Info

Macquarie Island

SOURCE: Peter J. Bryant, Extinction and Depletion from Over-exploitation. Biodiversity and Conservation [A Hypertext Book] (Irvine, CA: School of Biological Sciences University of California, Irvine, 1998).

SOURCE: Peter J. Bryant, Extinction and Depletion from Over-exploitation. Biodiversity and Conservation [A Hypertext Book] (Irvine, CA: School of Biological Sciences University of California, Irvine, 1998).

Table 13: Wars and war deaths' 1500 to 2000

SOURCE: Ruth Leger Sivard, World Military and Social Expenditures 1993, 15th edn (Washington, DC: World Priorities Press, 1993), p. 3.

NOTE: (i) Covers only wars with estimated annual deaths of 1,000 or more. NB: The estimated share of war-related deaths that were civilian in 1970 was 60 per cent. By 1990 the estimated share of war-related deaths that were civilian had reached 90 per cent (see Michael Renner, Fighting for Survival [New York: Norton, 1996]).

SOURCE: Ruth Leger Sivard, World Military and Social Expenditures 1993, 15th edn (Washington, DC: World Priorities Press, 1993), p. 3.

NOTE: (i) Covers only wars with estimated annual deaths of 1,000 or more. NB: The estimated share of war-related deaths that were civilian in 1970 was 60 per cent. By 1990 the estimated share of war-related deaths that were civilian had reached 90 per cent (see Michael Renner, Fighting for Survival [New York: Norton, 1996]).

Table 14: The world's priorities? (Annual expenditures, in US $)

Saving the world's 25 biodiversity hotspots throughout the world over the next ten years (estimate)(i) $5 billion

Combating land degradation (ii) $6 billion

Basic education for all(iii) $6 billion

Cosmetics in the United States (m> $8 billion

Ice cream in Europe(iii) $11 billion

Perfume in Europe and United States(iii) $12 billion

Reproductive health for all women(iii) $12 billion

Basic health and nutrition(iii) $13 billion

Pet foods in Europe and the United States(iii) $17 billion

Water and sanitation for all(iii) $35 billion Universal access to basic education, health care, reproductive health care, adequate food, clean water, and sewers(ii) $40 billion

Cigarettes in Europe(iii) $50 billion

Alcoholic drinks in Europe(iii) $105 billion

Illegal drugs <iv> $400 billion

Military spending (vi) $900 billion

SOURCES: (i) Biodiversity Hotspots ("We could go far towards safeguarding the hotspots and thus a large proportion of all species at risk for an average of $20 m per hotspot per year over the next five years, or $500 m annually The scale of spending needed is peanuts relative to space probes and military spending - just twice the cost of a single Pathfinder mission to Mars And even if the sum needed were a hundred times larger, it would be worth paying to prevent the planet being impoverished" - Norman Myers, cited in Alex Kirby, "Islands of hope to challenge extinction," BBC News Online, Wednesday, February 23 2000, 19:17 GMT. Available: http://news6.thdo.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/sci/tech/ newsid%5F653000/653894.stm, reviewed May 2002. Paul Rogers, "A $5 billion plan to save world's forests," San Jose Mercury News, August 20 2000, posted at 12:3 7 a.m. PDT, at http://www.mercurycenter.com/local/center/brazil082000.htm, reviewed November 2000.)

(ii) Djauhari Oratmangun and I. Gede Ngurah Swajaya, "Reality and ambitions of world summit on sustainability," Jakarta Post, April 14 2001 ("An estimated average of US$6 billion will be needed annually to ensure that the program to combat land degradation is implemented").

(iii) Estimated additional annual cost to achieve universal access to basic social services in all developing countries, in United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), "The World's Priorities?" Human Development Report, 1998 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998). Reprint, Multinational Monitor, and September 1998 edition, p. 37.

(iv) Illegal drugs: UN Research Institute, States of Disarray: The Social Effects of Globalization (London: UNRISD, 1995).

(v) Crude oil sales: Based on shipments reported in BP Statistical Review of World Energy (London: British Petroleum, 1995).

(vi) Military spending: Bonn International Center for Conversion, Conversion Survey 1996: Global Disarmament, Demilitarization and Demobilization (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996). ($780 bn orig. fig. cited in 1995; $900 bn is adjusted estimate for 2000.)

Table 15: Population density and habitat loss, countries of major importance for biodiversity

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