SOURCE: World Bank, World Development Report (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989). SECONDARY SOURCE: Timothy Swanson, Global Action for Biodiversity (IUCN, WWF, and Earthscan Publications: London, 1997), p. 184.

Table 27: Seven 'I' solutions for conserving biodiversity

• Investigation: learning how natural systems function

• Information: ensuring that facts are available to inform decisions

• Innovation: finding new ways to use biological resources sustainably

• Incentive: using tools to help biodiversity

• Integration: promoting a cross-sectoral approach to conserving biodiversity

• Indigenous communities: returning management responsibilities to those whose welfare depends on the resources managed

• International cooperation: building productive collaboration for conserving biodiversity

SOÜRCE: Jeffery A. Neely, "Biodiversity in the Global Community: Why it has Become Such an Important Social Economic and Political Issue," in Proceedings of a Conference on Prospects of Cooperation on Biodiversity Activities, Chiang Rai, Thailand 15-19 January 1996, edited by Jeffrey A. Neely, Chief Scientist, IUCN - The World Conservation Union. Gland, Switzerland and Suntha Somchevita. Office of Environmental Policy and Planning, Thailand. Published by Office of Environmental Policy and Planning. Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment. Bangkok, Thailand, pp. 10-17.

Table 28: Liquidating our assets

Amount of topsoil created by nature each year 0.4 billion tons

Amount lost to erosion 25.4 billion tons Time it takes the global human economy to consume the equivalent of 22 million tons of oil 1 day

Time it took to the planet to create this energy 10,000 days Number of species lost to extinction each year, on average, during the past 65 million years 1 to 10

Number lost in the past year (conservatively estimated) 1,000 to 10,000

Time it took for the world to lose 1 per cent of its forests, on average, during the 30 centuries prior to the

Industrial Revolution 100 years

Time it is taking to lose 1 per cent now 1 year

Natural Resources: Since 19 70, the world's forests have declined from 4.4 square miles per 1,000 people to 2.8 square miles per 1,000 people. In addition, a quarter of the world's fish stocks have been depleted and another 44 per cent are being fished to their biological limits.

SOURCE: Worldwatch, "Matters of Scale: Liquidating our Assets," World Watch 10(5) (September/ October) (1997), p. 39. "UNEP Human Development Report 1998," in New York Times, September 27 1998.

Table 29: Arteriosclerosis of the Earth

Number of large dams (at least 15 meters high) that were blocking the world's rivers as of 1950 Number that had been built by 1985 Number of large dams in China as of 1950 Number that had been built by 1985 Kilometers of the world's once free-flowing rivers that had been artificially altered for navigation by 1900 Kilometers altered by 1980

Average frequency of major floods of the Rhine River in Karlsruhe, Germany, (7.6 meters or more above flood level) between 1900 and 1977 Average frequency during the last 19 years, after extensive engineering which eliminated natural flood controls Number of salmon caught in the Rhine River

(Germany and Holland) annually, 100 years ago Number caught annually by the end of the 1950s Millions of pounds of salmon and steelhead caught in the Columbia River by commercial fishermen in 1884 Millions of pounds caught in 1994

5,270 36,562 2


8,750 498,000

once every 19 years once every 2 years

150,000 0

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