Plot of the average global temperature variations on the planet in the past 1000 years and what different models predict the temperature will be by 2100 All models show a predicted temperature rise ranging between 15 and 55 degrees Data from IPCC 2007

degrees above the 1990 value, and expected to rise 2-5 degrees above this value by 2100.

To measure global average temperatures groups of meteorologists, such as the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS), have a large number of observation points on the continents, which are then gridded into equal areas to assign a temperature for each box in the grid. Observations from satellites are widely used where local observations are not available and for calibrating the models. Local effects, such as any urban heat island effect from cities, are accounted for in these types of model. With rapid improvements in computer modeling it has been possible to make more and more detailed and accurate models for the Earth.

Continue reading here: And Their Effects

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