Passive components can be further divided into three major subsystems.
1. Vertical barrier walls, such as soil-bentonite cutoff walls, cement-bentonite walls, composite vertical cutoff systems, and vibrating-beam cutoff walls
2. Top seals (cap or cover barrier layers) such as natural clay caps, bentonite admixed caps, and polymeric membrane caps
3. Bottom seals (liner barrier layers) such as natural clay liners, bentonite clay liners, and polymeric membrane liners
The structures of these systems are illustrated in Figures 10 and 11, and a brief discussion of each system follows.
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