Liquefaction is a process in which sudden shaking of certain types of water-saturated sands and muds turns these once-solid sediments into slurry with a liquidlike consistency. Liquefaction occurs where the shaking causes individual grains to move apart, then water moves up in between the individual grains, making the whole water/sediment mixture behave like a fluid. Earthquakes often cause liquefaction of sands and muds. Any structures built on sediments that liquefy may suddenly sink into them as if resting on a thick fluid. Liquefaction caused the Bootlegger shale in the 1964 Alaskan earthquake to become suddenly so weak that it destroyed Turnagain Heights. Liquefaction during earthquakes also causes sinking of sidewalks, telephone poles, building foundations, and other structures. One famous example of liquefaction occurred in the Japan earthquake (1964), where entire rows of apartment buildings rolled onto their sides but were not severely damaged internally. Liquefaction also causes sand to bubble to the surface during earthquakes, forming mounds up to several tens of feet high, known as sand volcanoes, or ridges of sand.

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  • Safa
    Is liquefaction a movement of tectonic plates?
    7 months ago