Tables

1 Species remaining to be described out of an estimated total of

30 million 119

2 Four categories of the instrumental value of biodiversity 119

3 Ecosystem functions and their uses 120

4 Degree of extinction (%) in the five major mass extinctions in the fossil records 121

5 Milestones in hominid cultural evolution 121

6 Human forces driving changes in biological diversity

(before 1500; 1500 to 1800; since 1800) 123

7 Late Pleistocene megafauna extinction - (percentages and weights in kg) 124

8 Onset dates of major extinction episodes (years before present) 124

9 Causes of biodiversity loss 125

10 Mechanisms of biodiversity loss 125

11 Projection of species loss for 2100 ce 126

12 Exhaustion of fur seal hunting in the Southern Hemisphere, 1780-1820 126

13 Wars and war deaths, 1500 to 2000 127

14 The world's priorities? (Annual expenditures, in US $) 127

15 Population density and habitat loss, countries of major importance for biodiversity 128

16 Percentage of species worldwide classified as threatened 129

17 Number of species considered "threatened" by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre 129

18 Factors responsible for some extinctions and threatened extinctions 130

19 Rate of human population increase at different periods in history 130

20 World population milestones and projections 131

21 Actual and projected changes in world population, food, energy, and economic output 131

22 Annual per capita consumption in selected nations 132

23 Share of the world's income held by income group, 1965-90 132

24 Share of global income of the richest and poorest 20% of world's population 132

25 Concentration of global income, resources, and wealth, 1999 133

26 Gross National Product per capita in the species-rich states 134

27 Seven 'I' solutions for conserving biodiversity 134

28 Liquidating our assets 134

29 Arteriosclerosis of the Earth 135

30 The social effects of globalism 136

31 Who dominates the world? 137

32 Bioinvasions 138

33 Monoculture impact 138

34 Driving up CO2 139

35 Human migration and displacement 140

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