Grabau Amadeus William

Mozambique Ocean, and turned the constituents of Rodinia inside-out, such that the external or "passive" margins in Madagascar and elsewhere became collisional margins in latest Precambrian and earliest Cambrian time.

The notion of a single, short-lived collision between East and West Gondwana is an oversimplification, since geologic relations suggest that at least three major ocean basins closed during the assembly of Gondwana (Pharusian, Mozambique, Adamastor), and published geochronology demonstrates that assembly was a protracted affair. Current research aims to understand these relationships. For example, an alternative two-stage model for closure of the Mozambique ocean has been recently advanced that ascribes an older "East African" Orogeny (~680 Ma) to collision between Greater India (i.e., India-Tibet-Seychelles-Madagas-car-Enderby Land) and the conjoined Congo and Kalahari cratons. A younger "Kuunga" event (~550 Ma) that represents the collision of Australia-East Antarctica with proto-Gondwana followed, thus completing Gondwana's assembly near the end of the Neoproterozoic.

An international research journal Gondwana Research was launched in the 1990s in which scientists working on a variety of issues about the landmasses of Gondwana have published their research results. This journal has become a widely used forum in which to present and discuss new data related to the former supercontinent, as well as its geology, life-forms, mineral deposits, and past climates.

See also proterozoic; supercontinent cycles.

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