Of metallic ore deposits

Most metallic ores form by one of several main processes, including concentration by hydrothermal fluids, crystallization from an igneous magma, meta-morphic processes that move fluids and chemical components in rocks from place to place, weathering, sorting by water in streams, or other surficial processes that can remove some elements from a rock or soil while concentrating other elements.

Many of the ores of metallic minerals occur as compounds of the sulfide ion, S2-, with the metals attached as cations. Most of these are soft, resemble metals, and form many of the world's large ore deposits. One of the most common sulfide minerals is pyrite, FeS2, found as a minor component in many rocks and as an accessory mineral in many ore deposits. Pyrrhotite (Fe7S8-FeS) is a less common iron sulfide mineral. Most ore deposits are formed from hydrothermal fluids. Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) are commonly found in sulfide compounds such as galena (PbS) and sphalerite (ZnS), and copper deposits are dominated by the sulfide minerals chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) and bornite (Cu5FeS4).

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