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Compiled by Auriol Griffith-Jones

Note: Italic page numbers refer to chapter openings; bold page numbers refer to the Glossary (pages 106-18) and Tables (pages 119-40); notes (pages 141-78) are indicated by n or nn (for more than one note on the page)

absolutism, 56

accountability, TNCs' lack of, 86 acid rain, 103 Adams, Robert, 3 7 advertising, 176n

Africa, biodiversity hotspots, 84; climate change, 14, 16; early hominids in, 13, 145n; megafauna extinction, 24, 124; as origin of Homo sapiens, 19-20; per capita income, 88; slaves for plantations, 60-1

agency, 106; human, 96, 104 'Agent Orange', 76 agribusiness, 87-8, 123 agriculture, effect of monocultures, 61, 138-9; intensified, 38, 55-6, 84, 93, 123; in New Mexico, 45; origins of, 30-1; sedentary, 4, 9, 23, 29-32, 104 agro-systems, 31 agrodiversity, 106 Alaska, 66, 68, 92 Alcibiades, Athenian general, 41 alienation, 106 Amazon River valley, 2 Americas, alien species in, 60; discovery of, 59; early humans in, 22; late Pleistocene population, 26, see also North America; South America; United States Amin, Samir, 59

ancient civilizations, causes of decline, 32 Andes, tropical, 84

animals, destroyed by warfare, 76, 77; domestication of, 30-1, 122, 123, 152 nn, see also megafauna anthropocentrism, 106

anti-nuclear activism, 79 Aotearoa see New Zealand aquaculture, Asia, 90 Arendt, Hannah, 32

Aridipecus (human predecessors), 12, 121,

144n, 145n Aristotle, 40, 177n armed forces, greenhouse gas emissions, 78

arms race, 72, 73, 74, 105, 123; and demilitarization, 81, 84, 168n art, representative, 21, 22 artifacts, Chaco Anasazi civilization, 48;

development of, 9, 17 Asia, Southeast, commercial whaling, 67;

warfare, 74-5, 101, see also Eurasia asteroid collision, Yucatan peninsula, 2 astronomy, Sumerian, 36 Athens, ancient, 34, 39-40; warfare, 40-1

Atomic Photography Guild, 79-80 Attica (ancient Greece), deforestation, 34 Australia, early humans in, 22, 148n; megafauna extinction, 24, 25, 124, 148nn

Australopithecus (human predecessors),

12, 106, 145n autonomy, centrality of, 58 Aztec empire, 34

background extinctions, 3, 106 Bacon, Francis, 56, 57 Baikal, Lake, 79 baleen whale, 67 basic needs, 100 bear, white, 6

beaver, fur for hats, 64-5, 162 n Benjamin, Walter, 73 Bering Sea, fur seal, 66 Bickerton, Derek, 27

big game hunting, 18-19, 23, 24, 30, 60, 147n biodiversity, 1, 101, 107; conservation solutions, 134; economic uses of, 8, 119; expansive threats to, 84; human agency and changes in, 123; human relationship to, 6; intensive risks to, 84; loss of, 11, 125; mechanisms of loss, 125; and net primary production of photosynthesis, 82, 177n; reduced by agriculture, 30, 31 biodiversity hotspots, 4, 84, 101, 112, 128-9

bioinvasion, 107, see also invasive species biological warfare, 73, 97 bioregion, 107 biosphere, 31, 71, 107 bipedalism, 15

flightless, 25, 148n, see also dodo; moa bison, European, 75; North American, 6,

24, 60, 66-7 blue whales, 68, 69 bombing, Vietnam, 76 bonobo chimpanzee, genetic similarity to man, 12, 13-14, 144n Borgstrom, George, 34 bourgeois society, 107 Brazil, 61; deforestation, 88, 174n Brecht, Bertolt, 1

Bronze Age, 35, see also Mesopotamian civilization Brundtland Report (1987), 98 burial rituals, Neanderthal, 20, 146n business, responsibilities of, 99

calendar, lunar, 21-2 Cambodia, ecological warfare, 76 Cambrian period, 107 cancer, drugs from natural substances, 8 Canetti, Elias, 7, 103 capital, global, controls on, 99 capitalism, complexity of, 58, 160n; early modern, 63, 123; emergence of, 54-6; globalization of, 4, 87-8; and systemic nature of exponential growth, 58, 97; and triangular trade, 61-2; and warfare, 73

capitalist mode of production, 10, 55-6 carbon dioxide, 6, 139 Caribbean, biodiversity hotspot, 84; megafauna extinctions, 26, 124; sugar plantations, 60-1 carrying capacity, 91-2, 108, 115, 174n Carthage, Roman destruction of, 74,

157n, 165n Cato the Elder, 43 Catton, William, 91 causality, 96

cave paintings, 22, 23, 146-7n caves, occupation of, 17 Central Asia, nuclear weapons testing, 79 Chaco Anasazi civilization, New Mexico,

45-8, 158n Charles I, King of England, 64, 162 n Chauvet (Rhone Valley), cave paintings,

22, 146-7n Chelyabinsk-40 military city, 79 chemical warfare, 73, 97 chemicals, synthetic, 94 Chernobyl disaster (1986), 79 chimpanzees, 12, 13-14, 144n China, environmental degradation in ancient, 33-4; fur trade, 65; Yellow River flooding, 75 chitin, medical use of, 8 chlorofluorocarbons, 6, 78 Chomsky, Noam, 95 Cicero, Marcus Tullius, 29 cities, Mayan, 48-9 city-states, 9, 31; Greek, 39-40; Italy,

159; Mesopotamia, 35 civil society, 172 n class society, 4, 31, 108; capitalist, 54; Chaco Anasazi civilization, 47, 48; and enclosure of commons, 70; proletarianization, 71; Sumerian, 36 climate, adaptation to, 20 climate change, 4, 14, 103, 123, 152n; global, 111; ice ages, 16; and mass extinction, 2 Clovis hunters, North America, 45 Club of Rome, The Limits of Growth, 74 coastal wetlands, 5 Cody, Buffalo Bill, 67 Cohen, Mark, 9 Cold War, 73, 79

colonialism, 72, 87, 108, 123, 161n 'Columbian Exchange', 123; implications of, 59-60

Columbus, Christopher, 59 commodification, 10, 108, see also value commons, enclosure of, 70-1, 164n;

global, 11, 80, 101-2 conscious intentionality, 9, 17, 22 Conservation International, 84 consumption, conspicuous (ancient Rome), 44-5; and economic growth, 99; expected growth of, 84, 93, 170n; globalization of, 98; per capita, 82, 93, 132; unsustainable, 83, 92-3; and waste, 99 contamination see pollution continental drift, 1-2, 16 contraception, 80, 85, 171n cooking, 17-18, 20-1 Corinth, 41

corporation, 87, 108, 160n, see also capitalism; TNCs Corsica, deforestation, 39 crafts, manufacturing, 56; specialization, 31

critical theory, 108 Cro-Magnon man, 20, 21-2 crops, and genetic diversity, 8, 101;

monoculture, 61, 138-9 Crosby, Alfred, 59 Cuba, megafauna extinctions, 26 cultural diffusion, 36, 59; North America, 64

cultural evolution, 10, 2 7-8 culture, 19, 108; complexity of capitalist, 58; Mayan, 48-9; rate of development, 27

Dacia, Roman conquest of, 42 Davis, Mike, 79, 90 defoliants, military use of, 75, 76 deforestation, 5, 88, 103, 123, 174nn; ancient China, 33-4, 153n; ancient Mesopotamia, 37-8; Britain, 55, 159n; Easter Island, 51-2; by fire, 174nn; for fuel, 38; Indonesia, 90-1, 173-4nn; Mayan civilization, 50; Mediterranean, 34, 39, 155nn; New Mexico, 46-7; for pasture, 39; Roman empire, 41, 55; by Soviet armed forces, 75-6; timber for building, 46; timber for ships, 38, 40, 55; for trade, 88, 89; Vietnam, 77 demilitarization, 81, 84, 168n democracy, 39, 97, 105, 108, 177n; direct global, 98; ecological, 11, 97-8,

105; extension of, 99; imperatives of ecological, 98-101 demographic change, rate of, 84-5 depoliticization, 109 Descartes, René, 56, 57 desertification, 5, 45, 80, 89, 158n developing countries, environmental degradation in, 101; exports, 88, 89; foreign aid for, 88; wealth in, 93, 134, see also South, global development model, conventional, 98 Diamond, Jared, 150n; 'Great Leap

Forward', 23, 2 7 dietary habits, global changes, 59 digitalis, 8

dinosaurs, 2, 103, 105 disease, carried by European conquerors, 59-60, 161n; epidemic (Roman empire), 43; and fur trade, 63, 65; invasive, 138 division of labor, 9, 176n DNA, and origins of Homo sapiens, 20 dodo, extinction of, 7-8, 143n dogs, domestication of, 31 Dolstatin 10 (drug), 8 domestication, of animals, 30-1, 122,

123, 152 nn drought, and Chaco Anasazi civilization,

48; and Mayan civilization, 50 Durning, Alan, 81

dwellings, constructed, 17; Cro-Magnon shelters, 21

early modern period, 11, 63, 123 Easter Island (Rapa Nui), 50-3, 159n;

stone statues, 51, 52-3 eco-toxins, military use of, 76 ecocide, 109; acceleration of, 58, 105; etiology (origins) of, 9-10; as strategy of warfare, 74-7; use of term, 2-3, 75; in wars in Southeast Asia, 74-5 ecological democracy, 11, 97-101, 105, 109

ecological footprint, 109-10 ecological sustainability, 110 ecology, 109; and education, 95-6 economic growth, 57, 174n, 177n; and democratization, 100; world, 82-3 ecosystems, 110; functions and value of,

7, 120, 160n education, formal, 95-6 egalitarian society, 110

Egypt, ancient, 34, 35; GDP, 87 Ehrlich, Anne and Paul, 37 Einstein, Albert, 81

chlorofluorocarbons, 6, 78; halons, 78 Endiku (Mesopotamian deity), 3 7 energy, depletion of sources of, 94, 134-5; solar hydrogen, 101; used by military economy, 78 Enlightenment, the, 56 environmental activism, 79, 95, 97-8 environmental degradation, 134-5, 165h, 170h; accelerated by agribusiness, 87-8; in ancient China, 33-4; costs of, 160-1h; in developing countries, 101, 170n; present rates of, 82; through poverty, 88-91, 101, 170rc environmental education, 95-6 environmental programs, costs, 80-1,

127-8 Eridu (Sumerian city), 35 Eurasia, megafauna extinction, 24-5,

124, 148rc Europe, early commercial whaling, 67-8; emergence of capitalism in, 56; megafauna extinction, 24, 124, 147-8h; proportion of global consumption, 93 evolution, natural, 110, 144n evolution, human, 12-17, 104; biological, 28; and development of culture, 10, 2 7-8, 121-2; genetic, 27; 'Great Leap Forward', 23, 27; social, 110, see also language expenditure, global priorities, 127-8; military compared with environmental programs, 80-1, 127-8 exponential growth, in capitalism, 58 exports, of natural resources, 88, 89 extinctions, 6, 110, 124, 130; background, 3, 106; birds, 26, 52, 148rc, 149rc; dodo, 7-8, 143rc; minifauna, 150n; rate of, 3-4, 121; threatened, 130, see also mass extinctions; megafauna extinctions; species extinction factories, 70, 71, 72 feminism, 97, 100 feudalism, 54-5, 56 fire, use of, 17-18, 20, 123 Fischer-Kowalsky, Marina, 31

Flannery, Tim, 25, 110

food, changes in diet, 59; surplus production of, 35 forests, effect of acid rain on, 103;

exploitation of, 88, 92-3; tropical, 103 fossil fuels, 92

Foster, John Bellamy, 54, 94 Fotopoulos, Takis, 97, 176-7n France, Chauvet caves, 22, 146-7n;

Neanderthal population, 26 free trade, 87 free will, absolute, 58 fundamentalism, 98 fur trade, 62-6

'future eaters', 110-11, see also Homo esophagus colossus

Galbraith, J.K., 80, 93, 175n Galeano, Eduardo, 61 game stocks, 89 genetic diversity, 8 genetic engineering, 101, 123 genetics, 12, 13-14; and evolution, 27, 28

Ghana, natural resource exploitation, 89, 173n

Giddens, Anthony, 102 Gilgamesh, 29, 37, 150n gladiatorial games, animals for, 42-3 global commons, 11, 80, 101-2 global warming, 69, 103 globalization, 11, 111, 171-2 n; of capitalism, 4, 87-8; of consumption, 98; impact of, 86-8; and neo-liberalism, 86, 92, 105, 178n; social effects of, 136-7; of trade, 84 goats, over-grazing by, 38, 41, 155n Goldblatt, David, 86 Gould, Stephen Jay, 3, 105 governments, guidelines for, 99-100 Goya, Francisco, 72-3 grain production, world, 82, 93, 170n grassroots movements, 95, 96-7, 105 Great Britain, capitalism in, 56, 87; commercial whaling, 68; deforestation, 55, 159n; expansion of agriculture, 55 Greece, ancient, 38-41, 155n Green Party, 95 Greenland, lead pollution, 43 Greider, William, 99 groups, and language, 18

habitat fragmentation, 111 habitat loss, 83, 89, 103, 128, 152n;

Indonesia, 91, 174n halon gases, 78 hand-axe, stone, 17, 145n Hawai'i, bird extinctions, 26, 149n hierarchies, human, 4, 9, 31, 39, 98 Hobsbawm, Eric, 164n Holocene, 111, 150n, 151n hominids, 13, 15, 111, 144n; bipedal, 15; development of language, 18-19; meat-eaters, 16-17; use of fire, 17-18 Homo erectus, 13, 17, 121, 146n; big game hunting, 18-19 Homo esophagus colossus, 6, 13, 92, 93,

111, 142n Homo habilis, 13

Homo sapiens, origin of, 19-20, 121, 146nn, see also Homo sapiens sapiens; human beings Homo sapiens neanderthalensis, 20-1, 146n Homo sapiens sapiens, 13, 111, 122, 142n; Cro-Magnon man, 21-2; domination of nature, 9; impact on species, 1, 4, 23, 141n

Honduras, Mayan civilization, 48 Horn of Africa, destruction by war, 75 horse, in Americas, 60 Hubbel, Stephen, 103 Hudson's Bay Company, 65 Hughes, Donald, 40 human agency, 96

human ancestors, 12-13, 144n, 145n; extinct species of, 145n; fossil remains, 16, see also evolution; hominids human beings, adaptability of, 104, 178n; definitions of, 12, 13; genetic similarities with chimpanzees, 12, 13-14, 144n; geographical expansion, 22, 23, 31, 123; potential of, 104, 178n; right to exploit nature, 58, see also Homo sapiens human load, 112 Hume, David, 56

hunting, big game, 18-19, 23, 24, 30, 60, 147n; for Roman gladiatorial games, 42-3, 156n hunting-gathering, 29, 30, 123 Huxley, Julian, 12

Ibn Fadan, on Rus merchants, 62 ice ages, 16, 112, 151n ideology, 96-7, 112; of globalism, 171-2n imperial expansionism, 40, 123 imperialism, 72, 123, 161n income, global shares of, 132-3; per capita, 88 India, Western Ghats, 84 individualism, in capitalism, 58; and self-

interest, 102, 172n Indonesia, deforestation, 90-1, 173n;

forest fires, 90, 174nn Industrial Revolution, 57, 60, 71-2, 123;

natural resources for, 71; textiles, 70 industrial societies, modern, 4 industrialization, 60, 72, 123, 165n industry, manufacturing, 55, 70, 71-2;

responsibilities of, 99; Roman, 43, 157n infant care, 17

Institute of Ecological Economics,

University of Maryland, 7 institutions, role of, 102 interdependence, capitalist disregard for, 58

International Green Movement, guidelines, 100 International Monetary Fund (IMF), 88, 112

International Union for Conservation of

Nature and Natural Resources, 77 International Whaling Commission, 68-9 internationalization, 112 introduced species, 112 Inuits, whaling, 68, 69 invasive species, 4, 60, 107, 112, 123, 138

irrigation, Mesopotamian systems, 33, 35,

37, 38, 122; Roman, 158n Israel, 87; early humans in, 22 Italy, 41

ivory, for Roman empire, 42, 156n James, Helen, 26

Japan, 75; commercial whaling, 67, 68 Jost, Bernd, 80

'juggernaut', 113; modernity as, 11, 57 juniper, Chaco Canyon, 46

Kant, Immanuel, 102 Kelly, Petra, 95 Kenya, early hominids, 16

Kenyan Greenbelt Movement, 99 Keynes, John Maynard, 87 kinship, in early societies, 31, 64 Kish (Sumerian city), 35 Klein, David, 92 Kraus, Karl, 70

labor, disenfranchisement of, 73; division of, 9, 31, 176n; for industrialism, 72; surplus, 55, see also slavery labor rights, 99 Labrador, sealing, 66 Lagash (Sumerian city), 35 land, use and ownership, 39, 57, 74 land mines, Libya, 75 language, development of, 9, 10, 19, 23; Homo erectus, 17; Homo sapiens, 22; pivotal role of, 26, 27-8, 104, 178n; and reflexive mentality, 18 Laos, ecological warfare, 76 lead pollution, ancient world, 43, 156-7n lead production, 157n Leakey, Maeve, 15 Leakey, Richard, 1 learning, human capacity for, 14, 28 Leff, Enrique, 55 Levin, Roger, 1

liberalism, 113, 123; classical, 87, 160n

Libya, land mines, 75

life, origins of, 12, 144n literacy, cave paintings as form of, 22

Lovejoy, Owen, 15

Maathai, Wangari, 99 Macedonia, 41 McHenry, Henry, 15 Madagascar, biodiversity hotspot, 84;

megafauna extinctions, 26, 124 malnutrition, 92, 175n mammoths, 147n Mandel, Ernest, 88 mangrove swamps, 76-7, 89 marginal land, cultivation of, 39, 88-9 maritime lifeways, 30, 151n market economy, 99, 113, 176n Marks, Peter, 70

marshland, drainage of, 5, 39, 76; salin-

mass extinctions, 3, 113; acceleration of, 11; dinosaurs, 2; first (Permian period), 1-2; late Quaternary, 113 mathematics, Sumerian, 36 Mauritius, extinction of dodo, 7-8 Max-Neef, Manfred, nine basic needs, 100 Mayan civilization, 33, 48-50; reasons for collapse, 49-50 media, 5, 176n; coverage of environmental issues, 96-7, 176n; and population growth, 85 medicines, from plants, 8 Mediterranean, 14, 43; and ancient Greece, 38-41; and ancient Rome, 41-5; deforestation, 34, 39, 155™ megafauna, definition, 23, 113-14;

Eurasia, 25, 147n megafauna extinctions, 5-6, 9; late

Pleistocene, 22-6, 124 Melanesia, biodiversity hotspot, 84 Meng Tze (Mencius), 33, 114 Mesolithic period, 30 Mesopotamian civilization, 33, 35-8,

154n; species extinctions, 36-7 Mesozoic era, 114 metabolism, 114 metallurgy, 23; Roman, 43 meteor collision, Quebec, 2 methane, 101

Middle East, conflict, 101; transition to agriculture, 30 migration, 140; and cultural diffusion,

36; ecological effects of, 81 military expenditure, 127-8, 137,

168-9n; compared with environmental programs, 80-1; redirection of, 99 mineral extraction (mining), 162 n; coal, 72; Mayan civilization, 49; for military use, 79; Roman, 43, 156n Misrach, Richard, 80 moa (New Zealand), extinction of, 25, 148n

Moczygemba-McKinsey, Susan, 45, 48 modernity, 10, 104, 121, 123; early modern capitalism, 63, 123; juggernaut of, 11, 57; late, 4, 113, 123 modernization, 114 Mohamad, Mahatir, Malaysian Prime

Minister, 90 molecular biology, 20 monetary policy, reform of, 99 monkeys, 14

Montaigne, Michel de, 54 multiregional theory, of origin of Homo sapiens, 19

nation states, 10, 72, 80; competition between, 73, 97, 105; wealth compared with TNCs, 87 'national sacrifice zones', 79-80; United

States, 80, 167nn nationalism, 56, 98, 114 Native Americans, 59, 64; big game hunting, 24, 60; bison hunting, 66, 67; effect of fur trade on, 63, 64, 65; whaling, 68 nature, 114-15; as capital, 58; Enlightenment view of, 56-7, 161n; as exploitable resource, 71; limits to regenerative capacity, 91-2; Roman view of, 41-2, 43 Navajo people, 45

Neanderthal man, 20-1, 26, 146nn neo-liberalism, 11, 87-8, 115, 172n; and globalization, 86, 92, 105, 178n Neolithic Revolution, transition to agriculture, 4, 9, 10, 29-32 neoteny, 115, 144-5n Net Primary Production of Photosynthesis

New Guinea, 148n; biodiversity hotspot,

84; warfare in, 74 New Mexico, Chaco Anasazi civilization, 45-8

New Zealand (Aotearoa), megafauna extinction, 25, 124, 148n Newfoundland, sealing, 66 Newton, Sir Isaac, 56, 57 Nippur (Sumerian city), 35 nitrous oxide emissions, 101 North Africa, desertification, 45, 158n North America, big game hunting, 24; European settlement, 63; fur trade, 63-6; megafauna extinction, 24, 25-6, 124; near-extinction of bison, 6, 24, 60, 66-7 Norway, fur trade, 62; whaling, 68 Novgorod, fur trade, 63 nuclear weapons, 73, 78, 97, 101, 166n; and hazardous waste, 78, 166-7n; testing areas, 73, 75, 79, 165n obsolescence, planned, 175n oceanic islands, 22, 146n, 149n

Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, 16, 18 Olson, Storre, 26, 149 O'Neill, John, 102 orangutan, habitat loss, 91, 174n 'oriental despotism', 36 otter, fur trade, 64

'Out of Africa' hypothesis for origin of

Homo sapiens, 19-20, 22 over-exploitation, 115 over-grazing, 4-5, 88-9; by goats, 38, 41,

155n overkill, 115-16

'overshoot' (carrying capacity exceeded),

91-2, 115, 174n ownership, concept of, 32; of land, 39, 57, 74; and slavery, 36, see also private property ozone layer depletion, 103, 123, 177n

Pacific islands, megafauna extinctions,

26; nuclear test sites, 73, 75, 165n Pacific yew, 8 Pakistan, 171n Paleozoic period, 2 Panama, Isthmus of, 16 paramilitary movements, 98-9 passenger pigeons, 6 peace, 97

'Peking Man' (Homo erectus), 18 Peloponnesian Wars, 40, 155n Permian period, first mass extinction, 1-2 Peter the Great, Czar of Russia, 63 Phanerozoic, 116

pharmaceuticals, 175n; from plants, 8, 101

Philippines, 86; biodiversity hotspot, 84;

natural resource exploitation, 89-90 photosynthesis, 12; net primary production, 82, 177n pinyon pine, Chaco Canyon, 46 plagues, Roman empire, 43 plantations, effect on soil, 61 Plato, 34, 40, 155n Pleistocene period, 9, 10, 116 Pliny the Elder, 42 plow, invention of, 35, 123 plutonium, global production, 94, 166n Poland, forest exploitation, 75 pollution, 4, 89, 103; air, 90, 92; by intensive agriculture, 84; lead, 43, 156-7n; by military, 78; sewage, 5, 43; water, 118

Pompeii, 43

population, Neanderthal, 26 population crash, possibility of, 92 population density, 128; Neolithic, 29 population displacement, 140; by enclosure of commons, 70-1; in wars, 75, 77

population growth, 123, 130, 131, 169n; and carrying capacity of earth, 91-2; Easter Island, 52-3; global, 83-5; and intensified agriculture, 38, 84; late Pleistocene, 22; Mayan civilization, 50; need to restrict, 84-5, 170-1n; postindustrial explosion of, 57, 130, 131; pressure on ecosystems, 81-2, 83, 105; projected, 131, 170n poverty, elimination of, 99; impact on environmental degradation, 88-91; and malnutrition, 92 pre-modern societies, 10 predators, elimination of, 36-7, 49, 156n prehistory, 116

primary production see Net Primary

Production primates, 14-15, 116 private property, 32, 57, 58, 80, 116, see also ownership production, capitalist mode of, 10, 55-6; industrial, 94; subsistence, 29-30, 88; treadmill of, 93-5, 105 profit, 55, 80; privatized, 58 Protestant ethic, role of, 56 proto-mammals, 14

pueblos, Chaco Canyon (New Mexico), 46

Quaternary period, 113, 116

radical environmentalism, 97-8 rainfall, and deforestation, 40 Rapa Nui (Easter Island), 50-3, 159n rats, wood, Chaco Canyon middens, 46 Raup, David, 3 raw materials, use of, 21, 71 Reagan, Ronald, US President, 87 reason, 104 Reclus, Elisée, 12 reflexive mentality, 18 religion, 22, 85, 171n; ancient Rome, 43-4

resources, allocation of, 85; in common, 80; depletion of, 94, 99, 134-5, 173n;

Rifkin, Jeremy, 71

right whales (Greenland whale), 68, 69, 163n

Rio Earth Summit, 81, 88, 92 Rodman, Peter, 15

Rome, ancient, 34, 41-5, 156n; destruction of Carthage, 74, 157n, 165n; fur trade, 62; possessive view of nature, 41-2, 43, 155-6n Rongelap Atoll, nuclear test site, 73, 165n Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 9, 32, 152n Russia, fur trade, 62-3, 65, 66 Rwanda, ecological damage by warfare, 77

salinization, 90; of Tigris-Euphrates marshlands, 37, 38 savanna grasslands, 14-15 scale paralysis, 131, 170-1n Scandinavia, fur trade, 62 scavenging, 18-19, 29, 123 Schnaiberg, Allan, 96 Schwarz, Jeffrey, 15 science, 72

scientific method, development of, 56-7

scorched-earth policies, 74-5, 165n sea level changes, 2, 16

sea otter, fur trade, 63, 65

sealing, 25, 66

self-interest, 172 n; collective, 7, 94, 102 Semipalatinsk nuclear test range

(Kazakhstan), 79 Seneca, 42

sewage, ancient Rome, 43; discharged into sea, 5 shipbuilding, timber for, 38 ships, whaling factory, 68 Siberia, nuclear test sites, 79, 167n;

Russian expansion into, 63 Sicily, deforestation, 41 Sino-Japanese War (Second), Yellow River flooding, 75 Sivard, Ruth, 78

slavery, 31; in Americas, 60-1; ancient Rome, 44, 45, 155n; in Sumerian civilization, 36; triangular trade, 61-2 Smith, Adam, 55

social behaviour, and biological reduc-tionism, 107

social change, 116 Social Darwinism, 116-17 social domination, systems of, 117 social inequality, 9, 31, 50, 88, 98 social justice, 100, 102, 117 social movements, 95, 98; global, 100, 105

social policies, 99

social structure, 22, 23, 29; hierarchical,

39, 117 socialization, 117

society, and development of language,

27-8; globalizing, 102; human, 4, 142rc soil erosion, 89; ancient China, 33-4; ancient Greece, 40, 41; ancient Mesopotamia, 37 soil fertility, 32, 89 Solutre, France, animal bones, 24 somatic energy, 17

South America, biodiversity hotspots, 84; human colonization, 26; megafauna extinction, 25-6, 124; per capita income, 88 South, global, impact of neo-liberalism on, 88; per capita income, 88; poverty, 88-91; proportion of global consumption, 93; reservoirs of biodiversity, 101; trade flows, 99, see also developing countries

Soviet Union, collapse of, 79; and World

War II, 75-6 Spain, Altamira caves, 146-7rc; Homo erectus sites in, 18 specialization, 31, 117 species, catalogued, 1, 119, 141n; invasive (alien), 4, 60, 107, 112, 123, 138; threatened, 118, 129 species extinction, 103; examples of, 5-6; fur trade, 62-6; predators, 36-7, 49, 156h; projections of, 126; rate of, 1, 3-4, 89 sperm whale, 67 squirrels, fur trade, 63 Sri Lanka, biodiversity hotspot, 84 Stanley, Stephen, 16 state, and Keynesianism, 87, see also nation states steam engine, 72 Steger, Manfred B., 86 structural adjustment programs, 11, 88, 89

Stuart, David, 45, 48

subsistence production, 29-30, 88 sugar plantations, 61 Suharto, President, 90, 173 n Sumerian civilization, 33, 35, 122 Sungir, Russia, 22

sustainable development, 101-2, 110,

117 symbolism, 23

Tanzania, Olduvai Gorge, 16, 18 Tattersall, Ian, 15 taxation, progressive, 99 taxol (drug), 8 taxonomy, 118 technocracy, 118 technology, 17-18, 72, 157n; and commercial whaling, 68; equitable access to, 99; solar hydrogen energy, 101; and warfare, 73 terrestrial colonization, 31, 123 terrorism, 101

Thatcher, Margaret, British Prime

Minister, 87 Theophrastus of Eurasia, 40 Third World debt, 80, 88, 89, 172n; forgiveness of, 99 Tian, S.Y., 34

Tigris-Euphrates river system, 35, 3 7

Tikal, Mayan city, 48

timber, ancient Greek trade in, 41;

demand for, 92-3, 173n Titus, Emperor, 42

TNCs (transnational corporations), 86,

87-8, 137 tools, stone, 16, 17, 18, 122; technical sophistication of, 22 Toulmin, Stephen, 27 toxic wastes, 78-9, 94 trade, 40, 123; ancient Rome, 44-5, 156n; British, 56; capitalist, 55; globalization of, 84; modification of relations of, 99

trading posts, North America, 63, 64, 65 tradition, in early societies, 31 Trajan, Emperor, 42 transport, 123

treadmill of production, 118, 175n;

global, 93-5, 105 tributary societies, 31, 34-5, 36, 55, 118;

and early fur trade, 62 Tudge, Colin, 104 turtles, sea, 6

Twain, Mark, 59 Uexkuell, Jacob, 80

UN Environment Conference see Rio Earth Summit

UN Environmental Programme (UNEP), 81

UN Food and Agriculture Organization

(FAO), 82 Union Pacific Railroad, 67 United Nations, 137, 169 n; World

Charter for Nature, 6 United States, 137; Cold War legacy, 79-80, 167nn; declining bird species, 83; Dust Bowl (Great Plains), 34; military destruction of buffalo herds, 75; military expenditure, 168-9n; nuclear contamination, 167nn; over-consumption, 82; proportion of global consumption, 93; refusal to ratify biodiversity and climate change treaties, 92; whaling, 69 United States Whaling Commission, 68 Ur, Sumer, 35, 36 uranium extraction, 79, 166n urbanization, 31, 39-40, 70, 84, 122, 123

Uruk, Sumer, 122, 150n US Congress, Endangered Species Act, 6 US Fish and Wildlife Service, 7 US General Accounting Office (GAO), 78 Utah, 80

value, 55; of ecosystems, 7, 120, 160n Vietnam, ecological destruction, 75, 76-7, 166n; post-war damage, 77 Vikings, fur trade, 62; whaling, 67, 68 vincristine (drug), 8

Waal, Frans de, 14 Wallerstein, Emmanuel, 81 walrus, 6

warfare, ancient Greece, 40-1; ancient Rome, 44; Chaco Anasazi civilization, 48; and conquest, 40, 123; and deforestation, 38; and demands on farmers, 50; in early Mesopotamia, 35-6;

ecological destruction in Vietnam, 75, 76-7; and effect of war economy on ecology, 77-81; environmental, 44,

74-7, 178n; industrialized, 57, 72-4, 84, 105; internationalized, 164n; Mayan civilization, 50; modern, 72-7, 97; war deaths, 127, see also arms race; military expenditure; weapons

'Washington Consensus', 87 waste, 93, 99, 175n; hazardous, 78,

166-7nn, 168n; toxic, 78-9, 94, 168n water, pollution, 118 water supplies, ancient China, 34; depletion of groundwater, 89; shortages, 85, 171 n; threats to, 135 wealth, accumulation of, 56, 59; concentration of, 133, 136-7; in developing countries, 93; global shares of, 132-3; per capita GNP, 134; of TNCs, 87 weapons, 21; access to modern, 98-9, see also nuclear weapons weasels, for fur, 63, 65 Weber, Max, 55, 56 weights and measures, Sumerian, 36 welfare state, 87

whaling, 25, 163nn; commercial, 67-9;

factory ships, 68; harpoon gun, 68 wheel, invention of, 36, 122 Wilson, E.O., 3 Wittfogel, Karl, 36 Wolf, Eric, 63

women, empowerment of, 85; role in ecological activism, 97 work, concept of, 32 World Bank, 88 World Charter for Nature, 6 World Conservation Monitoring Centre, 129

World Resources Institute, 173n World War II, environmental destruction,

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