1 million tons 5 million tons 16 kilograms
Amount of sea urchins, sponges, and other marine life that was hauled up with the fish and discarded, per person (approximate) 200 kilograms
Amount spent to produce the food consumed in the
United States in 1996 (farm cost) $126 billion
Amount spent on marketing it $421 billion
SOURCES: Cary Fowler and Pat Mooney, Shattering: Food, Politics, and the Loss of Genetic Diversity (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1990). Worldwatch, "Matters of Scale -Monoculture: The Biological and Social Impacts," World Watch 11(2) (March/April) (1998), p. 39.
NOTE: (i) This number does not include the modern varieties that have largely displaced the older ones. Modern varieties are much higher yielding, but they are far less genetically diverse and they require far more pesticide and chemical fertilizer.
Table 34: Driving up CO2
Amount General Motors and several other auto-oriented corporations were fined after being found guilty of conspiring to monopolize the transportation industry by buying up rail systems in 83 US cities and dismantling them $5,000
Amount it would cost to rebuild these rail systems $3,000,000,000
The combined 1995 population of Africa, Asia, Oceania, today and Central and South America, which that year had a total of 200 million motor vehicles 4.40 billion
The 1995 population of the United States, which also had a total of 200 million motor vehicles 0.27 billion
Area of the United States paved over by roads and parking lots 153,730 square kilometers
Combined area of all US national parks 191,501 square kilometers
Ratio of bicycles to cars in China 250 to 1
Ratio of bicycles to cars in the United States 0.7 to 1
Amount of carbon dioxide that a car running at 27.5 miles per gallon emits over 100,000 miles 31,752 kilograms Amount of carbon dioxide that a human walking that same distance would produce 59 kilograms
SOURCES: Noelle Knox, Detroit News, March 2 1997. Jim Klein and Martha Olson, AutoFree Times, winter 1996-7. American Automobile Association, World Motor Vehicle Data (Detroit, MI: 1997). Jane Holtz Kay, Asphalt Nation (New York: Crown Publishers, 1997). Steve Nadis and James MacKenzie, Car Trouble (Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1993). Human CO2 estimates: Jason Archibald, "Matters of Scale," World Watch Magazine 10(6) (November/December) (1997), p. 39. NB: By 2000, the Earth's atmospheric carbon level had been raised to about 360 parts per million (ppm) - a level not experienced in 420,000 years. Atmospheric C02 concentrations will likely be more than 700 ppm by 2100. Worldwatch, "Matters of Scale: Driving up CO2" World Watch Magazine, 10(6), November/December (1997), p. 39.
Table 35: Human migration and displacement
Total number of migrants worldwide, today 100 million
Total population of the world at the time of the classical
Greek civilization 100 million
Number of people in the past decade displaced by infrastructure projects, such as road and dam construction 80-90 million
Number of people in the past decade left homeless by natural disasters, including floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, and landslides (based on an average over 25 years) 50 million
Number of people in 1981 who were landless or near-landless 983 million
Number of people expected to be landless or near-landless in 2000 1.24 billion
Number of international refugees in the early 1960s 1 million in the mid-1970s 3 million in 1995 27 million
Number of refugees displaced within the borders of their own countries, in 1985 9.5 million in 1995 20 million
Number of people currently living in coastal areas vulnerable to flooding from storm surges 46 million
Number of people living in vulnerable areas if global warming produces a 50 cm rise in sea level 92 million
Number of people living in vulnerable areas if global warming produces a 1 m rise in sea level 118 million
Number of people living in vulnerable areas if global warming produces a 5 m rise in sea level 1 billion
SOURCES: Thomas Sowell, Migration and Cultures (New York: Basic Books, 1996). Worldwatch, "Matters of Scale: Human Migration," World Watch 11(5) (September/October) (1997), p. 37. Worldwatch, "Matters of Scale: The Plight of the Displaced," World Watch 10(1) (January/February) (1997), p. 39.
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Disasters: Why No ones Really 100 Safe. This is common knowledgethat disaster is everywhere. Its in the streets, its inside your campuses, and it can even be found inside your home. The question is not whether we are safe because no one is really THAT secure anymore but whether we can do something to lessen the odds of ever becoming a victim.