Institutional Actions

Institutional action technologies reduce potential exposures to site constituents by indirect methods rather than by containment or treatment of the affected media. Institutional actions include physical barriers and deed restrictions.

Physical Barriers

Description. Physical barriers provide an easily implemented, low-cost method for restricting pedestrian and animal traffic across areas of concern, thus decreasing the potential for exposure to site media or damage to on-site storage or containment structures. Physical barriers could range from chain-link security fencing to closely grouped rows of obstructive vegetation. Periodic inspection and maintenance would be required to maintain the integrity of the barrier.

Evaluation. Physical barriers do not reduce site constituent levels, but they can be effective for protecting human health and the environment by preventing exposure to affected media.

Deed Restrictions

Description. Deed restrictions place legal limitations on future property use. These restrictions can prohibit future property and/or groundwater uses that could result in increased exposure to site constituents. Deed restrictions can be easily implemented, but their effectiveness is dependent upon continued enforcement.

Table 8 Potential Corrective Measure Technologies and Applicable Data Requirements

Required data items8

No Action

Monitoring

Site inspections

Institutional Actions

Physical barriers

Deed restrictions

Containment

Storm water controls

Capping

Vertical barriers

Filter barriers

Subsurface drains

Removal

Excavation

Dredging

Recovery wells

Interceptor trench

Treatment

Air stripping soil

Biological treatment

Soil flushing

Vacuum extraction

Mercury retort

Stabilization

Incineration

Air stripping (water) Chemical precipitation GAC adsorption Ion exchange Oxidation-reduction

• • • • •

• • • • •

• • • • •

• • • • •

• • • •

Steam stripping Filtration

• •

• •

• •

• •

Neutralization

Off-site water treatment

Disposal On-site landfill

Off-site landfill

Surface water discharge

Reinjection

"See Table 9 for detailed description of data items.

"See Table 9 for detailed description of data items.

Table 9 Description of Data Items

Topography/setting Ridges Valleys Hills

Surface water bodies Forests Wetlands Drainage patterns Buildings Vegetation Climatological data Evaporation Evapotranspiration Temperature

Wind speed and direction Precipitation Atmospheric pressure Relative humidity Regional/site geology Geologic units Strata

Strike and dip

Folding

Faulting

Depositional history Soil/rock types Aquifer characteristics Hydraulic conductivity Porosity

Grain size distribution Saturated and unsaturated zones

Attenuation characteristics

Extent

Depth

Thickness

Potential migration pathways Recharge/discharge areas and amounts Aquifer leakage/interactions Groundwater Flow Water level contours Vertical and horizontal flow Tidal/seasonal influences Man-made influences Groundwater chemistry PH

Total dissolved solids Total suspended solids Biological oxygen demand Alkalinity

Groundwater chemistry (Cont.) Conductivity Dissolved oxygen Nutrients

Chemical oxygen demand Total organic carbon Constituent concentrations Heavy metals Source area characterization Location Type/design

Operating practices and history Physical condition Age

Method of closure Type of waste/classification Volume/extent Constituent chemical properties PH

Molecular weight Hydrolysis Chemical class Viscosity Solubility

Oxidation/reduction potential Vapor pressure Sorption Biodegradability Photodegradability Chemical transformations Migration potential/ teachability Constituent physical properties Physical form Type

Temperature Density Boiling point Soil physical properties Soil classification Grain size distribution Soil profile/stratigraphy Permeability Density Porosity

Moisture content Infiltration Storage capacity Mineral content

Soil physical properties (Cont.) Settlement potential Soil index properties Erosion potential Soil chemical properties PH

Organic content Sorptive capacity Ion-exchange capacity Constituent types Constituent concentrations Surface water characteristics Location Elevation Area Depth Velocity Width

Inflow/outflow Temperature Seasonal fluctuations Flood plain Stream cross sections Surface water chemistry PH

Total dissolved solids Total suspended solids Biological oxygen demand Alkalinity Conductivity Dissolved oxygen Nutrients

Chemical oxygen demand Total organic carbon Constituent concentrations Heavy metals Sediment characteristics Depositional area Thickness

Grain size distribution Density

Organic carbon

Ion exchange capacity

Constituent extent/volume Horizontal and vertical extent in waste Horizontal and vertical extent in soil

Horizontal and vertical extent in sediments

Table 9 (Continued)

Constituent extent/volume

Contituent migration (Cont.) Horizontal and vertical

Potential receptors (Cont.) Ecology

Endangered species

Horizontal and vertical extent in groundwater migration rate Factors influencing

Treatability Study Bench-scale tests Residual characteristics TCLP

Horizontal and vertical migration Potential future movement extent in surface water

Total volume

Potential receptors Age

Location Use

Population

Concentration profiles

Waste samples Soil/sediment samples Water samples

Constituent migration

Horizontal and vertical migration direction

Evaluation. If enforced, deed restrictions can be effective in reducing the potential for disturbance of affected site media.

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