The Geologic Timescale

THE GEOLOGIC TIMESCALE

Era

Period

Epoch

Age (millions of years)

First Life-forms

Geology

Cenozoic

Quaternary

Holocene

0.01

Pleistoscene

3

Humans

Ice age

Tertiary

Pliocene

11

Mastodons

Cascades

Neogene

Miocene

26

Saber-toothed tigers

Alps

Oligocene

37

Paleogene

Ecocene

54

Whales

Paleocene

65

Horses, Alligators

Rockies

Mesozoic

Cretaceous

135

Jurassic

210

Birds, Mammals, Dinosaurs

Sierra Nevada, Atlantic

Triassic

250

Paleozoic

Permian

280

Reptiles

Appalachians

Carboniferous

Pennsylvanian

310

Trees

Ice age

Mississippian

345

Amphibians, Insects

Pangaea

Devonian

400

Sharks

Silurian

435

Land plants

Laurasia

Ordovician

500

Fish

Cambrian

544

Sea plants, Shelled animals

Gondwana

Proterozoic

700

Invertebrates

2500

Metazoans

3500

Earliest life

Archean

4000

Oldest rocks

4600

Meteorites

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