Planning a Strategy

The steps involved in planning and organizing a waste reduction program are summarized in Table 4. Most small businesses do not realize how much waste they produce. Ask most managers if they use all of their raw material, or input, and they will probably say that they do. What they actually mean is that they process all of the raw material needed, not that they use the entire amount purchased. If they feel they are getting their money's worth, most managers will not give a second thought to...

Industrial Wastes

Significant amounts of industrial waste have been reused for generations. About 60 of our domestic production of steel is from scrap, which saves an estimated 1.3 x 1018 J (1.2 x 1015 Btu) per year. Also, significant quantities of scrap iron and steel are exported and returned as finished products. The closer the scrap is to the point of production, the more likely it is to be used. In contrast, U.S. junkyards have a 17-year supply of scrap steel, mostly from discarded automobiles and...

Methods of Generating Options

The process whereby waste minimization options are generated should occur in an environment that encourages openness and independent thinking by members of the assessment team. While individual team members will suggest many potential options on their own, the process can be enhanced by using some common group decision techniques. These techniques allow an assessment team to identify options that individual members might not have come up with on their own. Brainstorming sessions with team...

Thou Shalt Consider the Life Cycle

The last of the commandments is that life cycle economic, environmental, and energy costs must be considered when decisions are made for the management of municipal solid waste. If 'Chlorinated dioxin has 72 isomers that vary in the number of chlorine atoms and their placement in the molecule. 2,3,7,8-Tetradibenzodioxin is the most dangerous of the chlorinated dioxin molecules. The next most significant molecule is 100 times less dangerous. Further, dioxin is degraded by sunlight, with...

Pretreatment Technologies and Residuals Management

RCRA waste, regardless of whether it is generated as a by-product of current production and consumption or reenters the waste management arena via a Superfund cleanup, must by law be managed at an appropriately permitted facility. For the majority of wastes this dictates waste management by either recycling, waste water treatment, incineration, or landfilling (Figures 14 and 15). It is important to realize that each of these technologies, with the exception of land-filling, functions in part as...

Degradabitity of Petroleum Hydrocarbons

To date, over 70 of biodegradation studies and applications have focused on petroleum hydrocarbons. This situation is perhaps an artifact of the vast number of gas stations and petroleum refining and storage locations that have released substantial amounts of petroleum over decades of use, and the fact that compounds of this class are among the most readily degraded. The biodegradability and biodegradation pathways of petroleum hydrocarbons have been exhaustively reviewed 10-12 , More specific...

Obtaining Funding

Waste reduction projects generally call for improvements in process efficiency and or reductions in operating costs of waste management. These are the points that should be emphasized in the decision-making process. An assessment team made up of financial and technical personnel helps to ensure that a sponsor's enthusiasm is balanced with objectivity. Even if a project promises a high rate of return, a small company may have difficulty acquiring funds for capital investment. In this case, the...

Tertiary or Advanced Treatment

Secondary treatment followed by disinfection can kill nearly all pathogens and remove 85-90 of the BOD and TSS in raw wastewater. However, only very little of some pollutants, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and heavy metals, can be removed by biological treatment. Nitrogen and phosphorus are important plant nutrients. If they are discharged into a lake, algal blooms and eutrophication (accelerated aging) may occur. Also, nitrogen in the secondary wastewater effluent may be present mostly as...

Contaminated Water and Pressures Produced in the Landfill Site

Leachate produced in a landfill site generally results from the interaction of infiltrating liquids with the landfilled material and from the liquids contained within the landfill material at the time of disposal. The properties of leachate change from community to community as well as from season to season. The parameters and their range of concentrations are shown on Table 2. Figure 2 Schematic diagram illustrating cumulative settlement of waste due to decomposition of organic matter versus...

Prioritizing Waste Streams andor Operations to Assess

Ideally, all waste streams and plant operations should be assessed. Prioritizing waste streams and or operations to assess is necessary when available funds, personnel, or time is limited. Waste reduction assessments should concentrate on the most important waste problems first and then move to lower priority problems as time, personnel, and budget permit. Setting priorities for waste streams or facility areas requires a great deal of care and attention, since this step focuses the direction of...

Iihealth Hazard Recognition

In any remediation, pollution control, or waste minimization activity there exists the need to recognize and prevent occupational disease. When designing for chemical process pollution control and waste minimization, the engineer must consider the human element. Those designing processes for hazardous waste handling should consider the potential exposures of personnel operating the process. If engineers know of the potential adverse health effects of the hazardous materials and other agents,...

Energy And Technology

A large variety of thermal, physical, chemical, and biological technologies are available to use wastes productively. The appropriate technology depends on the state of the waste (solid, liquid, or gas), the type of waste (organic or inorganic), and the end product (material or fuel). Organic wastes can be used economically as fuels or as raw materials that is, they can produce or conserve energy. Inorganic wastes can only be used as raw materials. In general, the thermal technologies produce...

Preliminary Treatability Studies

Initially, studies were done on the battery casings and soils to determine if physical methods could be used to concentrate the contaminants and reduce the volume of material that had to be treated. Since lead compounds have a relatively high density, gravity separation was a logical choice. The fineness of the soils (< 37 (im) suggested that a Bartles-Mosely vanner be used for the gravity separation since it is the only gravity separator that has had any success on < 37 fxm materials. The...

Life Cycle

For sound waste management decisions, the life cycle of the system must be considered. Waste must be collected from the point of generation, transported to a point of reuse or disposal, and used as fuel or raw material, with any resulting waste discarded. It is difficult to determine the appropriate bounds for a life cycle analysis for the disposal of waste and the appropriate comparative data. Should the life cycle be bounded by the acquisition of the raw material (by mining or recovery of...

Site Remediation Of Gasolinecontaminated Soil

The actual remediation of a site is always the true test of whether or not a process has applicability within the environmental industry, and whether or not it will find acceptability among the regulatory agencies and clients. The following documents the remediation of gasoline-impacted soil at a UST site in Los Angeles, California. As with the majority of service stations, speed is of the essence when it comes to soil remediation and tank replacement. If a service station is shut down for tank...

Viifeasibility Analysis

Once the assessment team has agreed to evaluate selected options, a feasibility analysis is conducted to determine which options are technically and economically practical. The level of analysis required is directly proportional to the complexity of the option being considered. Simple options, such as housekeeping improvements, would not require as thorough an evaluation as equipment changes 7 . The final product of an assessment phase is a list of feasible options for an assessed area. The...

Obstacles To Adopting A Proactive Approach

Traditional management approaches and corporate cultures can present substantial obstacles to finding and implementing changes to existing methods. An emphasis on short-term financial indicators to the detriment of more fundamental measures of operational excellence, a culture of blame, and a rigid segmentation along functional or hierarchical lines can easily obscure opportunities to advance corporate performance. Short-term financial indicators by themselves are inadequate to provide insight...

Chu and Chens Relative Potency Factor Approach

Originally, risks attributed to exposure to cPAHs were derived by assuming that all cPAHs are equipotent to benzo pyrene. Realizing that there is much scientific evidence that demonstrates that benzo a pyrene is regarded as one of the most potent cPAHs and that all cPAHs are not equipotent 2 , alternative methods have been developed that assess risks more fairly. A study conducted by Margaret Chu and Chao Chen of EPA's Carcinogenic Assessment Group provides evidence to support these contentions...

Drilling Technologies

Various technologies can be used for installing horizontal wells for subsurface pollution control. Such wells are typically installed in unconsolidated soils 10-200 feet deep. Selection of drilling technique depends on surface access, well placement and completion requirements, and subsurface hydrogeology. Jetting and moling are the most common techniques used to create horizontal borings in shallow, unconsolidated soils. Both are mechanically simple and require minimal labor, using small...

Site Field Investigation

As a result of the uncertainties associated with the modeling results (in particular the leaching portion of the site conceptual model), a Supplemental Field Investigation was implemented. This investigation focused on better defining the source areas with respect to soil contamination and determining site-specific leaching potential to compare to OLM results. The following sections present an overview of the field investigation. 1. Development of Area-Specific Soil Boring Locations The first...

Barriers To Waste Reduction

Although economic factors often work in favor of pollution prevention approaches, there is always some resistance to change of any kind. Waste reduction projects can reduce operating costs and improve environmental compliance, but they frequently bring out conflicts between different groups within a company. Economic barriers to pollution prevention include the following Inaccurate market signals. Sometimes the immediate cost of releasing toxic substances is less than the cost of implementing a...

Summary Of Remedial Engineering Technologies

This section presents the identification and evaluation of many available remedial engineering technologies for various environmental media. This presentation is not intended to be comprehensive, but it can serve as a general summary of common remedial technologies. The technologies are grouped into the following broad categories No Action. Monitoring and inspection technologies that do not contribute to actual remediation of site conditions. Institutional Actions. Indirect methods of reducing...

Screening and Selecting Options for Further Study

Several waste reduction options will be identified in a successful brainstorming session. It is then necessary to identify the options that offer the best potential for minimizing waste and reducing costs. Because a detailed evaluation of technical and economic feasibility is often costly and time-consuming, the proposed options should be screened to identify the ones that deserve further evaluation. An initial screening will eliminate options that appear unreasonable, impractical, or inferior...

Municipal Waste

Municipal solid waste can be converted to energy by thermal or biochemical technologies. The commercial thermal technology is combustion to produce steam for industry, hot water for district heat, or electricity for the grid. MSW may be burned as received in specially designed facilities on a hearth (typically 25-50 metric tons day per unit) or on inclined grates (typically 250-1000 metric tons day per unit). In addition, solid fuel can be produced mechanically. This refuse-derived fuel (RDF)...

Sorbent Utilization Issues

An alternative to attempting to use large quantities of ashes from fluidized bed combustion of high sulfur fuels is to improve the efficiency of the sulfur capture process. FBC sorbent utilization for sulfur capture is relatively low and can range from 30 to 45 7,8 . Given that both sorbent transportation costs and disposal cost are often on the order of 20 ton, major savings can be realized if near-stoichiometric utilizations can be achieved. For example, consider the 165-MW(e) CFBC unit being...

Iiiphotocatalytic Degradation Of Hazardous Wastes In Colloidal Semiconductor Sols

The results of the studies devoted to the splitting of water by solar light in the presence of semiconductors form the basis for the photocatalytic degradation of the toxic pollutant species in aqueous solutions in the presence of semiconductor particles 18 . Stated briefly, when selected semiconductor particles are illuminated with the proper light source, the absorption of light is followed by the formation of electron-hole pairs at the surface of the semiconductor particle. The excited...

Microheterogeneous Media

Photochemistry in homogeneous solutions is a subject familiar to most chemists. Microheterogeneous photochemistry is less so. The system here is somewhat homogeneous on a macro scale, but it is heterogeneous on a microscopic level. Many of the processes in these systems are taking place at the interface of two phases. The colloidal semiconductor sols and surfactant micellar systems are good examples of microheterogeneous media. Thus, all the microheterogeneous systems are at least two-phase...

Micellar and Microemulsion Media

Microemulsion Micelle Images

Surfactants are the most common surface-active agents, and their use is varied and vast in industrial as well as consumer markets. Surfactants are amphiphilic molecules with a hydrophobic tail attached to hydrophilic head group. In aqueous solutions, above a critical concentration (called the critical micellar concentration, cmc), a surfactant dynamically associates to form large molecular aggregates of colloidal dimensions termed micelles. Above the cmc, there exists a dynamic equilibrium...

Flow Diagrams and Material Balances

Different materials and procedures are used to execute each process however, every operation offers an opportunity to track material flow. Figure 1 provides an extremely oversimplified material flow chart. Before a waste reduction plan can be formulated, it is crucial to determine the amount of waste that the business is already producing. How Perform a waste audit. What is a waste audit It is the direct application of the law of conservation of matter taught in Physics or Chemistry 101 Matter...

Cleaning Procedure Tests And Results A Battery Casing Wastes

The bench-scale cleaning process developed (see Figure 1) consisted of prewashing, gravity separation, granulation and sizing, carbonation, and acid leaching. Prewashing the battery casings removed most of the adherent sludge and fine metallic lead. This prevented the sludge and metallic lead from becoming embedded in the casings during subsequent size reduction. The as-received battery wastes were mixed with water, tumbled in a ball mill without a grinding medium for 1 hr, and then screened...

Inhibitory Wastes

Discussion of kinetics to this point has assumed that one or more soluble substrates are available to the resident microbial population. The existence of inhibitory or toxic chemicals, however, more adequately reflects reality. Inhibitory waste is any waste that, when introduced, can effect a reduced respiration rate or a reduced growth rate. A compound's inhibitory action may be membrane mediated or cytoplasmically mediated. Membrane mediation has been linked to lipophilicity, particularly at...

Waste Receiving Handling and Temporary Storage

The process involved in the handling and storage of regulated waste can be summarized as follows. I. Trucks enter the facility through the regulated waste entrance and remain in the regulated waste truck holding area until an unloading bay in the appropriate storage building becomes available. 2. As space becomes available, the trucks are directed to the appropriate building for unloading and testing. 3. Waste is unloaded and tested according to the waste acceptance procedure established at the...

Waste Containment In Domal Salt

The most widespread concern about hazardous waste containment is the perceived threat of contamination of groundwater. This concern is warranted by the record of groundwater contamination associated with traditional near-surface disposal technologies. Therefore, the key question is whether a salt dome has a particular set of attributes that will prevent the release of contaminants to the environment in both short-term and very long term time frames. From a regulatory perspective, a no migration...

Environmental Impact of Adding PCSs to HMA

Leachability Test for HMA with PCS The increase in the number of organic contaminants being detected in groundwater as well as in surface water is causing concern because of potential health risks claimed to be associ ated with human exposure to these substances. Soil contaminated with petroleum product is a potential threat to both surface water and groundwater thus a key issue is whether hydrocarbon will leach out from the asphalt mixture when it is mixed with PCSs and used to pave roads. The...

Regulatory Framework

The regulatory framework of the federal environmental laws (and such states as California) do not deem everything as hazardous and mandate its disposal in a Class I landfill or by incineration. A review of current regulations proves quite the contrary. The letter, spirit, and intent of current hazardous materials legislation is to promote and develop alternative technology that encourages the use, reuse, and recycling of materials rather than the archaic load, haul, and dump remediation...

Waste Disposal Application of Salt Dome Technology

HIFI has received draft permits to construct and operate a waste treatment facility and a series of 10 solution-mined disposal caverns within the North Dayton salt dome in Texas. Each cavern will be capable of containing approximately 800,000 yd3 of material. This equates to two to four times the capacity of a typical hazardous waste landfill. As is the case with other states, Texas does not have the capacity to manage the types or quantities of waste produced by its industries. As a result...

Hunter Industrial North Dayton Salt Dome

Parts For Volvo Penta Outdrive

The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and the more recent Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HSWA) have mandated the development of innovative technologies for the destruction, treatment, and or secure containment of hazardous waste as an alternative to land disposal methods currently in use. The Hunter Industrial Facilities, Inc. (HIFI) North Dayton Containment Facility is designed to use innovative technology that will meet the objectives and demands of the...

References For Pollution

M., The New Environmental Age, ENR, Pittsfield, Mass., 1992. 2. U.S. Department of Energy, Petroleum Supply Annual 1990, DOE-EIA-0340 (90-91), p. 82. 3. U.S. EPA, Office of Solid Waste, Report to Congress Minimization of Hazardous Waste, EPA 530-SW-86-033, Washington, D.C., 1986. 4. Congress of the United States, Office of Technology Assessment, Serious Reduction of Hazardous Waste, OTA-ITE-318, Washington, D.C., 1986. 5. Anon., Preventing Pollution in the Chemical Industry, Chemical...

Health And Safety Considerations

Waste compressed gas cylinders pose special hazards that are peculiar to these materials. The potential hazards include all those that are associated with other chemical wastes, and in addition there are hazards associated with the energy of compression and the mobility of the materials when released. Many compressed materials exhibit chemical hazards that must be taken into consideration in managing their disposition. These hazards include characteristics of ignitability, reactivity,...

Biochemical Limitations And Solutions

For practical purposes, there are ten major classes of chemicals that constitute environmental problems amenable to biotechnical solutions. These ten classes are pesticides, halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons, halogenated ethers, polychlorinated biphenyls, monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalate esters, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitrosamines, metals, and inorganic compounds such as nitrates, phosphates, and sulfates (see Table 1). Several chemical and mathematical models as well as...

Selecting a Team

A program task force should be concerned with reducing waste for an entire facility however, an assessment team should focus on one particular waste stream at a time if the stream can be linked to a single process. Team membership should not be limited to environmental managers and engineers. Teams should include all people with direct responsibility and knowledge of a particular waste stream or area of a plant. In addition to internal staff members, assistance from outsiders should be...

Application Results And Discussion

The stochastic optimization model was applied to the same hypothetical groundwater contamination problem that was used to analyze the deterministic version. Aquifer parameters (transmissivity and effective porosity), coefficient of variation (CV, ratio of standard deviation to mean), and required solution reliability were varied in consecutive runs. The simulation component and optimization component were run on an IBM AT with 640K bytes of RAM, a 30 MB internal hard disk a with a floppy disk...

Regulatory Background

Cost-effective removal, or even reconcentration, of specific organic contaminants from aqueous systems is of increasing technological priority in light of increasingly stringent environmental regulations. This is the case for water, wastewater, and contaminated groundwater treatment. In the United States, EPA regulations developed in implementing the 1986 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act require substantial improvement in water treatment technologies. Certain organic substances must be...

Introduction

Recently proposed regulations on the federal and state levels establish uniform cleanup standards to provide objectives for remediating contaminated sites. The purpose of these standards is to restore contaminated sites to levels that ensure protection of human health and the environment. These regulations may result in consistent cleanup decisions and may expedite the remediation of contaminated sites by eliminating lengthy negotiations over the extent of cleanup. However, this consistency may...

Treatment

Treatment technologies reduce the toxicity, mobility, or volume of affected media or wastes, thus reducing the potential for constituent exposure to human health and the environment. Removal and disposal technologies may be required in conjunction with treatment alternatives, although some treatment technologies can be implemented in situ. Solid Waste, Soil, and or Sediment Treatment Air Stripping Description. Air stripping of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in soils can be accomplished by a...

Anaerobic Biological Treatment

Anaerobic processes have been employed recently for treating dairy wastewaters. A full-scale anaerobic treatment plant for treating dairy wastewater was first installed in Canada at Granby, Quebec. This plant, which treats the cheese waste and several other processing wastes, consists of two units a downflow fixed film reactor and an upflow sludge blanket reactor 17-20 . The second Canadian anaerobic digestion system, at Millbank Cheese and Butter Ltd., is treating cheese whey only 20 ....

Concluding Remarks

The STS polysilicate technology provides an effective and relatively low cost method of remediating soils contaminated with heavy metals. In this system, the metals become part of a covalent bonded matrix created through the action of the silicates and cementitious materials. Reduction in heavy metal soluble concentration levels of several orders of magnitude are achievable. In terms of site remediation, the processing equipment can be configured in the form of a mobile system capable of...

General Discussion

It is necessary to ensure that the waste control system will continue to operate as designed for many years. The landfilled waste may remain toxic for many hundreds of years. As engineers we have frequently been geared to a design life of 40 or 50 years whereas the landfills we are presently building will be here for generations to come. It is therefore necessary to design and construct waste control systems that acknowledge future uncertainties and properly account for long-term impacts on the...

Cement Based Techniques

Portland cement is obtained by heating limestone and clay or other silicate mixtures at high temperatures. The resulting clinker is ground to a highly uniform fine powder. Anhydrous portland cement consists mainly of C3S, C2S, C3A, and C4AF, where C CaO, S Si02, A A1203, and F Fe203. In ordinary portland cements, the respective amounts range between 35 and 65 , 10 and 40 , 4 and 15 , and 5 and 15 . Table 1 presents selected characteristics of these materials. Addition of water to portland...

No Action Technologies

No action implies that no remedial actions are to be conducted on the media of concern. Actions such as groundwater monitoring and site inspections are included as no action technologies because they are intended to detect changes in site conditions rather than to actually remediate existing contamination. Description. Long-term, periodic groundwater and or surface water monitoring to detect changes in site conditions, such as the migration of constituents in groundwater, due to natural...

Metal Hydroxide Precipitation

After the oxidation of cyanide and reduction of chromate, the metals can be precipitated as hydroxides. A prerequisite is the absence of strong complexing agents such as ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). The degree of metal precipitation is dependent on pH. At a given pH, different metals exhibit different solubilities. The amount of metal in solution as a function of pH can be calculated theoretically from the solubility product (Ksp) of the hydroxide. For divalent metals this takes the...

Occupational Regulations and Recommendations

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulates occupational hazards. In doing so, OSHA defines exposure limits for substances, monitoring requirements, control methods, and many other items. Engineers should be aware of changing exposure limits as well as control methods for hazardous environments. As an example of the former, consider the recent changes for the OSHA 8-hr Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) for benzene, a known carcinogen. Several years ago, OSHA lowered its 10...

References

Reg., 50, 46944 (Nov. 13, 1985). 2. Clark, R. M., Fronk, C. A., and Lykins, B. W., Jr., Removing organic contaminants from groundwater, Environ. Sci. Technol., 22, 1126-1130 (1988). 3. Turchi, C. S., and Mehos, M. S., Solar photocatalytic detoxification of groundwater developments in reactor design, Paper presented at Chemical Oxidation Technologies for the Nineties, 2nd Int. Symp., Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, Tenn., Feb. 19-21, 1992. 4. Maruska, H. P., and Ghosh, A. K.,...

Areas Of Application

Immobilization or separation of contaminants contained in polluted waters is an objective of increasing importance in a variety of environmental settings. Recent research has suggested in clear terms that chemically modified clay minerals represent a new and promising class of adsorbent materials for accomplishing this. Specific areas of application exist in potable water treatment 7,8 , industrial wastewater treatment 9,10 , and treatment or confinement of contaminated groundwater 11-13 ,...

Thermoplastic Techniques

In thermoplastic processes, the waste is dried, heated, and then dispersed through a heated plastic system. Bitumen is the most common matrix material. However, paraffin and polyethylene have also been employed. The final mixture is then cooled and is usually embedded in a containment system. Organic chemicals that could react with the plastic matrix, leading to physical deterioration, cannot be disposed of with this technique. The process employs specialized equipment, is energy-intensive, and...

Set Goals and Targets and Measure Progress Quantitatively

History provides a myriad of examples, large and small, of seemingly impossible tasks accomplished in limited time frames because a dedicated group of people were given a clearly defined goal, adequate resources, and a deadline. Goals for environmental performance have been put forth voluntarily and publicly by numerous firms. In mid-1988, 3M stated that, using 1987 as a baseline, it intended to cut all hazardous and non-hazardous releases to the air, water,...

Remedy Selection Criteria

The National Contingency Plan (NCP), as revised in March 1990, sets forth the selection criteria to be used in the evaluation of remediation alternatives. Remedies are evaluated in three steps in accordance with the NCP and USEPA guidance documents 1. Identification and evaluation of remedial technologies usually targeted at one or more specific site problems 2. Combining of suitable technologies into remedial alternatives usually intended to address the entire site 3. Detailed analysis of...

Physical Agents

In almost all industrial facilities, noise is a common agent. However, engineers can reduce noise exposure easily if they address it in the design stage. The engineering design stage is the crucial time to plan for a quiet process unit. The noisy process unit usually contains sources of noise that could have been much more easily fixed before construction than after. In designing fluid flow, especially turbulent flow, vibrating pipes are quieted by (1) designing gradual bends, (2) placing...

Selection of Least Hazardous Material Alternatives

This chapter addresses the underlying purposes of accomplishing measures to select the least hazardous of alternative materials used or planned for use by industrial and governmental entities. It then discusses the relationship of substitution processes to other considerations in the decision process. An overview of some approaches for selection methods is presented. A methodology originally developed for the U.S. Navy is described, along with examples. B. Substitution Methods as an Element of...

Effect of Pore Fluid on Liner Behavior

Pore fluid effects on liner behavior have been discussed in various publications in recent years. Many of these studies considered construction impacts, settlement effects, and pore fluid-hydraulic conductivity interactions. In the following sections, selected additional factors such as changes in soil cracking patterns, swelling, shrinking, and volume as well as changes in soil particle distribution due to pollution are discussed. Soil cracks are frequently observed in natural and constructed...

Inorganic Contaminants

As previously noted, inorganic contaminants are naturally occurring substances that can become concentrated in the environment due to human activities. The principal contaminants of concern in the environment are the heavy metals. Metals on the USEPA's Target Analyte List are listed in Table 1. Heavy metals are of relatively low vapor pressure and are thus effectively nonvolatile at standard temperature and pressure. However, some of them, for example, lead and mercury, become very volatile at...

Fbc For Waste Minimization

Due to low organic emissions levels, FBC is a promising technology for disposal of organic material-laden wastes. Donlee Technologies (USA) has developed a CFBC boiler to incinerate infectious hospital wastes by cofiring with coal 16 . Based on pilot-scale testing, they report that PAH, dioxin, and furan emissions were typically well below those achieved with other types of hospital waste incinerators. Furthermore, suppression of HC1 of up to 50 was achieved. Organic emissions met both the...

Emissions of Non Methane Organic Compounds

At the hypothetical subject site presented in this chapter, landfill gas is collected and is routed to an enclosed flare. The flare oxidizes any toxic compounds present into less harmful compounds (ideally, carbon dioxide and water). Because landfill gas after combustion has a significantly lower health risk than unburned gas, the choice of the landfill gas collection system efficiency has a large effect on the final estimate of the health risks in the vicinity of the landfill. Emission factors...

Soil Wastes

Tests on the soil samples were conducted simultaneously with the research on the battery casings. Since upgrading by gravity separation, flotation, etc. were not effective, the hydromet-allurgical approach used for the casings was followed for the soils (see Figure 3). First, the as-received soil samples were characterized and chemical analyses were performed. The amount of lead in the soils varied widely, depending on the specific site and the area within that site. Partial analyses on one...

Case 1 Texas Gulf Coast Industrial Landfill Site

Before the advent of horizontal wellbore technology, vertical wells were used to recover contaminated groundwater under landfills. In aquifers with high hydraulic conductivity, vertical wells placed along the periphery of a landfill can influence the aquifer below the landfill. If the size of the plume is small compared to the size of the landfill, migration of contaminants from the core of the plume below the landfill to vertical extraction wells along the periphery spreads the contamination....

Description of Multimed

Multimed is a recently developed user-friendly computer model that is capable of simulating the release of chemicals in leachate form from a source (or designated area) at the site to soils directly beneath the source. In addition, Multimed can be used to further simulate chemical fate and transport in the unsaturated and saturated zones, followed by possible interception of the subsurface plume by a specified receptor (e.g., a well or surface stream). The fate and transport of a chemical...

Firing of Waste Biomass

CANMET has tested a number of waste biomass fuels in pilot-scale bubbling fluidized bed combustors (40 cm X 4 cm units with a total height of 5 m) 35 . The fuels that have been burned are paper waste pellets, alfa grass, wood chips, corncobs, and rice husks. Proximate analyses of the fuels, where available, operating conditions, combustion performance, and emission levels are given in Table 1. The only serious problem associated with burning these fuels was feeding them into the bed. This was...

Cavern Closure

Shoreline Preventing Erosion Diagram

Salt cavern repositories are ideal for safe isolation of solidified hazardous waste. The subsurface disposal facilities can be designed and constructed in such a way that there is virtually no possibility of escape of the contaminants within the time frame to perpetuity (defined as 10,000 years by EPA). Solution-mined caverns in dry domal salt meet the requisite criteria for this demonstration and provide the only plausible solution to this problem, for the foreseeable future. Fortunately, dry...

Sludge Treatment

Sludge is treated prior to ultimate disposal for two reasons volume reduction and stabilization of organics. A reduced sludge volume minimizes pumping and storage requirements and lowers sludge handling costs. Stabilized sludge has a less offensive odor, and health hazard and nuisance conditions are minimized. Common methods to accomplish the two objectives include thickening, biological digestion, dewatering, and incineration. When incineration is used, there is no need to stabilize the...

Chromate Reduction

Disadvantage Cyanide

Hexavalent chromium is toxic, and most chromates are water-soluble. Only Ba2 +, Pb2 +, Hg+, and Ag+ form insoluble chromates. Pollution with chromates is especially troublesome, since chromates are not adsorbed by soil and thus reach the groundwater table rapidly. Most chemical control strategies are based on the reduction of hexavalent chromium (Crvl) to trivalent chromium (Cr111). Trivalent chromium is much less toxic than chromates and forms a hydroxide with a solubility minimum in the pH...

Characteristics Of Contaminated Media

The media that may require remediation at any given contaminated site may include waste materials that were disposed of or spilled in the environment, soils contaminated either directly by spillage and discharges of liquids or indirectly by infiltrating contaminated water, groundwater contaminated either directly by nonaqueous-phase liquids (NAPLs) or by contaminants in solution, surface water containing nonaqueous-phase liquids and or contaminants in solution or suspension, and air, which may...

The Crystallization Section

The crystallization process is built up of three components as shown schematically in Figure 3, starting with a set of scraped surface heat exchangers (SSHEs) that remove the necessary heat from the system to provide for ice crystal formation. The SSHEs are connected to the recrys-tallizer by a recirculation stream through a scraped filter in the recrystallizer. This provides a continuous crystal free stream over the SSHEs where small ice crystals (nuclei) are formed and pumped into the...

Health Hazards Associated With General Industry A Chemical Agents

Chemical agents such as solvents or hydrocarbons may have multiple effects on many different body systems. Solvents are ubiquitous at hazardous waste sites therefore, there is a good chance that workers handling hazardous waste will be exposed to one or more solvents. For many of these agents, the adverse effect is seen relatively soon, so the cause of the effect is identifiable with some carcinogenic agents that may cause cancer years later, the link between the agent and the disease is less...

Secondary Treatment Biological

Multi Chamber Septic Tank

Physical treatment of raw municipal wastewater by sedimentation removes most of those pollutants that will either float or settle out by gravity, which accounts for only approximately 35 of the BOD. The major purpose of secondary treatment is to remove nonsettleable (colloidal and dissolved) solids in the wastewater. Secondary treatment is generally considered to mean at least 85 efficiency in reducing BOD and now represents the minimum degree of treatment required by law in most cases. Some of...

PH Measurement

PH is a unit of measure that describes the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a solution. The origin of the terminology comes from the letter p, meaning power, and the letter H symbolizing hydrogen 1 . Formally defined, pH is the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion activity Since pH is a logarithmic function, a change of one pH unit represents a tenfold change in hydrogen ion concentration. Figure 1 includes a table correlating pH to the hydrogen ion and hydroxyl ion concentrations, H + and...

Contributors

Prevention Pollution Policy

Aly Utah State University, Logan, Utah E. J. Anthony CANMET, Ottawa, Canada Milovan S. Beljin University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio Douglas M. Brown The Logistics Management Institute, Bethesda, Maryland M. S. Chandrasekharaiah Houston Advanced Research Center, The Woodlands, Texas Allen P. Davis University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland Steven K. Dentel University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware Merrit P. Drucker Army Management Staff College, Fort Belvoir, Virginia Jeffrey C....

Recycling

Recycling via use and or reuse involves either returning a waste material to the originating process as a substitute for an input material or using it in another process as an input material. Return to original process Raw material substitution for another process Example Reuse Return to Original Process. A printer of newspaper advertising purchased an ink recycling unit to produce black newspaper ink from its various waste inks. The unit blends different colors of waste ink together with fresh...

Applications

The observation that a number of solute species present in the solution were photocatalyzed at the illuminated semiconductor surface evolved from the photodecomposition studies of water with solar radiation. Bard and coworkers 26-30 have shown that many hazardous species, including some of the EPA priority pollutants, could be degraded into innocuous species at the illuminated titania semiconductor surface. Their work formed the nucleus for the concept of photocatalytic degradation of hazardous...

Debra J Trantolo

Massachusetts Library of Congress Cataloging-m-Publication Data Process engineering for pollution control and waste minimization edited by Donald L. Wise, Debra J. Trantolo. p. cm. -- (Environmental science and pollution control 7) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-8247-9161-4 (alk. paper) 1. pollution. 2. Waste minimization. I. Wise, Donald L. (Donald Lee). II. Trantolo, Debra J. III. Series. TD191.5.P76 1994 The publisher offers discounts...

Multiple Extraction Procedure

Late Decelerations

The standard extraction tests (TCLP or California STLC) provide a one-time equilibrium solubility value of the heavy metal compounds in the extraction fluid but do not give an indication of the time-dependent stability of the residual matrix. The EPA multiple extraction procedure, designed for evaluating the leachability of materials exposed to so-called acid rain conditions, was used to test the stability of the polysilicate cementitious treatment protocol. Table 3 Effect of Particle Size on...

Example Management Programs

The Los Alamos National Laboratory is a research facility operated by the University of California for the U.S. Department of Energy. Since its inception in 1942, the laboratory has handled a variety of hazardous materials, including compressed gases. In 1990 a facility-wide program was undertaken to manage compressed gases considered to be in excess of their users' requirements. The objective of the program was to identify and properly manage cylinders containing compressed gases. The need for...

Kinetics

The initial photocatalytic reaction rate follows a Langmuir-Hinshelwood type of relationship with respect to initial organic concentration where CQ is the initial concentration of the target organic compound. The constants k and K represent collections of oxidation, recombination, and possibly adsorption terms. This expression describes a first-order reaction at low substrate concentrations, with a transition to a rate independent of organic concentration at high substrate loadings (Figure 2)....

Dairy Plant Wastes

Dairy wastes are generally dilutions of milk or milk products resulting from product losses during handling and transport together with detergents and sanitizers from intensive washing operations. The following operations contribute to the major product losses 3 1. Sludge discharges from clean-in-place (CIP) clarifiers 2. Start-up, shutdown, and changeover in high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurizers 5. Tank, can, piping, and other equipment washing 6. Breakage and spillage in packaging...

For Contaminated Sites

Funk, Ronald G. Fender, and Marilyn Hewitt Environmental Resources Management Group Exton, Pennsylvania I. CHARACTERISTICS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS There are literally thousands of substances that can contaminate the environment. In some cases, this contamination is related to natural conditions and is thus a background condition. Most often, however, environmental contaminants are related to human activity. Current regulatory programs governing contaminated sites...

Aerobic Biological Treatment

Tabulated information on a wide range of activated sludge plants, both laboratory and industrial units, treating dairy wastewater is available elsewhere 8 . The treatment efficiency values vary from about 25 to over 99 with an average removal efficiency of about 85 . With good operation, BOD removal efficiencies in excess of 90 are easily attainable with activated sludge systems however, even an efficient system may not be able to reduce the BOD from 2000 mg L in the dairy waste to 20-30 mg L...

ORP and pH Measurement

To apply the chemistry discussed in Section II to an automated process, it is critical to control the pH and the oxidation reduction potential (ORP). The adjustment of the pH and the ORP is achieved with electrodes in combination with millivolt controllers and chemical feed pumps. The electrode system for pH determination consists of a glass electrode and a reference electrode. The most common reference electrode is the saturated calomel electrode Hg Hg2Cl2 KCl(sat) with a constant potential of...

Mechanisms and Intermediates

As a result of the current interest and investigative activity into various aspects of the PCO process, some consistent mechanisms of oxidation are beginning to emerge, although many conflicting ideas are still ubiquitous. As noted, PCO demonstrates a Langmuir-Hinshelwood relationship with respect to organic substrate concentration Equation (11) . It has been assumed that this dependence was directly due to a Langmuir isotherm dependence of the substrate adsorption. For example, Matthews 56...

Identification Of Cylinder Contents

Where identification of a compressed gas is necessary, safety of the sampling effort becomes a critical concern. Because of the chemical characteristics of some gases, fire or explosion or other release of toxic gas may occur during sampling. When cylinders or valves have deteriorated, it is very possible to have failures resulting in uncontrolled release of the contents. Procedures and technologies that have historically been used for management of cylinders in poor condition have not always...

Assumptions Underlying the Shift to Pollution Prevention and Green Design

Much of the environment legislation enacted in the 1970s and 1980s was media-specific that is, each statute focused on either emissions to air, discharges to water, or disposal on land. This approach arose from a general consensus that industry should be in charge of deciding how to manufacture its products. The government's role was is to protect human health and the environment and therefore should be limited to regulating emissions, discharges, and wastes after they leave the manufacturing...

Municipal Solid Waste

A municipal solid waste disposal management system may include any combination of sanitary landfill, energy production, and recycling. Historically the collection and transportation of MSW accounts for 75 of the total cost of the waste management system. Landfill1 costs are increasing dramatically as more stringent standards are imposed. Further, the cost of transportation of waste is increasing dramatically as large cities run out of landfill space and the will to site new landfills and, as a...

Top Seals Cap or Cover Barrier Layers

Landfill Cross Section

Top seals (i.e., surface seals, caps, covers), as shown in Figure 10, function to control surface water so as to minimize infiltration, maximize runoff, prevent direct contact (such as by burrowing animals, which may dig into the landfill areas), and thereby reduce leachate production Figure 9 Schematic drawing of a vibrating-beam slurry wall. (1) Top seal (2) landfill material (3) bottom seal. Figure 9 Schematic drawing of a vibrating-beam slurry wall. (1) Top seal (2) landfill material (3)...

Processes of Decomposition of Refuse in Landfills

Geomorphic Processes

Landfilled material will gradually change in form and will exhibit different engineering and physical properties as a result of various environmental factors. Witmer and coworkers 7,8 reported the garbage decomposition process for a 10-year period as reflected on a particle size distribution curve. The aging process from fresh trash to aged trash along with the environmental and mechanical factors are illustrated in Figure 1. Mechanical processes do not directly contribute to the decomposition...

Ecological Limitations And Solutions

The technology of environmental bioremediation depends on ecological investigations of bacterial metabolic diversity. However, research on ecological approaches to solving problems that may arise during in situ bioremediation has focused on ecological risk assessment of the en- Table 3 Genetic Limitations and Potential Solutions in Environmental Bioremediation Heterogeneous chemicals requiring diverse degradative operons absent from contaminated site Biodegradative genes present but rate of...

Cyanide Oxidation

Cyanide (CN )-based plating baths exhibit the unique property of producing fine crystalline, shiny metal coatings. They are therefore widely in use despite the high toxicity of cyanide and the greater control effort necessary in pretreatment. Cyanide destruction is commonly achieved through oxidation in the alkaline region using chlorine gas or sodium hypochlorite. Peroxide oxidation and treatment with ozone are reported to be feasible. Electrolytic oxidation has advantages in treating highly...

Primary Treatment

Inlet Outlet Zone Flocculation

Wastewater contains suspended matter that has a higher specific gravity than the liquid and is in a relatively quiescent state, the particles will settle out because of gravity. Grit chambers remove grit, including gravel, sand, and heavy particulate matter such as corn kernels, bone chips, coffee grounds, and broken glass. All of this accounts for only a portion of the inert suspended solids in raw sewage. After grit removal, the wastewater still contains suspended solids, which are then...

Column Leach Test Description

When hydrocarbon-contaminated soil that has been treated by the Siallon process is analyzed, the appropriate total concentration analysis is used. These methods will generally involve solvent extraction followed by gas chromatographic analysis, which gives a result that is indicative of the sample as it stands or at a fixed point in time. To assess the effects of both time and groundwater intrusion on Siallon-treated soils an extensive leachability study was undertaken. The study involved more...

State Pollution Prevention Contacts

Alabama Hazardous Waste Division HAMMARR 241 Mineral Ind. Bldg University of Alabama P.O. Drawer G Tuscaloosa, AL 34587-9644 (205) 348-4878 Pollution Prevention Program Department of Environmental Conservation Toxic Substances Control Program Department of Health Services Alternative Technology Division Juneau, AK 99811-1800 (907) 465-2671 P.O. Box 942732 Sacramento, CA 94234-7320 (916) 322-2822 Alaska Health Project 431 W. 7th, Suite 101 Anchorage, AK 99501 (907) 276-2864 Waste Minimization...

Schedule of Leaching

Each cavern is developed through two phases of leaching. These phases are engineered to provide a cylindrical cavern at the completion of the solution mining. The development program is the same for each cavern and requires about 340 leaching days to complete. Variations in the salt body may require changes in the duration of each leaching phase and modifications of the leaching plan. Phase I consists of about 240 days of solution mining by the direct-injection method. This phase provides for...

Metal Sulfide Precipitation

Solubility Hydroxide

The solubility products of metal sulfides are several orders of magnitude lower than those of the corresponding hydroxides. This should make it feasible to precipitate the heavy metals from solutions containing complexing agents that prevent metal removal by hydroxide precipitation. Also, the pH range for the precipitation of metals as sulfides is much broader. Table 3 lists the solubility products for metal sulfides of the type MeS, Me2S, and Me2S3 15 . Metal sulfide precipitation occurs if...

Green Product Design

Several years after the surge of pollution prevention programs, a growing number of companies have looked to a more expanded view of pollution prevention green product design. These companies are finding that green products products that reduce the burden on the environment during use and disposal have additional marketing appeal to consumers. In contrast to past practices, in which product performance and environmental compatibility were managed at different points in the production process,...