Information Genetic engineering applied biology pure science Psychospiritual Aesthetic beauty religious awe scientific knowledge

SOURCE: Gary K. Meffe and C. Ronald Carroll et al., "Conservation Values and Ethics," Principles of Conservation Biology (Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, Inc. Publishers, 1994), p. 25.

Table 3: Ecosystem functions and their uses

Regulation functions

Production functions

Carrier functions

Information functions

Providing support for

Providing basic resources, such

Providing space and a suitable

Providing aesthetic, cultural

economic activity and human


environment inter alia for:

and scientific benefits through:

welfare through:

- oxygen

- habitation

- aesthetic information

- protecting against harmful

- food, drinking water, and

- agriculture, forestry, fishery,

- spiritual and religious

cosmic influences




- climate regulation

- water for industry,

- industry

- cultural and artistic

- watershed protection and

households, etc.

- engineering projects such as



- clothing and fabrics

dams and roads

- educational and scientific

- erosion prevention and soil

- building, construction, and

- recreation



manufacturing materials

- nature conservation

- etc.

- storage and recycling of

- energy and fuel

- etc.

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