vitousek et al., "Human Alteration of the Global Nitrogen Cycle: Causes and Consequences," Ecological Applications 7 (1997), Wackernagel and Rees, Our Ecological Footprint: Reducing Human Impact on the Earth.
22. R.A. Rappaport, Pigs for the Ancestors: Ritual in the Ecology of a New Guinea People (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1984).
23. The story of the sowing of the ruins of Carthage with salt, apparently as a symbol of its total destruction and perhaps as a means of ensuring the soil's infertility, is well known to most students of Roman history. Indeed, in the legends of antiquity and in ancient texts and studies of antiquity, the tale of the city's being plowed and salted appears repeatedly. The famous "scorched earth" story of Carthage has it that salt was sown in the ground after the site was plowed. However, the extent of Roman ecological devastation of the site, and, in particular, the use of salt as a means of environmental terrorism, remains in question. See Ridley, "To Be Taken with a Pinch of Salt: The Destruction of Carthage," pp. 140-6, Visona, "Passing the Salt: On the Destruction of Carthage Again," pp. 41-2, Warmington, "The Destruction of Carthage: A Refractio," pp. 309-10.
24. UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme), Global Biodiversity Assessment (Cambridge: United Nations Environment Programme, 1995), p. 728.
25. J.T. Mark Caggiano, "The Legitimacy of Environmental Destruction in Modern Warfare: Customary Substance over Conventional Form," Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review 20 (1993), pp. 1-33, 479-506, Josef Goldblatt, "The
Environmental Modification Convention," in Environmental Warfare: A Technical, Legal, and Policy Appraisal, ed. Arthur H. Westing (London and Philadelphia: Taylor & Francis, 1984), Arthur H. Westing, ed., Environmental Hazards of War: Releasing Dangerous Forces in an Industrialized World (London and Newbury Park: Sage Publications, 1990).
Caggiano, "The Legitimacy of Environmental Destruction in Modern Warfare: Customary Substance over Conventional Form," pp. 13, 489, Goldblatt, "The Environmental Modification Convention."
Laurence Badash, Scientists and the Development of Nuclear Weapons: From Fission to Limited Test Ban Treaty, 1939-1963 (Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, 1995).
William Thompson, Scorched Earth: The Military's Assault on the Environment, Weapons Incorporated (Philadelphia: New Society Publishers [Online, available: http://www.earthisland.org/journal/bigmil.html], 1995).
Caggiano, "The Legitimacy of Environmental Destruction in Modern Warfare: Customary Substance over Conventional Form," pp. 10, 486. For Marcuse, the US intervention in Vietnam (1954-75) was waging ecocide against the environment, as well as genocide against the people: "It is no longer enough to do away with people living now; life must also be denied to those who aren't even born yet by burning and poisoning the Earth, defoliating the forests, blowing up the dikes. This bloody insanity will not alter the ultimate course of the war but it is a very clear expression of where contemporary capitalism is at: the cruel waste of productive resources in the imperialist homeland goes hand in hand with the cruel waste of destructive forces and consumption of commodities of death manufactured by the war industry." Herbert Marcuse cited in Douglas Kellner, "Illuminations: Marcuse, Liberation, and Radical Ecology," Sarah Zuko's Cultural Center Articles/Papers: Theorists and Critics (1992). Thompson, Scorched Earth: The Military's Assault on the Environment. Ibid. Ibid. Ibid. Ibid. Ibid.
"Cries of Ecocide from Croatia: Ecological Destruction Caused by War," Earth Island Journal 7(1) (1992), p. 17.
Arthur H. Westing, "Threat of Modern Warfare to Man and His Environment: An Annotated Bibliography," in Reports and Papers in the Social Sciences No. 40, ed. International Peace Research Association (IPRA) (Paris, France: UNESCO, 1979). Ruth Leger Sivard, World Military and Social Expenditures 1996, 16th edn (Washington, DC: World Priorities Press, 1996), p. 20.
Ruth Leger Sivard, World Military and Social Expenditures 1991, 14th edn (Washington, DC: World Priorities Press, 1991), pp. 30-1. NB: Environmental problems of long standing plague the nuclear weapons industry. Besides soil and water contamination by radioactive materials, some sites suffer contamination by conventional hazardous chemicals used in the production process. In the second half of the twentieth century, the US nuclear weapons industry has manufactured nearly 70,000 nuclear warheads. It has produced about 89 metric tons of plutonium and more than 500 tons of highly enriched uranium, the primary radioactive material in nuclear weapons. Decades of activity at US Department of Energy nuclear weapons laboratory, production, and test facilities have left an estimated 4,500 contaminated sites covering tens of thousands of acres of land.
Efforts to clean them up and bring nuclear weapons facilities into compliance with environmental laws are expected to take at least 30 years and cost more than $200 billion. In 1990 it was also reported that as many as 42 of the 177 underground tanks in the United States that are used to store waste from nuclear bomb production are in danger of exploding. Such an explosion could mean the spread of toxic chemicals and radioactive materials over large areas. The risk is due to unforeseen reactions between the chemicals stored and those introduced in an endeavor to consolidate the waste. The ferrocyanide percolating in the tanks is sufficient to cause an explosion equivalent to 36 tons of TNT. In 1957 in the Soviet Union, the explosion of such a nuclear waste storage tank spread radiation over a large area and forced the evacuation of 10,000 people, with some reports that hundreds of people later died. It has also been reported that 28 kg of plutonium (equivalent to seven nuclear bombs) escaped into the air ducts at the Rocky Flats weapons plant during its 30 years of operation: plutonium is so toxic that it is usually accounted for in gram quantities (Union of International Association [UIA] "Environmental Hazards - Nuclear Weapons Industry," Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential (PE5698) [Online, available: http://www.uia.org/uialists/ndx/pro/ pro132.htm] 1998).
41. Ed Ayres, "The Expanding Shadow Economy," World Watch July/August (1996), pp. 11-23.
42. Sivard, World Military and Social Expenditures 1991, p. 31.
44. Including the energy consumption by weapons industries could well double the total. See ibid.
46. Thompson, Scorched Earth: The Military's Assault on the Environment.
49. Mike Davis, "Dead West: Ecocide in Marlboro Country," New Left Review 200 (1993), pp. 49-73.
50. The United States, for example, has detonated all its nuclear weapons in the lands of indigenous people, with over 600 of those tests within the property belonging to the Shoshone nation. Nuclear waste remains the largest obstacle for a peaceful atom, and native peoples are again central to the discussion. The well-equipped Hanford Nuclear Reservation is within the treaty area of the Yakima Indian nation near the Columbia River. A significant portion of the 570 square miles of land contained in the nuclear site is contaminated. Approximately 20 different indigenous peoples reside in this area. In August 1973, over 115,000 gallons of high-level liquid radioactive waste there seeped into the ground from a leaking storage tank. The waste contained cesium 137, strontium 90, and plutonium, one of the most toxic substances known to humans. At least 400,000 gallons of radioactive material have been reported as having leaked at the Hanford Reservation. See LaDuke, "A Society Based on Conquest Cannot Be Sustained," p. 105.
51. Davis, "Dead West: Ecocide in Marlboro Country," p. 50.
5 2. Murray Felsbach and Alfred Jr. Friendly, Ecocide in the USSR: Health and Nature under Siege, Foreword by Lester Brown (New York: Basic Books, 1992), p. 1.
53. See Davis, "Dead West: Ecocide in Marlboro Country," Carol Gallagher, American Ground Zero: The Secret Nuclear War (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1993), Peter Goin, Nuclear Landscapes, Creating the North American Landscape: Catalogue of an Exhibition (Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press, 1991), Richard Misrach, Desert
Canton, ed. Essay by Reyner Banham, 1st edn (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1987), Richard Misrach, Richard Misrach (A Photographic Book: Landscape Photography) (San Francisco, CA: Grapestake Gallery, 1979), Richard Misrach, Violent Legacies: Three Cantons, ed. Susan Sontag, 1st edn (New York: Aperture, 1992), Patrick Nagatani, Nuclear Enchantment, editorial essay by Eugenia Parry Janis, Photographs by Patrick Nagatani (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico, 1991).
54. Davis, "Dead West: Ecocide in Marlboro Country," p. 50.
55. Ibid., p. 51. See Misrach, Desert Canton, Misrach, Richard Misrach, Misrach, Violent Legacies: Three Cantons, Richard Misrach and Myrian Weisang Misrach, Bravo 20: The Bombing of the American West, Creating the North American Landscape (Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press, 1990).
56. Davis, "Dead West: Ecocide in Marlboro Country," p. 73.
57. The cold deserts and sagebrush (artemisia) steppes of the Great Basin and the high plateau are floristic colonies of Central Asia (see Neil West, ed., Ecosystems of the World, vol. 5: Temperate Deserts and Semi-Deserts [Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1983]), but their physical landscapes are virtually unique (see W.L. Graf, ed., Geomorphic Systems of North America [Boulder, CO: Geological Society of America, 1987]). Ibid., p. 73, 60f.
58. UNCED, for example, omits any discussion of nuclear power and fails to recognize that there are no safe storage and disposal solutions to the world's growing radioactive waste problem. Discussion of the environmental impact of the military, including the nuclear and toxic contamination caused by military activities around the world, are inexplicably excluded from the Earth Summit texts. See Joshua Karlinger, The Corporate Planet: Ecology and Politics in the Age of Globalization (San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1997).
59. See also Ranee K.L. Panjabi, The Earth Summit at Rio: Politics, Economics, and the Environment (Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press, 1997), Adam Rogers, The Earth Summit: A Planetary Reckoning, Foreword by Noel Brown, Afterword by David Suzuki (Lower Lake, CA: Atrium Publishers Group, 1995), UCS (Union of Concerned Scientists), World Scientists' Warning to Humanity, ed. UCS (November 18) (Cambridge, MA: Union of Concerned Scientists, 1992).
60. John Kenneth Galbraith, "World Military and Social Expenditures," in World Military and Social Expenditures 1993, ed. Ruth Leger Sivard (Washington, DC: World Priorities Press, 1993), p. 3.
61. Jacob von Uexkuell and Bernd Jost, eds, Project Der Hoffnung: Der Alternative Nobelpreis (English: Alternative Nobelprize: Right Livelihood Award Project) (München: Raben Verlag, 1990), p. 15.
62. Immanuel Wallerstein cited in Mary Mellot, ed., Building a New Vision: Feminist, Green Socialism, p. 40 in Toxic Struggles: The Theory and Practice of Environmental Justice (Philadelphia, PA: New Society Publishers, 1993), p. 40. See also Joni Saeger, Earth Follies: Coming to Feminist Terms with the Global Environmental Crisis (New York: Routledge, 1993).
63. Alan Thein Durning, "The Health of the Planet," in Sivard, ed., World Military and Social Expenditures 1991, p. 34.
64. David C. Korten, founder and president of the International Institute for Sustainable Development, at http://iisd1.iisd.ca/50comm/panel/pan21.htm, reviewed September 2001.
65. Worldwide nation-states' expenditures on military capability to protect against "dangerous instabilities" both abroad and internally, such as the rising tide of civil wars or the prospects of some rogue nation or groups attacking US allies or interests, for example, continue to far outweigh any expenditures that governments are willing to make to help reduce those instabilities. US legislators continue to refuse to pay the country's delinquent UN dues, to provide support for international family planning assistance, or to allocate other modest sums that could go a long way toward stabilizing what is becoming a precariously volatile planet. As is well documented, it is a range of extreme human deprivations - of food, clean water, shelter, medical services, family planning assistance, basic education, and job training - that constitutes the real threat to human security worldwide. It is those deprivations that allow demagogues to thrive, insurgencies to arise, and ethnic or ideological hatreds to fester. See Michael Renner, Fighting for Survival: Environmental Decline, Social Conflict, and the New Age of Insecurity (Washington, DC: Worldwatch Institute, 1996).
66. Kofi Annan, Christopher Flavin, Linda Starke and Worldwatch Institute, eds, State of the World 2002: A Worldwatch Institute Report on Progress towards a Sustainable Society (New York: W.W. Norton, 2002).
67. Albert Einstein, 1931, cited in Ruth Leger Sivard, World Military and Social Expenditures 1993, 15th edn (Washington, DC: World Priorities Press, 1993), p. 34.
68. Richard P. Cincotta and Robert Engelman, "Real Numbers: Biodiversity and Population Growth," Issues in Science and Technology Online (spring) (2000), J.A. McNeeley et al., "Human Influences on Biodiversity," in Global Biodiversity Assessment, ed. V.H. Heywood (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press and UNEP, 1995), M.E. Soule, "Conservation: Tactics for a Constant Crisis," Science 253 (1991), P. Stedman-Edwards, The Root Causes of Biodiversity Loss: An Analytical Approach, Macroeconomics for Sustainable Development Office (Washington, DC: Worldwide Fund for Nature, 1997), UNEP, Global Biodiversity Assessment.
69. The following analogies may help illustrate the magnitude of our numbers: if I were to look at the face of every one of the world's 6 billion people, and they were contained in a book with 0.1 mm thick pages, with ten people per page on both sides of each sheet, the book would be 19 miles thick. If I looked at ten people every second (one side of each sheet for 16 hours a day, it would take me 28 years and 6 months to get through it. By the time I finished, in the year 2026, there would be 2 billion extra people to look at, contained in a brand new 6 miles thick volume! If all of the world's current population were fit into the state of Texas - all 6 billion people -each person would get about 164 square feet as his or her own chunk. If all those people lined up, each one occupying only one foot, the queue would be very, very long, too. The queue would be about 1,680,000 km (a little more than a million miles) - approximately 42 tours around the globe. So what if the people of the world made a movie? If it showed all 6 billion people one at a time, with only 15 seconds of footage per person, this is 6.75 meters (20 feet) of film per person. There would be 40.5 million km (25.3 million miles) of negative. The film would last for 23,333,333 hours. To watch this film it would take 972,222 days or 2,661 years, 9 months, and some days - this is without sleeping, eating, or any other time out.
70. Boyden, Biohistory: The Interplay between Human Society and the Biosphere, pp. 243-4.
71. Arthur H. Westing, "A World in Balance," Environmental Conservation 8 (1981).
72. Brian Groombridge, ed., Global Biodiversity: Status of the Earth's Living Resources (London: Chapman & Hall, 1992). Arthur H. Westing, "Biodiversity Loss and Its Implications for Security and Armed Conflict," in The Living Planet in Crisis, ed. Joel Cracraft and Francesca T. Grifo (New York: Columbia University Press, 1999), p. 209.
W.M. Hern, "Why Are There So Many of Us? Description and Diagnosis of a Planetary Ecopathological Process," Journal of Population and Environment 12 (1990), Weigel, Earth Cancer.
Westing, "Biodiversity Loss and Its Implications for Security and Armed Conflict." Peter Morrison Vitousek et al., "Human Appropriation of the Products of Photosynthesis," Bioscience May (1986), Vitousek, "Human Domination of Earth's Ecosystems."
For example, to replicate the pattern of grain consumption as evidenced in the United States today, by 2025 the regional requirement would be 4.5 billion metric tons of grain, or the harvest of more than two planets at earth's current output levels. UN-ESCAP (United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific), State of the Environment in the Asia Pacific (New York: United Nations, 2000).
Overwhelmingly wealthy, white, and non-immigrant.
In short, the bulk of today's environmental degradation is done by two groups, the top richest billion and the bottom poorest. The richest billion destroys the global environment through rapid over-consumption of resources and vast generation of wastes, while the bottom billion destroys their resources out of necessity and a lack of options. See Tom Athanasiou, Divided Planet: The Ecology of Rich and Poor (Boston: Little, Brown, 1996).
UNEP, Global Biodiversity Assessment, p. 793. Ibid.
Cincotta and Engelman, "Real Numbers: Biodiversity and Population Growth," V. Walter Reid, "How Many Species Will There Be?," in Tropical Deforestation and Species Extinction, ed. T.C. Sayer, Jeffrey Whitmore, and International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (London and New York: Chapman & Hall, 1992).
Don Hinrichsen, "Putting the Bite on the Planet: Rapid Human Population Growth Is Devouring Global Natural Resources," International Wildlife September/October (1994), pp. 39-40.
According to three scenarios published by the UN, the global population in the year 2050 will be somewhere between 7.3 billion and 10.7 billion, depending on how fast the fertility rate falls. Ninety-seven per cent of the projected future population growth will be in developing regions. Jeffrey Kluger, "The Big Crunch," Time April-May (2000), p. 49.
Cincotta and Engelman, "Real Numbers: Biodiversity and Population Growth." Ibid.
The predicament is that people's life decisions are conditioned by socioeconomic systems in which the incentives for sacrificing the future for the present are often overwhelming. See Gretchen D. Daily and Paul R. Ehrlich, "Population, Sustain-ability, and Earth's Carrying Capacity: A Framework for Estimating Population Sizes and Lifestyles That Could Be Sustained without Undermining Future Generations," Bioscience 42 (November) (1992).
Population growth seems to affect everything but is seldom held responsible for anything. Some of the key reasons for this predicament are: first, growth is invisible from day to day; second, there is what some political demographers refer to as "scale paralysis" - a sense of powerlessness in response to the size of the problem; third, many people are unable to comprehend such large numbers; fourth, politically, population growth is never an immediate problem, but long-range and thus to be put off; last but not least, the subject can be controversial and divisive.
88. This is not to say that either Muslim or Christian clergy are necessarily opposed to "environmental protection." With a heavily Muslim population and a severely degraded ecological landscape, Pakistan, for example, launched an environmental protection program in 1997 utilizing well-known religious leaders. More than 700 verses of the Holy Quran, according to a recent interpretation, say that saving the planet is one's duty under Mohammed (after Marilyn Bauer, Religious Jihad Launched against Environmental Pollutants [Environmental News Network, Inc.: Online, available: http://www.enn.com, reviewed July 1, 2002]). For a more progressive approach in Judeo-Christian religious (re)interpretations on the environment, see the UCS (Union of Concerned Scientists) video film documentary titled Keeping the Earth: Religious and Scientific Perspectives on the Environment, narrated by James Earl Jones (previously titled Endangered Species and the Natural World [UCS: Cambridge, MA]).
89. It should be stressed in this context that the reduction of the death rate remains a central imperative in family planning strategies. For example, in those countries which have succeeded in reducing the number of deaths in children, there is a decline in the birthrate within one generation. Once parents have confidence that their children will survive, the need to have many children declines. In the past, it took one or two generations for the birthrate to fall in a country after the fall of the child deathrate. Now it takes less than a generation. A fall in deathrates of children has always come before a fall in birthrates. David Morley and Hermione Lovel, My Name Is Today: An Illustrated Discussion of Child Health, Society and Poverty in Less Developed Countries (London: Macmillan, 1986), p. 37.
90. Lori S. Ashford and Jeane A. Noble, "Population Policy: Consensus and Challenges," Consensus: The Nature and Consequences of Environmental Change 2(2) (1996).
91. Christopher Flavin, "Last Days for the G-7?," Worldwatch 10(4) (July/August) (1997), p. 39. NB: In 2025, chronic water supply shortages will affect nearly half of the world's 7.8 billion people, if population growth follows the UN's medium projection (Katie Mogelaard, "Six Billion and Counting," Nucleus: The Magazine of the Union of Concerned Scientists 21 [Fall 1999], p. 7). A more recent UNEP study suggests that, if present consumption and development patterns continue, two out of every three persons on Earth will live in "water-stressed" conditions by the year 2025 (see UNEP [United Nations Environment Program], "Freshwater Synthesis," Global Environment Outlook 2000 [Online, available: http://freshwater.unep.net, and http://www.unep.org/geo2000/english/0046.htm).
92. Mario Giampietro and David Pimentel, The Tightening Conflict: Population, Energy Use, and the Ecology of Agriculture ([Online, available: http://www.npg.org/ forums/tightening_conflict.htm] 1993).
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