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SOURCE: From W.V. Reid and K.R. Miller, Keeping Options Alive: The Scientific Basis for Conservation Biology (Washington, DC: World Resources Institute, 1989). SECONDARY SOURCE: Robert Barbault, "Loss of Biodiversity, Overview," Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, vol. 3 (San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 2001), pp. 765.

NOTE: (i) Some species may be influenced by more than one factor; thus some rows may exceed 100 per cent.

Table 19: Rate of human population increase at different periods in history

Period in history Additional number of people per year

Primeval (hunter-gatherer) phase 50

Early farming and early urban phase 50,000

From 1650 to 1960 7,000,000

From 1960 to 2000 90,000,000

SOURCE: Stephen Vickers Boyden, Biohistory: The Interplay between Human Society and the Biosphere (Paris: UNESCO; Carnforth, Lancs., UK; Park Ridge, NJ, USA: Pantheon Pub. Group, 1992), p. 107.

Table 20: World population milestones and projections

World population

Reached in

1 billion

1804 (all of human history)

2 billion

1927 (123 years later)

3 billion

1960 (33 years later)

4 billion

1974 (14 years later)

5 billion

1987 (13 years later)

6 billion

1999 (12 years later)

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