1 million tons 5 million tons 16 kilograms

Amount of sea urchins, sponges, and other marine life that was hauled up with the fish and discarded, per person (approximate) 200 kilograms

Amount spent to produce the food consumed in the

United States in 1996 (farm cost) $126 billion

Amount spent on marketing it $421 billion

SOURCES: Cary Fowler and Pat Mooney, Shattering: Food, Politics, and the Loss of Genetic Diversity (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1990). Worldwatch, "Matters of Scale -Monoculture: The Biological and Social Impacts," World Watch 11(2) (March/April) (1998), p. 39.

NOTE: (i) This number does not include the modern varieties that have largely displaced the older ones. Modern varieties are much higher yielding, but they are far less genetically diverse and they require far more pesticide and chemical fertilizer.

Table 34: Driving up CO2

Amount General Motors and several other auto-oriented corporations were fined after being found guilty of conspiring to monopolize the transportation industry by buying up rail systems in 83 US cities and dismantling them $5,000

Amount it would cost to rebuild these rail systems $3,000,000,000

The combined 1995 population of Africa, Asia, Oceania, today and Central and South America, which that year had a total of 200 million motor vehicles 4.40 billion

The 1995 population of the United States, which also had a total of 200 million motor vehicles 0.27 billion

Area of the United States paved over by roads and parking lots 153,730 square kilometers

Combined area of all US national parks 191,501 square kilometers

Ratio of bicycles to cars in China 250 to 1

Ratio of bicycles to cars in the United States 0.7 to 1

Amount of carbon dioxide that a car running at 27.5 miles per gallon emits over 100,000 miles 31,752 kilograms Amount of carbon dioxide that a human walking that same distance would produce 59 kilograms

SOURCES: Noelle Knox, Detroit News, March 2 1997. Jim Klein and Martha Olson, AutoFree Times, winter 1996-7. American Automobile Association, World Motor Vehicle Data (Detroit, MI: 1997). Jane Holtz Kay, Asphalt Nation (New York: Crown Publishers, 1997). Steve Nadis and James MacKenzie, Car Trouble (Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1993). Human CO2 estimates: Jason Archibald, "Matters of Scale," World Watch Magazine 10(6) (November/December) (1997), p. 39. NB: By 2000, the Earth's atmospheric carbon level had been raised to about 360 parts per million (ppm) - a level not experienced in 420,000 years. Atmospheric C02 concentrations will likely be more than 700 ppm by 2100. Worldwatch, "Matters of Scale: Driving up CO2" World Watch Magazine, 10(6), November/December (1997), p. 39.

Table 35: Human migration and displacement

Total number of migrants worldwide, today 100 million

Total population of the world at the time of the classical

Greek civilization 100 million

Number of people in the past decade displaced by infrastructure projects, such as road and dam construction 80-90 million

Number of people in the past decade left homeless by natural disasters, including floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, and landslides (based on an average over 25 years) 50 million

Number of people in 1981 who were landless or near-landless 983 million

Number of people expected to be landless or near-landless in 2000 1.24 billion

Number of international refugees in the early 1960s 1 million in the mid-1970s 3 million in 1995 27 million

Number of refugees displaced within the borders of their own countries, in 1985 9.5 million in 1995 20 million

Number of people currently living in coastal areas vulnerable to flooding from storm surges 46 million

Number of people living in vulnerable areas if global warming produces a 50 cm rise in sea level 92 million

Number of people living in vulnerable areas if global warming produces a 1 m rise in sea level 118 million

Number of people living in vulnerable areas if global warming produces a 5 m rise in sea level 1 billion

SOURCES: Thomas Sowell, Migration and Cultures (New York: Basic Books, 1996). Worldwatch, "Matters of Scale: Human Migration," World Watch 11(5) (September/October) (1997), p. 37. Worldwatch, "Matters of Scale: The Plight of the Displaced," World Watch 10(1) (January/February) (1997), p. 39.

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